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Cut  a  Pasta. 

can  learn  to  use  this  word  processor 
in  90  seconds,  can  it  really  be  any  good? 

CUT  &  PASTE™  displays  its  commands  on  a  single  line  at  the  bottom  of  the  screen.  This 
makes  working  with  it  easier  and  also  gives  you  more  usable  space  on  the  screen. 

Of  all  word  processors  on  the 
market  today,  Cut  &  Paste  may 
well  be  the  easiest  to  use.  In 
fact,  by  the  time  you  finish  reading  this 
section  of  the  ad,  you'll  know  how 
to  work  with  Cut  ck  Paste.  So  read  on. 
START  TYPING.  Working  with  Cut 
ck  Paste  is  like  working  with  a  type- 
writer. If  you  know  how  to  use  a  type- 
writer, you  already  know  how  to  type 
in  your  draft  with  Cut  ck  Paste. The 
only  real  difference  is,  with  Cut  & 
Paste  it's  easier  to  correct  typos. 
MAKING  CHANGES.  Let's  say 
you've  decided  to  make  a  cut  in  your 
rough  draft. To  do  this  you  put  the 
cursor  (the  bright  block)  at  the  start 
of  the  text  you  want  to  delete,  and 

stretch  it  through  to  the  end  of  your 
cut. Then  you  send  the  cursor  down  to 
the  "CUT"  command  on  the  bottom 
of  the  screen.  Done. 

If,  on  the  other  hand,  you  want 
to  keep  that  line,  but  put  it  in  a  differ- 
ent part  of  your  draft,  you  use  the 
"PASTE"  command.  You  mark  the 
point  of  insert  with  the  cursor.  Then 
you  put  the  cursor  over  "PASTE." 
That's  all  there  is  to  it. 
PRINTING  IT  OUT.  When  you 
like  the  way  your  work  looks,  you  print 
it.  Put  the  cursor  on  the  "PRINT" 
command.  Then  set  your  margins,  in 
inches.  That's  it. 

You  now  know  how  to  use  Cut 
ck  Paste. 

GOOD  IS  IT?  Cut  &  Paste  has  all 
the  features  you'll  ever  need  to  use 
at  home.  Here  are  a  few  of  them: 

1.  Scrolling  dynamic  menus 

2.  Automatic  word  wrap 

3.  Simple  cut  ck  paste  editing 
4-  Block  indenting 

5.  Set  margins  and  paper  size  in 

6.  Tabs 

7.  Automatic  page  numbering 

8.  Controllable  page  breaks 

9.  Headings 

10.  Scrolling  text  windows 

11.  Automatic  widow  and  orphan 

12.  Clear  and  concise  manual 
In  other  words,  Cut  ck  Paste 

will  do  just  about  everything  other 
word  processors  do.  But  Cut  ck  Paste 
will  do  it  more  easily.  Without  com- 
plex commands  and  modes. 

If  you  think  about  a  word  proc- 
essor in  terms  of  what  it  replaces  (type- 
writers, pens  and  paper,  files),  Cut  & 
Paste  begins  to  look  very  good  indeed. 

And  when  you  consider  that  all  this 
power  can  be  had  for  approximately 
$50,  we  think  you'll  see  why  we  believe 
Cut  ck  Paste  is  something  of  an 


The  people  who  designed,  devel- 
oped and  programmed  Cut  ck  Paste 
have  some  fairly  heavy  credentials. 

They  are  people  who  worked  on 
the  internationally-famous  user  inter- 
face designs  that  led  to  the  Xerox  Star* 
and  Apple's  Lisa8  They  are  also 

THE  CHANGING  OF  THE  GUARD.  Until  quite  recently  we  used  pens  and  paper 
and  typewriters  to  write  with,  mostly  because  we  knew  how  to  use  them.  They  have  been  good 
tools,  but  limited.  You  tend  to  make  messes  when  you  work  with  them,  and  getting  rid  of  those 
messes  makes  extra  work.  Cut  &  Paste  is  an  inexpensive  and  practical  alternative.  Because  it  is  as 
easy  to  use  as  a  typewriter,  you  really  will  use  it.  Which  may  make  it  the  first  sensible  word  processor 
for  the  home.  Thus  an  alleged  labor-saving  device  has  come  to  a  position  where  it  really  can  save  a 
significant  amount  of  labor,  i.e., yours. 


PASTE.  The  Linotype  machine  pictured  here 
was  the  19th  century's  most  important  contri- 
bution to  word  processing  technology.  It  let 
typesetters  compose  and  rearrange  text  in  the 
form  of  metal  castings.  The  importance  of  Cut 
&  Paste,  of  course,  must  await  the  judgment 
of  history.  Nevertheless,  the  seven  men  who  de- 
veloped it  look  confident  here.  Standing  left  to 
right,  they  are-.  Norm  Lane,  Steve  Shaw,  David 
Maynard,  Dan  Silva,  Steve  Hayes  and  ferry 
Morrison.  Seated  at  the  console  is  Tim  Mott, 
whose  idea  this  was  in  the  first  place. 

people  who  have  in  common  a  very 
lucid  philosophy  of  design. 

Computers  and  the  programs  they 
run  are  tools,  they  believe. Tools  are 
never  noticed  unless  they  are  bad  tools. 
When  they're  good,  they  become,  in 
effect,  invisible.  And  if  you  want  to 
make  a  good  tool— an  invisible  tool— 

you'd  best  study  the  way  people  use 
the  tools  they  already  have. 

As  a  result  of  this  thinking,  Cut  ck 
Paste  was  designed  to  work  much  in 
the  same  way  that  you  already  work 
with  a  typewriter  or  with  pen  and 
paper.  The  most  complex  and  power- 
ful parts  of  the  program  are  hidden 
from  view.  The  work  they  do  takes 
place  deep  in  the  machine.  All  you  get 
to  see  are  the  results. 

But  beyond  that,  there  is  something 
almost  indefinable  about  a  good  de- 
sign.Things  about  it  just  seem  to  work 
crisply.  Little  touches  and  features 
that  you  notice  make  you  want  to  smile. 
If  it's  really  good, 
it  feels  good. 

Cut  &  Paste 
feels  good.        Electronic  Arts 

THE  PRODUCTS  of  Electronic  Arts  can 
be  found  in  your  favorite  computer  stores,  soft- 
ware centers,  and  in  leading  department  stores 
throughout  the  country.  Both  Cut  &  Paste 
and  Financial  Cookbook  are  now  available 
at  a  suggested  retail  price  of  $50  for  the  Apple 
lie  and  the  Commodore  64  and  will  soon  be 
available  for  the  IBM -PC  and  Atari . 


Cut  &.  Paste  is  just  one  of  a  growing 
number  of  products  we're  publishing 
within  the  category  of  "home  manage- 
ment software."  These  products  are  all 
built  around  the  same  program  archi- 
tecture, making  them  all  equally  "friend- 
ly," as  well  as  remarkably  straightfor- 
ward and  practical.  We  believe  that 
designs  like  these  will  soon  make  home 
computers  as  functional  and  efficient  as 
today's  basic  appliances. 

Our  next  product  in  this  line  is  called 
Financial  Cookbook.  It's  a  realistic  alterna- 
tive to  the  complex,  pre-programmed  fi- 
nancial calculators  we  all  wish  we  knew 
how  to  use.  With  a  few,  simple  keystrokes, 
Financial  Cookbook  lets  you  make  more 
than  30  key  time-value-of-money 
computations— just  about  all  the  ones 
you'd  ever  use  for  personal  finances— 
like  calculating 
mortgages  with 
changing  inter- 
est rates,  com- 
pounding the 
interest  on  IRA 
and  savings  ac- 
counts, and  buy- 
versus  -  lease 
comparisons  for 
automobile  pur- 

To  find  out  more  about  these  home 
management  products  and  about  what 
we  have  planned  for  the  future,  call  or 
write:  Electronic  Arts,  2755  Campus 
Drive,  San  Mateo,  CA  94403  (415) 

Apple  and  Lisa  are  registered  trademarks  of  Apple  Computer,  Jnc.  Star  is  a  registered  trademark  of  the  Xerox  Corporation.  Commodore  64  is  a  registered  trademark  of  Commodore  Business  Machines,  Inc.  PC  is  a  registered 
trademark  of  International  Business  Machines,  Jnc  Atari  is  a  registered  trademark  of  Atari,  Inc., a  Warner  Communications  company. 

Softly  Comment 

Softalk  takes  the  stand  with  opinion 
and  commentary:  the  confusing 
state  of  computer  talk,  in  praise  of 
DOS,  simplifying  dBase  II, 
overworked  computerholics,  priming 
your  original  computer  


Exec  Apple  Computer  International: 
Chez  Paris 

Mike  Spindler,  Henri  Aebischer,  Bob 
Kissach,  and  a  lively  group  of 
Europeans  prove  Apple  can  have  a 
foreign  affair. 


The  Elfin  lie:  Light,  Tiny,  and  Sweet 

The  new  Apple  He  is  portable 
paradise.  Here 's  an  introductory 
look  at  the  (c)ompact  II,  plus  the 
inside  story  of  the  He's  European 


Special  Section:  Apples  All 

Over  the  World   100 

Apples  Down  Under 



Advertiser's  Index   Opposite  Page 

Debut:  The  Basic  Solution,  by  Roger  Wagner 

The  Earl  of  Assembly  becomes  Lord  of  Basic  79 

Beginners'  Corner,  by  Matt  Yuen 

Computers  and  education  69 

Bestsellers  201 

Contest:  Gravy-Boat  Diplomacy 

Reseat  fussy  professors  at  a  dinner  party  4 

Contest  Winners 

Results  of  February 's  Phonies  contest  6 

DOStalk,  by  Tom  Weishaar 

Inside  look  at  text  files  with  type  1 64 


A  quick  guide  to  new  and  classic  releases  1 85 

Follow  the  Floating  Point,  by  David  Durkee 

Introduction  to  hi-res  graphics  1 40 

Keys  to  the  World,  by  Matt  Yuen 

Telecommuting:  working  on  a  phone  line  1 69 

Mac  'n'  Lisa,  by  Kevin  Goldstein 

Junking  Jr.,  more  on  modems,  Mac  books  151 

Marketalk  News 

Announcing  new  products  and  services  91 

Marketalk  Reviews  129 

Mind  Your  Business,  by  Peter  Olivieri 

Selecting  a  modem,  business  graphics,  III  stuff  51 

Open  Discussion 

Blossoming  letters:  questions,  answers,  opinions   11 

The  Pascal  Path,  by  Jim  Merritt 

Pointers  about  pointers  61 

Schoolhouse  Apple,  by  Carol  Ray 

Telelearning 's  Electronic  University, 

and  a  Logo  tutorial  by  Donna  Bearden  83 

SoftCard  Symposium,  by  Greg  Tibbetts 

BDOS's  file-related  disk  functions  153 


Industry  news:  West  Coast  Faire  report  72 

Personal  Computing  in  the  Old 


Apples  in  Germany 

Apples  in  Tunisia 


Apples  in  Canada 



Selling  Software  from 
Sicily  to  Sydney 

Separating  the  anomaly  from  the 
product:  marketing  software 
overseas  put  in  perspective. 




Computers  are  making  the  world 
smaller:  Paris-based  World 
Computer  Center,  high-flying  satel- 
lite rescue  system,  high-tech  sushi 

Edited  by  DAVID  HUNTER 


M  E  V  I  L  W  S 

Jumpin'  June  Flash  .  .  .  Exec  Sweet 
Micro  Systems  .  .  .  Apple-Controlled 
Windmills  in  Altamont  Pass  .  . .  Racing 
Catamarans  .  .  .  and  more! ... 

i  n 

A  D  V  E 

Abbee  Systems  201 

A  B  Computers  134 

Accent  Software  128 


Northwest  96 

Advanced  Business 

Computing  50 

Alf  Copy  Service  188 

Apple  Computer  113 

Applied  Engineering  ...  75 

Artemis  Systems  196 

Artie  Technologies  166 

Atari  39 

BASF  21 

Baudville  16 

Beagle  Bros  148-149 

Bluebush    66 

Blue  Ridge  Software  ...74 
Borland  International  . .  62 
The  Boston  Company . .  158 
The  Brady  Communication 

Company  115 

Business  Solutions   5 

Central  Valley 

Electronics  194 

Chemical  Bank  37 

Classified  Ads  22-27 

Computer  Outlet  163 

Computer  Tax  Service . .  52 

Conroy-LaPointe  189 

Continental  Software  . .  107 
Counterpoint  Software  204 
Creative  Computer 

Peripherals  193 

Creative  Computer 

Products  181 

Davidson  &  Associates . .  87 
Decision  Support 

Software  119 

Deluxe  Computer 

Forms  20 

Dennison  Computer 

Supplies  123 

Digital  Research  ....  88-89 

Diskazine  43 

Electronic  Arts . .  Cover  2-1 
ERIC  Software 

Publishing  191 

Falcon  Safety 

Products  170 

FMJ  156 

FoggWare  155 

Garden  of  Eden 

Computers  192 

Gourmet  Software  162 

Gray  Matter  Ltd  71 

Hayes  Microcomputer  .  168 
Hollister  MicroSystems  .  14 

Howard  Software  200 

Howard  W.  Sams  90 

Human  Systems 

Dynamics  198 

Inmac  160 

Insoft  183 

Interactive  Microware  .  133 
Interactive  Structures  . .  97 
Jade  Computer 

Products  197 


Microware  127,143 

Koala  Technologies  7 

The  Learning  Company .  82 

Magnum  Software  95 

MECA  130 


E  X 

O  F 
S  E 

Megahaus   47 

Microcom  98-99 


Accessories  53 

Micropro  78 

Microsoft  48-49,63 

MicroSPARC  205 

MICRO-vision   178 

Micro  Ware  139 

Midwest  Data  Source ...  84 
The  National  Software 

Exchange  186 

Nibble  Notch  67 

Orange  Micro  199 

Origin  Systems  195 


Research  172-173 

Sinequanon  180 

Sir-tech  Cover  3 

SJB  Distributors  86 

Softalk   18,97,184,202 

Softdisk  55 

Softronics  138 

Southern  California 

Research  Group  ....  150 
Spectrum  Software ....  132 

Spies  Laboratories  38 

Spinnaker  8-9 

Standard  and  Poor's  ...  34 

Stoneware  137 

Strategic  Simulations  . .  177 

Strictly  Soft  Ware   76 

SubLogic  81 

Sundex  Software  18 

On  Our  Cover:  Among  spring  fashions  and  blos- 
soms, Apples  are  part  of  the  Parisian  scene.  The 
French  and  a  growing  number  of  international 
computerists  are  making  the  Apple  a  worldwide 
phenomenon.  Photo  by  David  Hunter. 

Pacific  Exchanges  187 

Penguin  Software  . . .  12-13 
Personal  Computer 

Products  65 


Peripherals  . . .  45,60,203 

Programs  Plus  157 

Psychological  Psoftware  142 

Quality  Software  207 

Quark  10 

Quinsept   171 

Rainbow  Computing  . .  182 

Reston   15 

Rising  Sun  Software . . .  147 

Satori  Software  54 

Sensible  Software  77 

Shenandoah  Software  .  135 
Sierra  On-Line  . . .  Cover  4 

Superior  Software  19 

Sweet  Micro 

Systems  108-109 

Synetix  93 

Terrapin   85 

Texprint  152 

Thunderware   17 

Titan  Data  Systems  80 

Turning  Point 

Software  174 

Videx  131 

Virtual  Combinatics  68 

Vufax  136 

Roger  Wagner 

Publishing  206 

John  Wiley  &  Sons  46 

Xerox  Education 

Publications  31,33 



John  Haller 


Al  Tommervik 


Margot  Comstock  Tommervik 

Art  Director 

Kurt  A  Wahlner 


Senior  Edit)  if 

David  Hunter 

Managing  Editor 

Three  Tyler 

Assislanl  Mjnjjiin^  Eulitor 

Carol  Ray 

Associate  Editors 

Jean  Varven 

David  Durkec 

Reviews,  Telecom 

Matthew  T  Yuen 

Special  Assignments 

Andrew  Christie 

Features,  News,  Trade 

Michael  Ferris 

If,  Then.  Maybe 

Tommy  Gear 


Jock  Root 


Todd  Zilbert 

Regional  Editor,  East  Coast 

Roe  Adams 

Market  Research 

Lanny  Broyles 


Cordell  Cooper 

Judith  Pfeffcr 

Subinissu  >ns 

Betsv  Barnes 


Harry  McNeil 

Judith  Pfeffer 

Steve  Thomsen 

Ron  Williams 

Word  Processing 

Brcnda  Johnson 

Contributing  Editors 


Jim  Merriti 


Peter  Ohvien 

Apple  CP/M 

Cireg  FibbcttS 


Kenneth  Land  is 


Tom  Weishaar 


Bill  Budge 


Bill  Parker 

32  Bits 

Kevin  Goldstein 

Softalk  Suites 

Doug  Carls  ton 

Bob  Clardy 

Roy  Hicks 

John  Jeppson 

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Joe  Shelton 

Roger  Wagnef 


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Associate  Publisher 

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Advance  Projects 

Steve  Shendelman 

Director  of  Finance 

Chan  Hilario 


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Accounting  Assistant 

Donna  Flushman 



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West  Coast  Sales 

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Credits:  Composition  by  Photographies,  Hollywood,  California 
Printing  by  Volkmuth  Printers,  Saint  Cloud,  Minnesota. 

Apple,  Applesoft.  Macintosh,  and  Lisa  are  registered  trademarks  of 
Apple  Computer  Inc.,  Cupertino.  California  UCSD  Pascal  is  a 
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Softalk.  Volume  4,  Number  9.  Copyright  ©  1984  by  Softalk 
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Gravy- Boat 

Have  you  been  yearning  to  get  out  of  the 
house  and  see  the  world?  Well,  here's  the 
chance  of  a  lifetime — we're  giving  you  an  am- 
bassadorial post!  Congratulations,  and  may  you 
serve  your  country  well.  As  of  today,  you  are 
the  ambassador  to  Albania.  Your  first  official 
duty  is  hosting  a  dinner  party  for  the  faculty  of 
the  International  Academy  of  Computer  Arts 
and  Sciences,  which  convenes  in  Albania  for 
two  weeks  each  May. 

An  hour  before  the  guests  arrive,  your  aide 
confesses  that  he  has  lost  the  seating  arrange- 
ments for  the  evening.  Fine,  you  say,  just  seat 
them  boy-girl-boy -girl.  Your  aide  pales  and 
tells  you  that  it  isn't  that  easy— you  have  to  con- 
sider protocol.  First,  many  faculty  members  are 
bringing  their  spouses,  and  protocol  says  that  no 
one  may  sit  across  from  his  or  her  spouse.  Sec- 
ond, to  facilitate  conversation,  each  person 
must  sit  across  the  table  from  a  person  who 
knows  a  common  human  spoken  language.  And 
third,  no  man  may  sit  next  to  another  man. 

You  must  reseat  the  guests.  The  table  is  rec- 
tangular, there  are  sixteen  places,  and  no  one 
sits  at  the  head  or  the  foot.  Also,  the  four  per- 
sons sitting  at  the  ends  can  be  considered  to  sit 
next  to  only  one  person.  The  protocol  and  the 
information  you  have  from  the  dossier  on  each 
guest  are  your  only  means  to  make  arrange- 
ments that  will  keep  each  guest  happy. 

The  Professor  from  Albania 
The  Professor  from  Brazil 
The  Professor  from  Czechoslovakia 
The  Professor  from  Egypt 

The  Professor  from  Finland 
The  Professor  from  France 
The  Professor  from  Germany 
The  Professor  from  Mexico 
The  Professor  from  Nepal 
The  Professor  from  Portugal 

They  all  will  attend.  Seven  of  the  professors 
will  be  accompanied  by  their  spouses.  Including 
yourself,  sixteen  people  will  attend. 

You  have  a  bit  more  information  in  the  dos- 
siers in  your  diplomatic  pouch.  You  know  that 
each  person  knows  the  language  of  his  or  her 
native  country.  You  also  know  that  each  person 
knows  the  same  language  as  his  or  her  spouse. 
Each  of  the  professors  is  of  the  same  nationality 
as  his  or  her  spouse,  except  for  two. 

For  security  reasons,  you  must  sit  between 
the  professors  of  Czechoslovakia  and  Finland. 

The  professor  of  Floating  Point  Basic  will 
not  sit  next  to  or  across  from  the  professor  of 
Integer  Basic.  The  professor  of  Pascal  will  not 
sit  next  to  or  across  from  either  of  them. 

The  spouse  of  the  professor  from  France  is 
jealous  and  must  sit  next  to  the  professor — and 
furthermore  will  not  let  the  professor  sit  across 
from  a  person  of  the  opposite  sex. 

The  spouse  of  the  professor  from  Brazil  and 
the  spouse  of  the  professor  from  Albania  are 
best  friends  and  like  to  sit  across  from  one  an- 

Four  professors  do  not  know  Albanian. 
Four  spouses  do  not  know  Albanian. 
The  professor  from  Portugal  knows  Italian. 
The  professors  of  Assembly  Language, 

The  new  breed  of  integrated  software          that's  Jack2. 

(Press  SPACEBAR  to  continue,  R  to  replay, )| 

Sales  Commission  Statement  for  September 

Dear  Ralphj 

Your  sales  for  this  period  were 
$1821  as  shown  below.    Based  on  your 
fine  performance  I  am  pleased  to 
make  you  a  member  of  the  President's 

Sales  -  A 
Sales  -  B 






















Jun     Jul     Aug  Sep 

Commission  Calculation: 
Sy.  items:  5185 
iy.  bonus:  1821 

Total:       $  6126 


With  JACK2,  you  can  do  word  processing,  spread- 
sheets, data  base  management,  charting.  All  at  the 
same  time.  On  the  same  screen.  Without  changing 
diskettes  or  exiting  programs. 

And,  you  can  print  out  what's  on  your 
screen  -  text,  calculations,  and  graphs  -  on 
the  same  page.  What  you  see  is  what  you  get! 

No  need  for  windows.  Additional  monitors 
or  hardware  of  any  kind.  No  need  to  close  one 
file  before  you  open  another.  JACK2  is  as 
easy  to  master  as  it  is  powerful  to  use. 

Picture  a  screen  that  graphically 
displays  your  disks  and  names  them. 
With  envelope  icons  that  can  be 
scrolled  up  or  down  from  1  to  50 
showing  you  all  your  files.  JACK2 
will  even  show  you  the  forms 

inside  your  envelopes.  And  then  let  you  choose  the 
one  you're  looking  for  simply  by  pointing  to  it.  All 
commands  are  in  English.  All  are  displayed  on 
a  single  line  and  all  have  the  same  function 
throughout  JACK2. 

So,  if  you've  been  searching  for  a  new 
breed  of  integrated  software,  you've  found 
it.  From  word  processing,  to  spreadsheets, 
to  data  base  management  and  charting  only 
JACK2  will  let  you  do  everything  you've 
always  wanted  to  do.  On  the  same  _____ 
screen.  At  the  same  time. 

JACK2  is  available  for  the  Apple 
He  with  extended  memory, 
80-column  card  (total  of  128k) 
and  two  Apple  disk  drives. 


Business  Solutions,  inc. 
J 60  East  Main  Street,  KingsPark,  NY  11754 -(516)  269-1120 


Microcomputing,  Fortran,  and  Robotics  are 

The  professor  of  Floating  Point  Basic  knows 

The  professor  of  Robotics  knows  French. 

The  professor  of  Assembly  Language  is  the 
only  professor  who  knows  Spanish. 

The  professor  of  Logo  sits  across  from  the 
spouse  of  the  professor  from  Finland. 

You  know  only  English,  and  you  are  the 
only  person  who  knows  only  one  language. 

Only  two  people  know  more  than  two 

The  professor  from  Nepal  prefers  to  sit  be- 
tween the  spouse  of  the  professor  from  Finland 
and  the  spouse  of  the  professor  from  Mexico. 

The  professor  from  Egypt  is  married  and 
likes  to  sit  next  to  his  spouse,  who  likes  to  sit 
across  from  the  professor  of  Fortran. 

As  the  ambassador,  you  must  sit  on  the  right 
side  of  the  table. 

The  professor  from  Czechoslovakia  knows 
neither  English  nor  Albanian. 

Four  of  the  conversations  across  the  table 
will  be  carried  out  in  Albanian. 

None  of  the  conversations  across  the  table 
will  be  carried  out  in  German  or  Arabic. 

The  professor  from  Germany  knows  Arabic. 

February's  Phonies  contest  was  one  that 
should  have  satisfied  all  those  contest  fanatics 
who  have  been  crying,  "Harder  contests!"  for 
the  past  few  months. 

Everybody  solved  some  of  the  puzzles,  most 
contestants  solved  most  of  them,  and  a  few  got 
them  all  correct.  From  the  few  perfect  entries 
arose  one  entry  screaming,  "Hey,  I  wanna  win, 
I  wanna  win!"  The  sight  of  a  piece  of  paper 
screaming  like  a  lunatic  caused  everyone  in 
the  room  to  run  away,  thinking  the  building 
was  haunted.  When  they  came  back,  one  in- 
trepid staff  member  picked  up  the  entry,  which 
was  hopping  around  the  room,  beating  up  the 
other  entries. 

It  belonged  to  Terry  Treadaway  (Marshall, 
AR),  who  still  hasn't  decided  what  he'll  spend 
$200  on.  "We  just  finished  doing  our  Navajo 
celebration  dance,  and  we're  fighting  over  what 
to  get."  Treadaway  was  last  reported  to  be  eye- 
ing New  York  City  to  see  if  it's  on  sale,  but 
he'll  probably  settle  for  Hayden's  Sargon  III, 
Micro  Fun's  Dino  Eggs,  some  Strategic  Simula- 
tions games,  and  a  Sweet  Micro  Systems  Mock- 
ingboard,  which  he'll  pick  up  at  Computers  Etc. 
in  Little  Rock. 

Paul  Lennon  and  John  McCartney.  Al- 
most everyone  was  able  to  figure  out  whose 
phone  numbers  were  listed  in  the  first  part. 
However,  532-5464  caused  a  problem.  It  was 
amazing  how  many  people  figured  out  that  the 
number  spelled  (Zork  coauthor)  Lebling  but 
tacked  on  the  first  names  of  Marc  and  Mark  in- 
stead of  Dave.  Neither  Marc  Lebling  nor  Dave 
Blank  could  be  reached  for  comment.  The  only 
person  who  could  be  reached  was  Steve  Woz- 
niak,  who  had  this  to  say  about  people  who 
often  get  his  and  Steve  Jobs's  first  names  mixed 
up:  "I  never  really  noticed  it  before,  but  now 
it's  got  me  steamed." 

Hmn]  i 

The  professor  of  one  of  the  Basics  is  from 

The  professor  of  Cobol  knows  German  and 
Albanian  and  is  a  married  man. 

The  professor  of  Pascal  knows  Portuguese. 

The  professor  of  Logo,  the  professor  of  For- 
tran, and  the  professor  of  Microcomputing  all 
know  Albanian. 

The  professor  of  Microcomputing  knows 

The  professor  of  Artificial  Intelligence  is  a 
widower  and  knows  Italian. 

The  professor  of  Integer  Basic  is  from 

No  one  who  knows  French  knows  Albanian, 
and  no  one  who  knows  French  will  sit  next  to 
anyone  who  knows  Portuguese. 

Decide  where  your  guests  are  to  be  seated, 
their  gender,  in  what  language  they  will  con- 
verse with  the  person  across  from  them,  and  the 
discipline  of  each  professor.  Then  write  it  all 
down  and  send  it  to  Embassytalk,  Box  7039, 
North  Hollywood,  CA  91605.  Those  who  get  it 
all  correct  will  advance  to  the  most  diplomatic 
random  number  generator  for  a  shot  (heard 
'round  the  world)  at  prizes  befitting  their  sta- 
tion. And  pass  the  peas.  m 

The  real  confusion  began  when  contestants 
moved  on  to  part  two.  Some  took  the  liberty  of 
changing  T.G.  Products  founder  Ted  Gillam's 
last  name  to  fit  their  answers:  445-5426  (Gil- 
liam), 445-5267  (Gillams),  and  445-5486  (Gil- 
lium).  Of  course,  the  correct  answer  was  none 
of  these. 

There  was  the  anonymous  phone  caller,  who 
called  Softalk  one  March  afternoon.  Here's 
what  happened: 


"Uh,  yeah  .  .  .  um,  am  I  on  the  air?" 
"This  is  a  magazine,  not  a  radio  station." 
"Oh.  Oh  yeah,  right.  Um,  I  had  a  question 
about  the  contest." 

"What's  so  hard  about  part  one?  Can't  I  just 
call  up  those  numbers  and  see  who  answers?" 
"You  could." 

"So  what's  so  hard  about  it?" 

"What  area  code  are  you  going  to  use?" 






Intelligently,  the  caller  remained  anonymous. 

More  people  put  a  big  fat  zero  in  answer  to 
number  ten  on  part  two,  which  asked  for  the 
number  to  call  the  operator.  Cute.  Really  cute. 
In  fact,  the  contest  staff  just  couldn't  resist  all 
that  cuteness  going  on  at  once,  so  they  decided 
to  allow  it  as  a  correct  answer,  in  addition  to 
846-3267  (Timecor),  the  actual  answer. 

Yes,  Virginia,  there  is  a  Synoptic  Software. 
Yes,  it  is  a  real  company.  No,  it  wasn't  a  trick. 
Doesn't  anyone  remember  a  program  called 
Ana-Lisfi  It  was  reviewed  in  November  1983.  It 
appeared  in  the  Softalk  reviews  index  in  Feb- 
ruary 1984— the  issue  the  contest  appeared  in— 

MAY  1984 

on  page  215.  Shame  on  everybody  who  wrote 
and  said  that  there's  no  such  thing  as  Synoptic. 

Contest  InvisiPrize  of  the  Month  goes  to 
Dawne  E.  Holtz  (Izmir,  Turkey),  whose  perfect 
contest  entry  was  created  under  less  than  perfect 
circumstances.  "Phones  are  a  rarity  here  in 
Turkey.  But  if  I  win,  I'd  like  dinner  with  Bert 
Kersey  at  a  restaurant  of  my  choice  in  my  city 
of  residence." 

Dear  Contestmeister.  And  now,  the  con- 
testmeister  answers  some  letters. 

To  Jim  Taylor  (Orem,  UT):  Don't  worry, 
we  accepted  your  entry,  even  though  it  was  a 
day  late.  But  please  tell  your  wife  that  the  next 
time  she  has  a  craving  for  Kentucky  Fried 
Chicken  she  had  better  resist.  Limbs  of  dead 
chickens  disgust  us.  If  she  feels  that  strongly 
about  eating  birds,  send  her  to  get  some 
Chicken  McNuggets,  but  only  if  she  can  name 
the  parts  of  a  chicken  that  look  like  nuggets. 

To  Mamie  Penning  and  Lisa  Hollis  (Talla- 
hassee, FL):  We're  sorry  you  caught  a  cold 
while  working  on  this  contest,  Mamie.  But 
we're  also  very  flattered  that  you  preferred 
reading  Softalk  to  visiting  the  Smithsonian,  the 
White  House,  and  the  Capitol  Building  while 
you  were  vacationing  in  Washington.  Thank 
you,  Lisa,  for  warning  us  about  Mamie,  the  fat 
moose,  and  the  elephant.  (Readers  can  interpret 
the  last  sentence  as  they  wish.) 

To  Donna  Harris  (Tulsa,  OK):  Sorry  you 
didn't  win.  Tell  your  husband  that  you  did,  and 
let  him  pick  out  a  prize.  Let  him  pay  for  it,  too. 

To  Bunny  Hottenstein  (Hershey,  PA):  No, 
even  though  you  live  in  Chocolatetown,  and 
even  though  it  was  so  close  to  Easter,  it 
wouldn't  have  helped  you  win  if  you'd  changed 
your  name  to  //oppenstein. 

The  Real  Phonies.  Here  are  the  answers  to 
the  first  part  of  the  Phonies  contest. 

796-3849,  Synetix 

274-8474,  (Lord)  British 

532-5464,  (Dave)  Lebling 

736-4846,  Penguin  (Software) 

747-8324,  Sir-tech  (Software) 

728-5539,  (John)  Sculley 

746-3649,  Phoenix  (Software) 

468-7638,  Gourmet  (Software) 

463-6266,  Infocom 

227-7439,  (Jack)  Cassidy 

278-9425,  (Bruce)  Artwick 
Here  are  the  answers  to  the  second  part. 

Bill  Budge:  746-2255  (pinball)  or  283-4326 

Einstein:  266-7453  (compile,  Einstein 
Compiler),  466-3769  (Goodrow, 
coauthor  of  Einstein  Compiler),  or 
872-4637  (trainer,  Einstein  Memory 

T.G.  Products:  723-3537  (paddles) 
Synoptic  Software:  262-5478  {Ana-List) 
Software  Publishing  Corporation:  737-3453 

(PFS:  File) 
Data  Transforms:  366-8719  (Fontrix) 
John  Besnard:  736-7283  (Pensate) 
Bert  Kersey:  367-2677  (DOS  Boss), 

884-5489  (utility),  847-3475  (Tip  Disk) 
Michael  Berlyn:  463-4335  (Infidel), 

668-6767  (Oo-Topos) 
Operator:  846-3267  (Timecor,  which 

manufactures  the  Operator  modem),  0 

(operator)  Hi 


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2525  West  Evans,  Suite  220 
Denver  CO  80219 

MAY  1984  


Open  Discussion  gives  you  the  chance  to  air  your 
views  and  concerns,  to  seek  answers  to  questions,  to 
offer  solutions  or  helpful  suggestions ,  and  to  develop 
a  rapport  with  other  readers.  It 's  what  you  make  it,  so 
share  your  thoughts,  typed  or  printed,  and  double- 
spaced  (please),  in  Softalk '.y  Open  Discussion,  Box 
7039,  North  Hollywood,  CA  91605.  To  ensure  the  in- 
clusion of  as  many  contributions  as  possible,  letters 
may  be  condensed  and  edited. 

Kan  Ya  Ketch  Quark?  Alaska 

I  would  like  to  express  my  appreciation  to  Quark 
for  their  conscientious  attention  to  customer  serv- 
ice. We  purchased  Catalyst  from  Quark  some  time 
ago  for  use  on  our  Apple  III  with  a  ProFile  hard 
disk.  We  experienced  a  few  minor  problems, 
mostly  due  to  misinterpretation  of  the  instructions 
in  the  manual.  Each  time  I  wrote  to  Quark  they 
called  me  back  almost  immediately  to  respond  to 
my  questions.  I've  worked  with  many  companies 
and  I  know  what  it's  like  to  deal  with  one  that 
doesn't  place  great  importance  on  user  support.  It 
is  no  fun  to  be  on  the  telephone  trail  for  weeks  at  a 
time  in  an  attempt  to  get  a  problem  solved.  Happi- 
ly for  us,  Quark  makes  fine  products  and  supports 
them  extremely  well. 
Michael  Youngblood,  Ketchikan,  AK 

More  Than  Routine 

I  have  obtained  much  valuable  information  from 
reading  Open  Discussion,  and  so  I  would  like  to 
pass  on  to  others  the  favorable  experience  I've  had 
in  dealing  with  Roger  Wagner  Publishing  (nee 
Southwestern  Data  Systems).  I  purchased 
their  A.C.E.  editor  and  Routine  Machine,  and  I 
couldn't  be  more  pleased  with  both  purchases.  The 
editor  is  a  marvelous  time-saver  that  eliminates  the 
tedious  task  of  editing,  and  it  incorporates  a  most 
convenient  renumber  utility.  Routine  Machine  in- 
corporates more  than  thirty  fast,  easy-to-use  rou- 
tines including  an  incredibly  fast  sort.  As  a  begin- 
ning programmer,  I  had  many  questions  and  the 
people  at  Roger  Wagner  Publishing  were  most  pa- 
tient with  me.  One  of  their  people  even  wrote  a 
separate  routine  for  me  to  accomplish  a  specific 
task.  What  more  could  a  firm  supply  in  the  way  of 

Arthur  J.  Mier,  Grand  Rapids,  MI 

I  have  a  CPS  Multifunction  Card  by  Mountain 
Computer.  It  went  down  shortly  after  I  purchased 
it.  I  called  Mountain  Computer  and  they  tried  to 
help  me  by  phone,  but  to  no  avail.  So  I  returned 
the  card  to  them  for  repair.  Approximately  ten 
days  later  it  was  back  and  ready  to  go.  Wouldn't  it 
be  nice  if  all  companies  were  this  cooperative  and 
this  prompt  when  handling  our  problems? 
Joe  K.  Evans,  Roanoke,  VA 

Apple  Sanity  Preserves 

I'd  like  to  alert  Apple  II  Plus  owners  to  a  potential 
problem  with  graphics  printers  and  certain  graph- 
ics software.  I'd  also  like  to  publicly  acknowledge 
some  friendly  technical  support.  As  I  understand 
it,  certain  modifications  were  made  to  Apple  II 
Plus  systems  manufactured  in  the  second  half  of 
1982  under  the  direction  of  the  FCC.  The  purpose 
of  the  modifications  was  to  reduce  radio-frequen- 
cy interference  generated  by  the  systems.  An  un- 
fortunate consequence  of  the  change— which  was 
corrected  in  subsequent  units,  I  am  told— was  the 
introduction  of  significant  noise  on  the  line  to  the 
printer.  This  causes  problems  with  transmission  of 
graphics  data  to  the  printer.  I  have  encountered  the 

D  I  S  (  U 

problem  with  a  graphics  screen  dump  program, 
Printographer,  and  with  PFS.File. 

The  screen  dump  program  bombed  after  one 
line.  After  spending  several  hours  trying  to  con- 
figure the  screen  dump  program  properly,  I  con- 
tacted the  software  manufacturers,  Roger  Wagner 
Publishing.  The  people  there  were  most  willing  to 
help.  I  sent  them  several  of  my  trial  runs  and  con- 
figurations, but  nothing  helped.  Then,  convinced 
that  my  printer  board  was  the  culprit,  I  spoke  with 
a  technical  support  person  at  Microtek,  who  didn't 
have  an  answer  either.  I  contacted  my  local  Epson 
dealer,  who  was  also  unable  to  help  me.  Frustrated 
but  undaunted,  I  reached  Epson's  technical  sup- 
port group.  Within  five  minutes  they  recognized 
the  fault  and  explained  how  it  should  be  fixed.  Fol- 
lowing this,  I  called  Microtek  again.  Armed  with 
the- information  from  Epson,  this  time  I  received  a 

The  problem  was  corrected  by  a  220-picofarad 
capacitor  soldered  across  my  printer  interface 
card.  The  screen  dump  program  works  like  a 
charm.  I  want  to  publicly  thank  Epson  and 
Microtek  for  their  help  in  preserving  my  sanity 
and  reassuring  me  about  my  Apple  II  Plus. 
Michael  Gornish,  Saint  Louis,  MO 

No  Surprises,  Please 

I  love  Super-Text  for  all  word  processing.  After  a 
year  of  heavy  use,  I  still  keep  discovering  things  it 
will  do.  Why  couldn't  I  see  right  away  that  its 
global  search  and  autolink  is  the  only  way  to  file 
letters?  That  certain  features  can  bring  up  a  fill-in 
form  for  all  my  letter  writing?  That  the  lines  are 
being  counted  as  I  write? 

Maybe  the  personal  computer  industry  has  ful- 
filled its  obligations  with  hardware  and  software 
manuals  and  tutorials,  but  I  think  the  technical  ex- 
planations have  taken  precedence  over  explana- 
tions of  the  tasks  the  hardware  and  software  can 
perform.  There  is  almost  no  literature  that  will 
help  the  user  understand  just  what  a  computer  can 
do.  I  think  there  is  a  market  for  articles  or  booklets 
describing  what  can  be  done  with  the  better  word 
processing  and  listing  programs.  Or  maybe  the  ad- 
vertisement of  such  articles  has  escaped  my  notice. 
Raymond  A.  Petrea,  Winston-Salem,  NC 

Potholes  on  Money  Street 

Just  how  wonderful  is  Money  Street?  I  feel  there 
are  several  deficiencies  in  this  program.  You  are 
limited  to  fifteen  letters  for  the  name  of  your  fami- 
ly or  business  (this  is  not  appropriate  for  my 
needs).  An  even  more  serious  defect  is  that,  al- 
though 100  codes  are  available,  the  user  is  limited 
to  two-digit  numbers.  Many  businesses  number 
their  accounts  using  three-  or  four-digit  numbers, 
thereby  making  Money  Street  incompatible  with 
their  usual  numbering  system. 

My  other  complaints  concern  problems  that  are 
less  serious  because  you  can  work  in  spite  of  them. 
There  are  more  than  a  dozen  reports  available,  but 
for  some  reason,  while  some  are  available  to  either 
screen  or  printer  (which  is  good),  some  are 
available  only  to  the  printer  (which  is  dumb). 

A  last  flaw  in  this  program  appears  when  you 
enter  data.  Everything  except  the  check  number 
defaults  to  the  previous  entry.  So,  for  example,  if 
a  check  is  written  on  May  1,  1984,  to  the  XYZ 
Company  for  twenty-five  dollars,  the  next  check  is 
also  dated  May  1 ,  1984,  and  twenty-five  dollars  is 
paid  to  the  order  of  the  XYZ  Company  until  you 
retype  it.  Except  under  unusual  circumstances, 
one  does  not  write  consecutive  checks  to  the  same 

s  \  i  o  ri 

payee  for  the  same  amount  on  the  same  date.  So, 
although  the  program  is  fast,  its  defects  should  be 
weighed  carefully  by  the  prospective  user. 
Selbert  A.  Chernila,  Torrance,  CA 

A  Peachy  Combination 

I  would  like  to  mention  that  I  have  found  what  I 
consider  the  best  program  that  I  have  seen  since  I 
bought  my  Apple  in  1978.  It  is  a  home  financial 
program  called  Time  Is  Money,  by  Turning  Point 
Software.  It  is  extensive,  complete,  and  fast. 

I  also  went  through  five  word  processors  and 
then  discovered  the  Peachtree  combination  of 
Peachtext,  Spelling  Proofreader,  Mailing  List 
Manager,  and  PeachCalc .  They  are  marvelous! 
There  is  nothing  I  can  dream  up  that  I  would  want 
a  word  processor  to  do  that  this  system  doesn't. 
D.  Leppard,  Morristown,  NJ 

General  Flight  Instructions 

Reader  Gary  Suboter  laments  that  he  is  not  experi- 
enced enough  to  fully  enjoy  the  power  of  The 
General  Manager  (February  Open  Discussion). 
Rather,  I  suspect  that  it  may  be  the  poorly  written 
manual  that  is  at  fault.  I  bought  the  program  after 
reading  a  favorable  review  and  several  positive 
letters  in  Softalk.  The  software  is  excellent,  but  the 
documentation  is  very  confusing.  It's  a  shame 
when  a  manual  is  bad  enough  to  discourage  users 
from  even  trying  the  program,  as  I  almost  was. 
But  if  poorly  written  manuals  are  bad,  inaccurate 
ones  are  worse.  I've  been  using  SubLogic's  Flight 
Simulator  II  for  a  month  and  have  compiled  an 
ever-expanding  list  of  features  that  don't  work  as 

So,  to  potential  buyers  of  The  General  Man- 
ager, be  wary  of  buying  it  until  the  manual  says 
what  it  does;  as  for  Flight  Simulator  II,  don't  buy 
it  until  it  does  what  the  manual  says. 
Franklin  Tessler,  Los  Angeles,  CA 

Wrong-Minded  Hordes 

After  reading  about  Apple's  Macintosh— the  cover 
story  in  just  about  every  February  computer  maga- 
zine—I started  examining  my  budget  to  see  where 
I  could  squeeze  out  the  $2,495  needed  to  buy  one. 
Then  I  read  that  Apple  was  selling  the  Mac  to  col- 
lege students  for  $1,000.  Who  in  their  right  mind 
would  pay  two  and  a  half  times  as  much  as  some- 
one else  for  the  same  item?  Has  John  Sculley 
failed  to  learn  anything  from  the  Lisa  pricing  fias- 
co? For  myself,  I  think  I  will  wait  a  year.  By  then, 
the  price  of  a  Macintosh  should  have  been  cut  in 
half  like  the  Lisa's— then  I'll  buy  one. 
Ralph  Orrico,  Coraopolis,  PA 

Big  Bad  Bang 

Softalk  has  gone  astray  in  its  publication  of  The 
Grand  Unification  of  Physics,  which  appeared  in 
the  March  issue.  I  can't  imagine  that  any  signifi- 
cant percentage  of  Softalk's  readership  knows  (or 
cares)  about  the  issues  being  discussed  in  that  arti- 
cle. When  I  want  to  bring  myself  up  to  date  on 
grand  unification  theories,  I  do  it  by  reading  The 
Physical  Review,  Reviews  of  Modem  Physics,  or 
any  of  a  number  of  other  journals  published  by  the 
national  and  international  scientific  community. 
When  I  want  to  learn  about  Modula-2,  software  or 
hardware  packages,  or  new  products,  I  look  for  it 
in  Softalk.  Please  don't  squander  your  limited 
number  of  pages  by  publishing  articles  that  are  ad- 
dressed to  the  wrong  readership. 

As  for  the  technical  merit  of  that  article,  it  is  a 
second-party  review  of  an  unpublished  manu- 

Penguin  Milestones 

April  1981 

1st  Complete  Graphics  System  is  shipped. 
September  1981 

Complete  Graphics  System  makes  Sof talk's  Top  Thirty  for  the  first  time. 

January  1982 

1st  Graphics  Magician  is  shipped.  Penguin  Software  is  the  first  software  producer  to  announce  that  all  its  current  and 
future  applications  software  will  be  available  on  unprotected,  copyable  disks. 

July  1982 

All  three  software  packages  then  being  produced  by  Penguin  Software:  Complete  Graphics  System,  Special  Effects  (now 
part  of  Complete  Graphics  System),  and  Graphics  Magician,  appear  in  the  Softalk  Top  Ten  in  their  category,  beginning 
a  many-month  stretch  in  which  all  three  remain  there. 

April  1983 

Graphics  Magician  is  voted  the  most  popular  utility  of  1982  by  the  readers  of  Softalk,  and  the  19th  most  popular 
program  of  all  time.  Special  Effects  also  makes  the  Top  Ten  in  its  category,  and  Transylvania  is  voted  one  of  the  top 
adventures  of  1982.  Meanwhile,  Penguin  announces  an  experiment  in  lowering  the  prices  of  recreational  software.  While 
those  original  experimental  prices  have  now  been  increased,  Penguin's  recreational  software  is  still  among  the  lowest 

Fall /Winter  1983 

Minit  Man,  The  Coveted  Mirror,  and  The  Quest  all  appear  in  Softalk's  Top  Five  in  their  monthly  categories,  with  The 
Quest  making  an  appearance  as  the  #1  adventure.  Transylvania  is  awarded  by  Electronic  Games  magazine  for  graphics 
and  visual  effects  in  a  computer  game. 

Spring  1984 

Of  the  five  games  released  by  Penguin  Software  since  April  1983,  four  are  voted  by  Softalk  readers  into  the  Top  Ten  in 
their  categories  for  1983.  They  are  The  Coveted  Mirror,  Pensate,  Minit  Man,  and  The  Quest.  Graphics  Magician  is  once 
again  voted  19th  most  popular  program  of  all  time.  The  Coveted  Mirror  also  is  voted  by  readers  into  the  All-Time  Top 
Thirty.  The  Quest  is  named  the  best  graphic  adventure  of  1983  by  Computer  Games  magazine.  A  modernized,  all-new 
version  of  Complete  Graphics  System  is  shipped,  having  been  in  the  works  for  well  over  a  year.  Penguin  expands  its 
graphics  software  to  include  Paper  Graphics,  a  graphics  printing  tool,  and  Transitions,  a  presentation  tool. 

Summer/  Fall  1984 
Watch  Us! 

Home  Applications.  Fantasy  Games.  Double  Hi-res  Graphics.  Educational  Software. 
The  first  games  on  the  Macintosh.  .  .  . 

Thank  you  for  making  it  possible! 

We  Don't  Strive  for  State-of-the-Art.  . 

.  .  .We  Define  It. 

The  Complete  Graphics  System 

This  brand-new  version  of  our  non-programmers'  graphics  tools  includes  both  best-selling 
and  highly  rated  products:  The  Complete  Graphics  System  II  and  Special  Effects, 
combined  into  one  easy-to-use  package.  All  the  command  structures  have  been  updated  so 
that  selections  are  made  directly  by  pointing  at  choices  from  a  graphics  screen,  or  options 
are  described  on  convenient  help  screens.  This  version  is  so  advanced  that  users  will 
hardly  need  a  manual  at  all,  yet  they'll  have  the  most  diverse  and  powerful  set  of  graphic 
capabilities  readily  at  their  fingertips.  And  we've  combined  all  different  versions  into  one 
single  package  that  works  with  joysticks,  paddles,  trackball,  the  Apple  Graphics  Tablet, 

Apple  Mouse,  Houston  Instruments'  HiPad,  and  the  Koala  Pad.  Priced  at  $79.95,  it's  sure 
to  remain  the  most-used  graphics  development  tool  for  the  Apple.  &  pen§J5JSS!' 

The     "  | 


i\  penguin  software 

The  Graphics  Magician 

The  new  version  of  The  Graphics  Magician  takes  all  the  abilities  of  the  original  version, 
adds  to  them,  and  simplifies  their  use  for  even  the  least  technically-oriented  programmers. 
Animation  and  picture-drawing  routines  from  this  best-seller  are  being  used  in  published 
products  from  over  two  dozen  companies,  including  the  likes  of  Sierra  On-Line,  Sir-Tech, 
Milton-Bradley,  Mattel,  Spinnaker,  Adventure  International,  and  many  others.  The  big 
news  is  that  versions  are  now  being  released  for  Macintosh,  Atari,  IBM,  and  Commodore 
personal  computers,  with  graphics  files  transferable  between  computers.  That  means  that  a 
programmer's  graphics  work  on  one  computer  no  longer  needs  to  be  redone  on  other 
computers  .  .  .  they  can  just  be  transferred  with  The  Graphics  Magician.  Retail  price  is 
$59.95  for  the  Apple. 

Paper  Graphics 

Paper  Graphics  is  a  brand-new  graphics  screen-to-printer  printing  utility.  As  you  would 
expect  from  Penguin,  it's  the  most  advanced  and  easy-to-use  of  any  such  utility  available 
today.  An  advance,  incomplete  version  has  already  received  an  A+  rating  from  Peelings 
II,  which  called  it  "the  most  complete  of  the  graphics-dump  programs  reviewed  to  date". 
Besides  being  compatible  with  virtually  every  interface  card /black  and  white  printer 
combination  imaginable  (we  challenge  you  to  find  one  that  it  won't  work  with),  Paper 
Graphics  includes  magnification,  cropping,  screen  editing,  labeling,  framing,  combination 
dumps  of  both  graphics  screens,  and  the  ability  to  pack  and  unpack  pictures.  At  $49.95, 
you  shouldn't  settle  for  less. 


Transitions  is  the  most  advanced  graphics  presentation  system  yet  on  microcomputers. 
With  it,  you  can  easily  create  self-running  or  manually  operated  slide  shows  or 
presentations  by  combining  up  to  eight  picture  disks  (packed  or  unpacked)  and  44  different 
transitions  (screen  wipes)  between  slides.  Users  can  even  see  a  graphic  "catalog"  of  their 
picture  disks,  consisting  of  miniature  versions  of  the  pictures  on  each  disk  presented  on  the 
graphics  screen.  For  a  very  professional-looking  presentation,  no  other  program  will  do. 
Transitions  retails  for  $49.95,  and  together  with  The  Complete  Graphics  System  and  Paper 
Graphics  makes  the  most  versatile  set  of  graphics  programs  anyone  could  own  for 
their  Apple  computer. 

Additional  Typesets  and  Map  Pack 

Two  add-ons  are  available  for  The  Complete  Graphics  System,  at  $19.95  each.  Additional 
Type  Sets  contain  over  50  extra  typefaces  that  can  be  used  with  the  text  routines  in  CGS. 
Map  Pack  contains  over  100  hi-res  maps  already  on  packed  graphics  screens. 

penguin  software 


the  graphics  people 

830  Fourth  Avenue,  P.O.  Box  311,  Geneva,  IL  60134  (312)  232-1984 


script,  which  is  about  as  flimsy  a  contribution  as 
you  can  get.  Guard  our  pages.  Stick  to  subjects 
you  are  competent  to  pass  judgment  on,  and  ones 
that  suit  the  purposes  and  desires  of  your  reader- 

Dick  Smith,  Pensacola,  FL 
Improving  the  Odds 

Oops!  We  thought  we  had  designed  the  perfect 
parimutuel  betting  system  for  the  Apple.  The  Odds- 
maker  takes  bets,  computes  odds,  payouts,  and 
betting  totals,  prints  tickets,  saves  and  restores 
multiple  betting  events,  and  even  takes  a  house 
cut.  Then  Softalk  pointed  out  in  the  March  Mar- 
ketalk  Reviews  that  we  hadn't  gone  the  extra  step; 
while  payouts  were  displayed  for  a  one  dollar  bet, 
we  had  left  it  up  to  the  user  to  multiply  the  amount 
of  the  winning  bet  by  the  payout  for  a  one  dollar 
bet  in  order  to  come  up  with  the  actual  payout. 

Well,  we  went  back  and  corrected  the  omis- 
sion. The  Oddsmaker  now  features  a  new  screen 
that  instantly  calculates  the  winning  payout  for  any 
amount  bet.  Our  thanks  to  the  folks  at  Softalk  for 
helping  us  improve  our  product. 
John  Zieg,  CZ  Software,  South  Yarmouth,  MA 

Apple's  Teacher  Polisher 

Looking  through  the  ads  in  Softalk  over  the  past 
few  years,  I  have  noticed  an  increase  in  the 
amount  of  educational  software  being  released  for 
the  Apple.  This  is  a  step  forward,  but  the  tag  "edu- 
cational" is  not  always  accurate.  Friends  of  mine 
have  Spinnaker's  Fraction  Fever.  Not  only  is  the 
game  a  graphic  disappointment,  but  the  pogo  stick 
is  hard  to  control,  making  the  game  frustrating  to 
play.  Moreover,  the  game  does  not  really  involve 
factoring  at  all,  just  the  mere  identification  of  frac- 

mm  i 

tions.  Anyone  young  enough  to  learn  anything 
from  this  game  would  not  be  adept  enough  to  con- 
trol it. 

I  am  using  Fraction  Fever  as  a  mere  symbol  for 
the  useless  educational  software  currently  swamp- 
ing the  market.  Sure,  we  can  all  play  arcade  games 
and  have  fun,  but  an  arcade  game  for  young  chil- 
dren should  not  be  dubbed  "educational"  simply 
because  it  is  geared  for  kids.  It  does  not  take  much 
to  provide  an  amusing  program  that  teaches  the 
material.  I  am  sixteen;  I  learned  factoring  from  a 
Fortran  program  that  gave  an  algebraic  expression 
in  plain  symbols  and  asked  me  to  factor  it.  It  then 
provided  a  diagnosis  of  my  mistakes.  It  was  suc- 
cessful because  it  provided  a  challenge  and  acted 
as  a  teacher  instead  of  a  tester. 

My  three-and-a-half-year-old  brother  is  learn- 
ing how  to  read  using  a  DEC  VT-100  terminal 
hooked  up  to  a  mainframe,  which,  for  educational 
purposes,  is  less  sophisticated  than  an  Apple  II. 
What  is  the  expensive,  graphically  amazing  pro- 
gram that  is  teaching  him  the  alphabet  and  how  to 
read?  It  is  a  ten-line  program  that  makes  the  entire 
alphabet  scroll  up  the  screen  in  big  letters.  Instead 
of  moving  some  unidentifiable  figure  around  with 
a  joystick,  he  is  learning  how  to  type!  My  only 
fear  is  that  when  asked  to  recite  the  alphabet,  he 
will  say,  "Q,  W,  E,  R,  T,  Y.  .  .  .  " 

Our  educational  system,  which  breeds  illiter- 
ates by  failing  to  really  teach  kids  before  the  age  of 
six  and  by  failing  to  keep  the  early  learners  from 
being  bored,  must  be  supplemented.  A  computer 
is  a  great  learning  tool  and  the  Apple's  fine  color 
graphics  give  it  great  educational  potential.  Let's 
not  accept  educational  games  that  keep  parents 
busy  wading  through  books  of  instructions  and 
that  turn  children  off.  Let's  set  children  on  the 
right  learning  path  from  the  start  and  provide  them 
with  truly  educational  programs. 
Jonathan  Dubman,  Chicago,  IL 

Erewhon  Revisited 

Now  that  we  have  heard  from  the  experts  in  the 
January  Softalk  ("Only  A  Day  Away:  Industry 
Leaders  Talk  about  Tomorrow"),  it  is  time  indus- 
try leaders  heard  from  users  about  what  they  want. 
Software  should  be  idiotproof  and  essentially  bug- 
free.  A  well-designed-and-constructed  system 
should  be  efficient  and  easy  to  build,  test,  install, 
use,  and  maintain. 

System  documentation  must  be  written  so  that 
people  without  computer  experience  can  under- 
stand what  to  do.  System  developers  are  not  the 
best  people  to  write  documentation.  Have  a 
secretary  write  it  after  he  or  she  has  struggled  with 
the  system.  Include  detailed  start-up,  error  recov- 
ery, and  shut-down  instructions. 

Some  of  the  programs  that  I  would  like  to  have 
require  CP/M  or  Pascal.  Why  should  it  be  neces- 
sary to  buy  more  equipment  to  use  these  products? 
Systems  should  be  aimed  at  specific  problems,  not 
specific  computers.  Programs  should  be  written  in 
C  or  some  other  language  that  can  be  compiled  for 
a  variety  of  computers.  Software  should  be  avail- 
able on  disks  of  all  sizes,  usable  in  forty-  or 
eighty-column  format,  and  compatible  with  a  vari- 
ety of  operating  systems.  These  steps  will  maxi- 
mize the  number  of  customers.  We  also  need  to  be 
able  to  upgrade  to  faster  speeds  and  to  obtain  im- 
proved software  in  ROM  without  buying  a  whole 
new  computer. 

When  advertising  a  product,  please  be  honest. 
Tell  us  exactly  what  problems  the  product  ad- 
dresses. Don't  hint  at  things  that  cannot  be  ac- 
complished. The  warranty  should  be  an  honest 
one,  not  the  legalese  we  now  get.  If  I  buy  a  soft- 

MAY  1984 

ware  package,  I  expect  it  to  work  as  advertised.  If 
it  doesn't,  the  manufacturer  has  a  moral  and  legal 
obligation  to  fix  it  or  refund  my  money.  For  a 
parting  shot,  how  about  the  computer  magazine 
publishers  processing  a  new  subscription  in  six  to 
eight  days  and  sending  an  acknowledgment  stating 
the  first  issue  to  be  delivered? 

This  letter  should  not  imply  that  all  software  is 
bad,  all  documentation  poor,  or  all  advertising  dis- 
honest. But  there  is  room  for  improvement. 
Hubert  M.  Hill,  Kingsport,  TN 

Presidential  Poll:  "Utilities"  or  "Hobby"? 

I  agree  with  Bert. 

Mark  Pelczarski,  president,  Penguin 

My  favorite  Softalk  was  the  August  1983  issue 
("Robots  Come  Home").  I  think  home  robots  will 
soon  be  as  popular  as  home  computers  are  now. 
How  about  a  section  in  Softalk  called 

Peter  "I  Love  Robots"  Prodoehl,  Greenfield,  WI 

On  page  227  of  the  January  Softalk,  where  Peter 
Olivieri  describes  the  method  of  creating  a  glossa- 
ry file  for  Apple  Writer  II  and  the  Okidata  Micro- 
line  printers,  there  is  an  error  on  line  number  80, 
which  should  be  corrected  to  read  as  follows: 

80  Print  chr$(A); 

Unless  the  change  is  made,  the  glossary  file 
Special  2  is  not  in  its  correct  form. 

I  would  like  to  commend  Jerome  Levy  of 
Dresher,  Pennsylvania,  for  his  method  of  creating 
this  glossary  file  for  Apple  Writer  II  and  the 
Okidata  Microline  printers.  I  would  also  like  to 
advise  readers  that  Okidata  can  supply  an  Apple 
Writer  II  User  Tip  describing  how  to  embed  con- 
trol codes  using  the  control-V  function  of  Apple 
Writer  II.  The  method  that  was  published  in 
Softalk,  however,  allows  for  more  features  of  the 
Okidata  Microline  printers  to  be  used,  and  does 
get  around  the  limitations  of  the  Apple  II  System 
and  Apple  Writer  II  software.  Please  note  also  that 
the  superscript  and  subscript  commands  on  the 
Okidata  Microline  printers  can  cancel  each  other, 
which  allows  you  to  replace  the  stop  superscript  or 
stop  subscript  commands  with  another  possible 
feature  of  the  Okidata  Microline  series  of  printers. 
Mark  A.  Tull,  applications  engineer,  Okidata 

January's  Mind  Your  Business  has  come  to  my 
rescue.  I  really  thought  I  was  never  going  to  be 
able  to  use  all  the  capability  of  my  Okidata  93  with 
Apple  Writer  II.  My  sincere  thanks  to  Jerome  Levy 
for  sharing  the  glossary  file  program  and  to  Peter 
Olivieri  for  including  it  in  his  column.  All  I  had  to 
do  was  add  a  semicolon  on  the  end  of  line  80  and  I 
was  in  business.  Thanks! 
A.W.  Bellen,  Ridgecrest,  CA 

A  Spoonful  of  Schuerger 

In  the  February  Open  Discussion,  William  C. 
Vasser  asks  about  the  shift  key  for  upper-case  let- 
ters in  Apple  Writer  1.0.  He  should  get  the  Dan 
Paymar  Lower  Case  Adapter,  the  instruction  for 
the  shift-key  modification,  and  the  Apple  Writer 
patch.  He  will  then  get  capital  letters  and  readable 
lower-case  letters  on  the  screen. 

Dean  A.  Park  wants  to  convert  Apple  Writer  II 
files  into  something  Magic  Window  could  use.  I 
have  a  great  Apple  Writer  utility  program  called 
Apple  Writer  Extended  Features  (Brillig  Systems, 
Burke,  VA)  that  will  convert  Apple  Writer  1.0 


for  the  Apple*  II,  Ik  lie 


EPROM  PROGRAMMER  Completely  self-contained  single  board 
fits  in  any  Apple  II,  ♦,  e  slot.  Complete  software  supplied  is 
100%  menu-driven,  easy  to  use  HMS3264  -  S395 
EPROM  SIMULATOR  Ram  on  card  in  Apple  looks  like 2758. 2716, 
2732, 2764  or27128to  outside  world  Cable  plugs  into  external 
system  in  place  of  the  EPROM,  Perfect  for  software  and 
hardware  development  and  debugging.  Will  save  you  a  lot  of 
time  on  EPROM  changes'  Also  use  as  pseudo-DMA  device  or 
super  disk  server.  Get  2  for  16-bit  system,  4  for  32-bits.  Use 
with  cross  assemblers  for  high  powered  development 
HMS27XX  -  S495 

EPROM  CARD  Expand  ROM  memory.  Plug  in  one  or  more  2758, 
2716.  2732,  2764,  27128  or  27256  Boot  from  EPROM  without 
floppy  disks.  Data  &  programs  always  available  HMS5856 

24-BIT  PARALLEL  CARD  24  lines  in  &  24  lines  out  on  a  single 
card.  TTL  & /or  CMOS  in  & /or  out.  Make  Apple  data  acquisition 
system.  HMS2424  -  S195  (Cables  extra) 
SPANISH  CONVERSION  Make  your  Apple  lie  display  and  print 
Spanish  with  flip  of  switch  Turn  your  existing  word  processor 
into  a  Spanish  word  processor1  Excellent  for  teaching  and 
learning  Spanish,  and  preparing  quizzes  and  tests  Displays 
on  screen  and  prints  on  Okidata  92  ,  93.  Apple  DMP.  etc.: 
HMS-SPI  -  S195  Use  letter  quality  printer,  Apple  LQP.  etc.: 
HMS-SP2  -  S495.  Coming  -  French,  German,  Arabic.  Hebrew 
and  Greek 

'Apple  reg.  Apple  Comp. 

umc  Holl'ster 

nivlo  Microsystems,  Inc. 

uyniTr  One  Astro  Drive 

m  Hollister,  CA  95023 

FREE  (408)636-1000  •  Telex  296685  (RCA) 


Rep  &  Disti  Inquiries  Invited 


Reston  Computer  Group 

A  Prentice-Hall  Company 
11480  Sunset  Hills  Rd. 
Reston,  VA  22090 

If  you  own  an  Apple  computer,  here  are  three  of  the  freshest, 
juciest  new  titles  to  pick  for  your  library. 

THE  GUIDE  TO  APPLEWRITER  II,  by  G.  Alex  Ayres  and  John  A.  Allen, 
makes  this  word-processing  program  as  simple  to  learn  as  it  is  easy  to 
use.  Using  step-by-step  examples  and  75  illustrations,  it  explains  the 
editor  and  shows  first-time  users  how  to  do  everything  from  entering  and 
editing  text  to  printing  letter-perfect  documents. 
Grushcow,  is  an  applications  oriented  guide  that  can  help  you  extend 
and  adapt  Visicalc™  to  your  own  needs.  Because  it  focuses  on 
customized  printing  and  sorting  extensions,  data  transfer  between 
spreadsheets,  and  connecting  spreadsheets  to  the  outside  world,  it's  a 
must  for  the  serious  Visicalc™  user. 

THE  COMPLEAT  APPLE™  CP/M,  by  Steven  Frankel,  is  the  first 
comprehensive  guide  for  Apple™  CP/M  users.  It  provides  in-depth 
comparisons  between  two  CP/M  2.2  versions,  the  Microsoft  Soft  Card 
and  the  Micropro  Star  Card/Applicard.  It  also  examines  the  Digital 
Research  ALS  card  utilizing  CP/M,  and  reviews  the  performance  of  over 
40  software  programs. 

Visit  your  local  book  store  or  computer  retailer  and  pick  the  title 
that's  ripe  for  you.  Or  pick  a  bunch,  from  Reston. 

APPLE'"  is  a  registered  trademark  of  Apple,  Inc. 
Visicalc  is  a  registered  trademark  of  Visicorp 

Available  at  your  local  bookstore  and  computer  retailer,  or  call  us  at  (800) 


Picture  it! 

Graphics  processing  that's 
easy,  flexible  and  fun . 

Let  PIXIT  do  the  difficult  work  for 

Create  A  Shape  using  simple  key- 
stroke commands. 
Shape  Table  Editor  allows  up  to 
128  shapes  to  be  added  or  deleted 
anywhere  in  table. 
Font  Library  provides  a  variety  of 
sizes  and  styles  of  upper  and  lower 
case  text  fonts. 

PIXIT  Shape  Library  includes  a 
convenient  selection  of  pre-drawn 

Picture  Editor  features  mixed  text 
and  graphics,  circles  and  lines,  color- 
fill,  and  shape  tables. 
Nice  Features  .  .  . 
Uses  standard  Hi-res  picture  and 
Applesoft  shape  table  files  which  are 
compatible  with  Koala  Pad  "  and 
other  graphics  utilities. 
Easy  to  use  load/scroll  and  menu 
selection  routines. 

Supports  most  popular  dot  matrix 

No  additional  hardware  required. 
Great  Reviews! 

"Pixit  s  reasonable  cost,  efficient  pro- 
gramming, user  trust  and  simple  key 
commands  all  add  up  to  a  purchase 
that  you  might  strongly  consider  .  .  . 
an  attractive  package  for  almost  any 
plier  of  the  graphic  arts." 
SOFTALK  January  1984 

$49.95  at  software  dealers  or 
direct  from  BAUDVILLE.  Call 
(616)  957-3036. 

PIXIT  requires  a  48K  Apple  -  II,  11  + He  or  FRANKLIN 


1001  Medical  Park  Dr.  S.E. 

Grand  Rapids,  Ml  49506  Phone  (616)  957-3036 


files  (I  don't  know  about  II)  into  text  files  and  back 
again.  Perhaps  that  would  help.  It  also  does  many 
other  useful  things,  such  as  permit  the  embedding 
of  printer  control  characters  into  an  Apple  Writer 
file,  multiple  copies  of  letters  with  different  ad- 
dresses, and  simple  editing  of  Applesoft  pro- 

R.  Benjamin  wants  to  know  about  using  lower 
case.  I  find  the  Paymar  adapter  easy  to  use  from 
within  an  Applesoft  program,  and  some  handy  pro- 
gramming routines  are  available  from  either  your 
dealer  or  from  Dan  Paymar.  The  adapter  does 
have  a  shift  lock,  and  it  can  also  be  totally  ig- 
nored—if I  didn't  tell  you  it  was  there,  you 
wouldn't  know.  I  have  not  bothered  to  make  the 
shift-key  modification  because  I'm  not  sure  it 
would  be  compatible  with  some  of  my  utilities  and 
now  I'm  in  the  habit  of  using  the  escape  key.  As 
far  as  adding  RAM :  Though  it  is  not  readily  usable 
to  the  average  programmer,  if  you  get  one  of  the 
DOSs  that  go  onto  the  added  board,  you  will  pick 
up  about  10K  of  available  memory. 

I  have  a  question  about  typeahead  buffers. 
Does  anybody  have  one  that  will  work  while 
something  is  being  written  to  the  disk? 
Ray  Schuerger,  Pittsburgh,  PA 

Arrested  Flasher 

The  March  Softalk  contains  a  letter  from  Dale 
Watson  of  Cincinnati,  Ohio,  that  describes  a  pro- 
gram to  stop  the  Apple's  cursor  from  flashing. 
The  assembler  code  listed,  however,  was  incor- 
rect. In  the  third  line  of  code: 

310:   40  91    28  68  3C   21  FD 

the  3C  in  location  314  should  have  been  a  4C.  The 
4C  is  the  6502's  code  for  a  jump.  The  final  three 
codes  translate  to  Jump  $FD2 1 .  The  6502  cannot 
process  a  3C;  therefore,  it  issues  an  error  and  the 
program  won't  run. 
David  Ingram,  Fairfax,  VA 

Skip  the  Preliminaries 

I  hope  I  can  help  other  Apple  He  and  WordStar 
owners  avoid  one  of  the  blind  alleys  that  I've  been 
in.  If  WordStar  starts  to  show  a  few  odd  characters 
on  the  monitor,  particularly  in  the  overlay  mes- 
sages, and  then  the  cursor  won't  move  at  all,  the 
problem  probably  is  in  the  Apple  eighty- 
column/64K  extended  memory  card. 

The  chips  at  fault  seem  to  be  the  LS245  and  the 
LS374.  Cleaning  their  pins  and  the  card's  gold  fin- 
gers helps  somewhat.  Removing  the  jumper  Jl 
also  seems  to  help.  The  best  method,  though,  is  re- 
placing the  card  before  the  ninety-day  warranty 
runs  out. 

Skip  Zeller,  Corte  Madera,  CA 

I  read  with  interest  R.  Benjamin's  various  ques- 
tions about  Apples  in  the  February  Open  Discus- 
sion. I  would  like  to  add  the  voice  of  one  who 
learned  his  lore  by  poking  around  on  the  keyboard 
and  keeping  an  open  ear  when  people  talked  Apple 
II.  I  have  an  Apple  II  Plus  upgraded  with  a  Videx 
Enhancer  II,  which  supports  upper-  and  lower- 
case letters,  shift-lock,  typeahead  buffer,  and  user- 
defined  keys  (called  macros).  My  answers  are 
biased  in  favor  of  this  hardware  system. 

Lower-case  adaptability  in  an  Apple  can  be 
had,  I  am  told,  by  the  addition  of  a  Videx  lower- 
case chip  onto  the  motherboard.  However,  before 
you  go  this  route,  check  your  Apple.  I  bought  this 
chip,  and  was  about  to  try  it,  when  I  noticed  that  it 
only  works  on  revision  seven  Apples  and  above. 
Mine  is  a  revision  six  Apple,  so  I  was  out  of  luck 

MAY  1984 

and  had  to  go  another  route.  Lower  case  can  be 
used  in  most  data  applications  (word  processors, 
textfile-based  data  management  programs,  and  so 
on).  Remember,  however,  that  if  you  use  the 
lower-case  letters  in  those  applications,  you  will 
have  to  be  consistent.  Doing  a  search  for  "John 
Smith"  will  not  turn  up  "JOHN  SMITH."  Also, 
if  you  would  like  to  transfer  data  (or  a  program) 
that  is  based  on  lower  case,  a  non-lower-case- 
adapted  Apple  II  will  not  see  the  lower-case  letters 
correctly.  And,  unless  you  have  a  Basic  lower- 
case interpreter  (such  as  GPLE  or  Beagle  Basic), 
your  machine  will  not  understand  lower  case. 

A  typeahead  buffer  enables  you  to  type  faster 
than  the  computer's  keyboard  memory  buffer 
would  normally  permit.  For  example,  if  you  are 
an  excellent  typist  and  would  like  to  type  fifty 
words  per  minute,  your  Apple  will  forget  some  of 
your  letters.  With  a  typeahead  buffer,  the  letters 
you  type  will  all  (eventually)  show  up  on  the  moni- 

An  eighty-column  board  can  be  used  in  some 
selected  applications  that  support  eighty  columns. 
For  example,  Apple  Writer  II  does  not  support  an 
eighty-column  data  display  without  an  eighty- 
column  preboot.  The  preboot  comes  on  another 
disk,  which  comes  with  an  additional  charge. 

Numeric  keypads  are  fine  if  you  use  them.  If 
you  are  familiar  with  the  ten-key  numeric  pad  of  a 
calculator,  a  numeric  keypad  is  an  advantage  when 
it  comes  to  speed.  I  think  a  typewriter  is  a  type- 
writer, and  a  numeric  keypad  is  a  costly  nuisance. 
You  should  adapt  to  the  instrument  at  hand.  Do 
you  feel  the  need  to  use  a  keypad  when  you  type 
the  date  on  a  letter,  or  do  you  teach  yourself  where 
the  numbers  are  on  the  typewriter  keyboard?  As 
for  other  options,  a  shift  lock  is  very  useful  when 
entering  program  information,  or  when  you  don't 
want  to  constantly  use  the  shift  key  to  type  upper- 
case letters  and  lower-case  numbers.  Finally,  con- 
cerning user-defined  keys,  how  much  will  you  use 
them?  A  lot?  Some?  Never?  A  utility  program 
such  as  GPLE  supports  user-defined  keys  with  no 
additional  cost  for  hardware. 

This  has  been  quite  a  lengthy  answer  to  some 
short  questions— but  I  write  with  the  view  that  I 
wish  someone  had  told  me  a  few  of  these  things 
when  I  first  got  my  Apple  II! 
Steve  Matlock,  Cypress,  CA 

Pascal  Pal 

This  is  in  response  to  Ed  Lusky's  plea  for  help. 
Try  to  get  a  version  of  Pascal  similar  to  that  used 
in  the  computer  courses  you  are  taking.  If  you 
can't,  then  try  Apple  Pascal,  which  is  based  on 
UCSD  Pascal,  a  popular  version  (at  least,  I  like 
it).  The  Apple  He's  64K  can  accommodate  Pascal; 
as  of  this  writing,  the  Apple  Pascal  system  can't 
make  use  of  any  additional  memory  if  you  had  it. 
(I've  heard  that  Apple  is  going  to  release  a  new 
version  that  can  make  use  of  extra  memory,  but  I 
don't  know  when.) 

Two  disk  drives  are  quite  sufficient  for  most 
applications,  but  if  you  have  extra  money  that  you 
just  don't  know  what  to  do  with,  then  I  suggest 
you  buy  Apple's  eighty-column  card.  There  are 
two  versions  of  the  card,  one  of  which  gives  you 
64K  of  additional  memory.  You  might  want  to  buy 
that  one;  if  Apple  releases  a  new  version  of  Pascal 
soon,  you'll  thank  yourself. 
Paul  Lucas,  Levittown,  NY 

Public  Libraries 

This  is  in  response  to  Paul  Raymer's  letter  in  the 
February  Open  Discussion  bemoaning  the  lack  of 
inexpensive  CP/M  software  in  Apple  5  1/4-inch 

Apple's9  new  ProDOS 
is  pro  Thunderclock 

When  Apple  designed  their  new 
ProDOS  operating  system  for  the  Apple  II 
family,  they  included  an  important  new 
function — the  ability  to  automatically 
read  a  clock/calendar  card.  Nice  touch. 

It  means  that  every  time  you  create 
a  new  file  or  modify  an  existing  one,  the 
time  and  date  are  automatically  recorded 
and  stored  in  the  CATALOG. 

Now  you 


ach<«neyou  a'e"a< 
the  nJr.J"^ 





can  instantly 
know  the 
exact  time 
your  files  were 
last  updated. 
Apple  could 
have  chosen  any 
clock  for  ProDOS 
to  recognize, 
but  they  chose 
only  one. 
It's  the  only 
clock  men- 
tioned in 
the  ProDOS 

That's  a  nice 
stroke  for  us,  but  it's 
even  better  for  you. 
Because,  in  addition 
to  organizing  your  disk 
files,  Thunderclock  will 
add  a  new  dimension  to 
all  the  new  ProDOS-based 
software.  For  instance,  with 
business  or  communications 

*  Apple  and  the  Apple  logo  are  registered  trademarks  of 
Apple  Computer,  Inc. 

™  ProDOS  is  a  trademark  of  Apple  Computer,  Inc. 








software  you  can  access  a  data  base  or 
send  electronic  mail  automatically,  when 
the  rates  are  lowest.  Even  when  you're  not 
around.  And  that's  just  a  start.  The  better 
you  can  use  your  Apple,  the  better  you 
can  use  a  Thunderclock. 

Thunderclock  gives  you  access  to 
the  year,  month,  date,  day-of-week, 
hour,  minute  and  second.  It  lets  you  time 
intervals  down  to  milliseconds  and  is 
compatible  with 
all  of  Apple's 

comes  with  a  one-year 
warranty,  is  powered  by 
on-board  batteries  and  runs 
accurately  for  up  to  four 
years  before  simple  battery 

If  you  want  to  make  ProDOS 
really  produce,  take  a  page  from  the 
manual — get  yourself  a  Thunderclock - 
the  official  ProDOS  clock. 

See  your  dealer  or  contact  us. 


44  Hermosa  Avenue,  Oakland,  CA  94618 
(415)  652-1737 


<;nPTi  imp 

The  neon  goes  out  on  the  old  Softline  logo  and  a  bold,  new  title  takes  its  place.  It's  the  same  brilliant,  ir- 
reverent, and  challenging  journal  of  computer  gaming  you'd  expect  from  Softalk  Publishing— now  it's  all  in 
the  name.  A  magazine  designed  to  put  you  on  the  path  to  a  more  recreational  mode  of  existence  with  the 
latest  news  and  reviews,  profiles,  in-depth  features,  humor,  tips,  contests,  and  tutorials.  Each  issue  is 
crammed  with  all  you  need  to  stay  sharp  in  the  volatile  realm  of  computer  games.  Buying  them,  playing 
them,  and  making  them— adventures,  arcades,  strategy,  and  role-playing  fantasy. 

P.O.  Box  60 

North  Hollywood,  CA  91603 

$12  for  one  year  (six  issues)   $20  for  two  years 

Visa  Mastercard 

Charge  to  my 
Account  #  _ 

.Expiration  date . 




Computer . 



Please  allow  8  weeks  for  delivery  of  first  issue. 


MAY  1984 

format.  Public  domain  software  is  readily  avail- 
able. Many  of  the  programs  in  the  CPMUG  and 
SIG/M  libraries  work  under  Apple  CP/M  with  ab- 
solutely no  modification.  Many  others  need  only 
minor  reconfiguration  (terminal  configuration, 
mostly).  Since  most  of  the  programs  are  supplied 
as  source  code  and  are  well  documented,  it  is 
fairly  easy  to  configure  them  to  work  on  the  Ap- 
ple. In  fact,  in  several  cases  Apple  configuration  is 
provided  by  conditional  assembly  statements  that 
are  already  in  the  code. 

According  to  literature  I  obtained  from 
CPMUG  in  April  1983,  the  CPMUG  library  of 
ninety-two  volumes  is  available  from  the  New 
York  Area  Computer  Club  for  ten  dollars  per  vol- 
ume on  8-inch  disks  or  for  eighteen  dollars  per 
volume  on  Apple  5  1/4-inch  disks. 

The  SIG/M  library  of  152  volumes  is  even  less 
expensive.  It  costs  five  dollars  per  volume,  plus 
one  dollar  per  order,  for  8-inch  format  from 
SIG/M-Amateur  Computer  Group  of  Scotch 
Plains,  New  Jersey.  Many  clubs  and  groups  make 
this  library  available  in  Apple  5  1/4-inch  format. 
One  such  club  is  Apple  T.R.E.E.  in  Huntington, 
West  Virginia. 

Finally,  I  was  surprised  at  Raymer's  statement 
concerning  the  need  for  an  update  to  make  CP/M 
work  on  his  He.  I  moved  a  Microsoft  card  from  an 
Apple  II  Plus  to  an  Apple  lie  and  had  absolutely  no 

Gary  Anderson,  Huntington,  WV 

Faster  Out  of  the  Huddle 

I  would  like  to  respond  to  Lynn  Leopard  (March 
Open  Discussion).  I  had  the  same  problem  with 
the  new  version  of  Strategic  Simulations's  Com- 
puter Quarterback  being  slower  than  the  original 
version.  I  called  the  company  and  they  said  all  the 
older  versions  were  thrown  out.  I  was  stuck  with 
playing  the  game  in  slow  motion— until  I  received 
my  new  Titan  Technologies  Accelerator  II  in  the 
mail.  Boy,  was  it  amazing!  The  speed  increase  was 
incredible,  and  it  worked  with  more  than  games.  It 
sped  up  all  my  favorite  programs,  including 
VisiCalc,  Apple  Writer  II,  and  DB  Master.  No 
more  waiting  for  me;  my  hat  is  off  to  the  people  of 
Titan  Technologies  of  Ann  Arbor,  Michigan. 
Brian  T.  Knight,  Tecumseh,  MI 

Santa's  Star-Gazers 

I  am  a  school  speech/language  pathologist  and,  in 
addition,  have  just  begun  teaching  computer 
classes  at  a  rural  elementary  school.  The  school 
system  is  out  of  money  after  buying  the  hardware, 
and  I  have  stretched  my  pocketbook  to  the  limit. 
My  first  question  is,  if  you  are  allowed  to  make 
backup  copies  for  your  personal  use,  does  this  in- 
clude a  school  system  purchasing  a  package  and 
then  copying  enough  for  all  of  the  schools  in  the 
system?  Can  a  single  school  purchase  a  package 
and  then  make  copies  for  all  of  the  computers 
within  that  school? 

Second,  I  looked  forward  for  months  to  buying 
a  Telstar  One  by  IUS  to  accompany  my  daughter's 
Christmas  telescope.  The  reviews  made  it  sound 
like  an  excellent  program.  However,  when  I  tried 
to  order  this  program  I  was  told  that  it  was  discon- 
tinued by  IUS  because  of  a  disagreement  with  the 
author!  Does  anyone  know  where  an  old  copy  can 
be  obtained  or  when  it  will  again  be  in  production? 
Jill  B.  Harman,  Manchester,  GA 

III  Cheers 

I  am  trying  to  locate  an  eight-inch  floppy  disk 
drive  for  use  on  an  Apple  III.  Perhaps  a  reader  has 
a  suggestion.  I  need  disks  that  are  double-sided 

Superior  Software,  Inc 

Announces  3  NEW 
Educational  Adventures 
by  Stephen  Cabrinety 
All  APPLE*  Compatible 

Simulating  the  duel 
the  death  of 
and  Greridel,  j^te- 
adventure  tecalj 
epic  poemV 

An  intriguing  pursuit  of  vita] 
political  documents  in 
18th-century  London 
adventure  will  chall 
your  intuition  a 
knowledge  of 

dguesft  for  tye  Scarlet  Hetter 

Based  on  Nathanie 
Hawthorne's  story, 
this  17th-century  timed 
simulation  will  stimulate1 
your  knowledge  q| 
American  literates 

FREE  embroidered  emblem  for  each  purchase  is  our 
way  of  saying  Thank  You. 

Ask  your  dealer  OR  Order  Direct 

Check  (X) 

□  Legendary  Conflict  ....  $28.95 

□  Breckenridge  Caper 
Of  1789   $28.95 

□  Quest  for  the  Scarlet 
Letter  $28.95 

each  program  postage  & 

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order  $  

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Superior  Software,  Inc.® 
PO.  Box  113 
7074  Amundson  Ave. 
Mpls.,  MN  55435 
Telephone  612/941-0363 

"APPLE  is  a  trademark  of  Apple  Computer.  Inc. 


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Company  Name 





Clip  out  and  mail  or  call  TOLL  FREE: 


(In  Minnesota,  call  1-612-483-7300.) 


and  double-density.  I  need  all  necessary  compo- 
nents available  without  having  to  do  my  own  de- 
sign work,  including  the  disk  drive,  controller 
board,  power  supply,  cabinet,  and  SOS  driver.  I 
would  be  willing  to  assemble  a  kit  or  separate 
components.  It  would  be  especially  nice  if  I  had 
the  ability  to  read  (via  a  SOS  driver)  single-sided, 
single-density  disks  (IBM  3740  format),  and  if  the 
whole  package  cost  under  $1,000  (the  further 
under  the  better). 

I  believe  that  the  Apple  III  is  an  excellent  ma- 
chine. It's  too  bad  that  Apple  bungled  its  introduc- 
tion and  promotion.  For  a  general  user,  its  strong- 
est point  appears  to  be  its  weakest  link— device 
independence  through  SOS  drivers.  Many  people 
appear  to  find  the  installation  of  these  intimidat- 
ing. Being  an  avid  Apple  III  and  Pascal  fan,  I  find 
the  articles  by  John  Jeppson  and  Jim  Merritt  to  be 
particularly  fascinating.  Jeppson  is  above  my  tech- 
nical level,  providing  me  with  much  to  learn.  Mer- 
ritt writes  more  for  my  level  and  his  articles  are 
readily  understandable.  I  compliment  him  on  his 
clarity  of  explanation  and  good  analogies  and  ex- 

Milton  L.  Johnson,  Milwaukie,  OR 

Business  and  Recreational  Basic 

Our  organization  currently  has  ten  256K  Apple 
JJJs  in  use.  The  users  range  in  experience  from  a 
few  who  have  had  Fortran  and  Cobol  training  to 
rank  novices  (like  me). 

My  responsibilities  lie  in  the  field  of  parks/rec- 
reational-areas planning.  I  have  a  real  interest  in 
Business  Graphics  and  its  potential  application  to 
mapping,  advertising,  and  internal  presentations.  I 
thought  I  was  getting  a  handle  on  it  until  I  started 
reading  your  column.  You  made  me  aware  that  I 
was  just  scratching  the  surface.  Business  Basic  is, 
at  least  for  now,  the  operative  language  in  our  of- 
fices. Can  any  readers  suggest  any  books  on  Apple 
III  Basic?  Keeping  in  mind  the  range  of  experience 
of  our  users,  and  the  lack  of  elaboration  in  the 
manuals,  such  a  text  would  be  worth  its  weight  in 
gold  around  here. 

Dill  Ringham,  Cochrane,  Ontario,  Canada 

You  may  want  to  contact  the  Business  Apple 
Group,  located  at  1850  Union  Street,  Suite  494, 
San  Francisco,  CA  94123. 

Oh,  Good  Graph 

I  compiled  the  BasicGraph  program  that  appeared 
in  the  December  1983  Basic  Solution  column.  For 
compiling,  I  used  the  Hayden  Compiler  Plus. 
After  compiling,  the  pie  chart  shown  in  the  col- 
umn took  nine  seconds  to  be  drawn.  Incidentally,  I 
did  have  to  make  some  modifications  to  the  pro- 
gram before  it  compiled.  For  some  reason  I  kept 
getting  the  out-of-data  error  when  I  ran  the  com- 
piled version.  I  finally  solved  it  by  manually  as- 
signing C$;  that  is,  C$(0)  =  "0000", 
C$(l)  =  "2202",  and  so  on.  Quite  a  nice  program. 

David  T.  Harvey,  Jr.,  Arlington,  VA 

A  Natural  Response  to  Peeking 

In  response  to  Mike  Zulauf  s  letter  (March  Open 
Discussion),  the  area  around  hex  location  C030  is 
a  soft  switch  that  controls  the  speaker.  Listing 
$C030  in  machine  language  or  peeking  at  location 
—  16336  in  Basic  instructs  the  computer  that  the 
speaker  is  being  addressed,  which  clicks  in  re- 
sponse. Regarding  the  read  at  location  $C080,  the 
computer  will  hang  unless  the  Apple  has  been  boot- 
ed with  a  System  Master  disk  and  Integer  Basic, 
because  it's  another  soft  switch  that  requires  In- 

 MAY  1984 

teger  Basic  to  work.  For  a  better  explanation, 
please  see  the  If/Then/Maybe  column  in  the 
February  Softalk. 

I  also  want  to  comment  on  how  great  it  has 
been  getting  Softalk  the  last  couple  of  months.  I 
find  the  articles  very  insightful,  especially  the 
guide  to  assembly  language,  and  I  always  read  the 
software  reviews.  I  use  Apples  at  school  but  don't 
currently  own  one;  reading  Softalk  has  made  me 
more  determined  to  get  one.  Thanks,  and  keep  up 
the  good  work. 
Peter  Neubert,  Appleton,  WI 

King-Size  Sheets 

We  have  an  Apple  He  with  128K.  Our  software  is 
Multiplan  by  Microsoft.  We  evidently  build  larger 
spreadsheets  than  normal  because  we  are  running 
out  of  storage  capacity.  We  feel  that  we  need  from 
200K  to  300K— and  all  of  this  on  one  disk.  Can  a 
reader  help  us  with  the  best  way  to  accomplish 

David  L.  Parks,  Decatur,  AL 

A  Farthing  for  Your  Thoughts 

I  have  an  Apple  He  computer  with  an  Epson 
MX-80  III  F/T  printer,  and  I  use  the  Apple  Writer 

II  word  processor.  I  have  a  need  for  the  British 
pound  symbol  in  much  of  the  word  processing 
work  I  do.  I  would  like  to  embed  the  program  to 
print  the  pound  symbol  in  the  Apple  Writer  glossa- 
ry so  that  I  can  use  it  easily  when  I  want  to.  I 
would  appreciate  it  if  a  reader  could  tell  me  how  to 
do  so.  Can  I  program  one  of  the  keys  to  print  the 
pound  symbol?  I  know  nothing  about  program- 
ming, so  I  will  need  to  know  the  complete  step-by- 
step  process. 

Kendall  C.  Sanford,  Baie  d'Urfe,  Quebec,  Canada 

I  think  that  Ada  is  a  strong  language  and  I  would 
like  to  use  it.  Can  someone  tell  me  if  it  is  available 
for  my  Apple  He  (64K  with  an  eighty-column 
card)  and  where  I  can  get  it?  Also,  what  operating 
system  does  it  run  under? 
Mike  McCormick,  Pittsburgh,  PA 

Super  Text,  Poor  Spelling 

I  have  been  searching  for  a  long  time  for  a  spelling 
checker  that  will  work  with  Supertext  and  have 
found  nothing  that  even  comes  close.  Can  anyone 
help  me? 

Jack  Woychowski,  Toms  River,  NJ 
Mourning  After 

Has  anyone  written  a  program  for  computing  the 
Yahrzeit  (a  Yiddish  term  for  the  anniversary  of 
death,  pronounced  Yorksite)?  I  would  like  to  pur- 
chase a  program  for  this  if  available. 
Harry  Northrop,  Waterville,  NY 

Omnisoft,  The  Artful  Dodger 

The  elusive  Omnisoft  Corporation  and  its  Star- 
fire  Games  division— formerly  operating  a  one- 
sided mail  order  business  out  of  a  Chats  worth, 
California,  condominium— has  relocated.  Ac- 
cording to  the  office  of  the  Regional  Chief  Postal 
Inspector  for  the  western  region  in  San  Bruno, 
California,  Omnisoft  has  moved  to  Wichita 
Falls,  Texas.  We  are  as  yet  unable  to  locate  an 
address  or  phone  number  for  the  company  in 
Wichita  Falls.  Starfire  complaints  should  be  ad- 
dressed to  the  Regional  Chief  Postal  Inspector, 
1407  Union,  Memphis,  Tennessee  18161.  Atten- 
tion: Fraud.  31 

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has  moved.  Our  new  address: 

Box  312-A,  Hobbs,  NM  88240. 


Quality  books  complete  with  Full  Maps,  Clues, 
and  Solutions.  Colossal  Cave,  Deadline,,  all  3 
Zorks,  Enchanter,  Starcross,  Transylvania, 
Death  in  the  Caribbean,  Mask  of  Sun,  Cranston 
Manor,  Ulysses,  Wizard  &  Princess,  Mission 
Asteroid,  Pirate  Adventure,  Adventur eland. 
$3.95  each,  any  3  for  $10,  or  4  for  $12.  NM 
residents  add  5%  tax.  Send  check/MO  to:  TIPS, 
Box  312-A,  Hobbs,  NM  88240. 


A  game  with  mighty  monsters  you  must  kill  to 
get  to  ORG  &  save  the  beautiful  princess.  It  has 
levels  only  $10  +  $1  shipping  and  handling. 
Send  check/cash  to  Robert  Cucinotta,  415 
Poinsettia  Rd.,  Belleair,  FL  33516. 


Eamon  starter  kit  of  18  adventures  (Set  1)  on  9 
disks  for  $35.  Set  2  of  18  for  $35.  Set  3  of  14 
adv.  &  utilities  for  $30.  First  36  for  $60.  All  50 
for  $75.  Sample  disk  @  $5.  100  Generik  bulk 
SS/SD  disks  for  $130.  Jeff  Bianco,  7210  N. 
Mercer  Way,  Mercer  Island,  WA  98040. 


Get  one  free  cheat  sheet/home.  Send  SASE  w/5 
choices.  We  will  send  1  FREE  'Slothsheet'  full 
of  hints  and  our  catalog. 

529  Farragut  PL,  Danville,  CA  94526 

CHEAT  A  BIT  (or  a  lot)  with  our  charm- 
ing maps  and  coded  clues  for  ADVENTURE 
GAMES.  Dark  Crystal,  Wizard  &  Princess, 
Ulysses,  Cranston  Manor,  Mask  of  Sun,  Ser- 
pent's Star,  Mystery  House,  Softporn,  Transyl- 
vania, Death  in  Caribbean.  RETURN  MAIL 
SERVICE.  $5/set  or  Summer  Special:  3  sets/$10. 
Ask  Alice,  Box  3074,  Stony  Creek,  CT  06405. 


Master  Zork  I,  II,  III,  Witness,  Infidel,  En- 
chanter, Starcross,  Deadline,  Planetfall,  Adven- 
ture, and  Suspended  with  our  maps  and  hint 
books.  Also,  the  Adventurer 's  Tutorial  (Tips  on 
how  to  play  any  adventure  game).  $4.95  ea.  or 
any  2  for  $9!  Visa/MC,  Check  or  M/O.  BRASS 
LANTERN  PRESS,  Dept.  ST,  1625  W.  39th 
Ave.,  Kansas  City,  KS  66103;  (913)  722-2464. 


Detailed  and  accurate  maps  and  clues.  We  have 
them  for  Mask  of  the  Sun,  Serpent 's  Star,  Ulys- 
ses, Softporn  Adventure,  and  Wizard  and  the 
Princess.  $4.95  ea,  5/$20.  NDA,  Box  665, 
Sandy  Hook,  CT  06482. 


Stuck  on  an  adventure?  Witt's  Notes  are  the  an- 
swer! We  offer  professional-looking  booklets 
with  complete  hints  and  maps.  Choose  from  a 
huge  library  of  games  including:  Mystery,  Wiz- 
ard, Cranston,  Ulysses,  Time,  Dark  Crystal, 
Zork  (I,  II,  or  III),  Deadline,  Starcross,  Wit- 
ness, Suspended,  Planetfall,  Enchanter,  Infidel, 
Mask  Sun,  Serpent,  Transylvania,  Quest, 
Coveted,  Sherwood,  Kabul,  Crit,  Mass,  Gruds, 
Death  Caribbean,  Orig.  Adventure  and  more. 
Prices:  1  @  $5.95,  2  @  $10,  each  add.  $5  and  6 
@  $25.  We  accept  check,  MO,  and  MC/Visa. 
Write  today  for  free  catalog  which  includes  but- 
tons, posters,  discounted  software,  and  other  of- 
fers. Send  to:  WITT'S  END,  42  Morehouse 
Rd.,  Easton,  CT  06612;  (203)  254-0728.  Dealer 
inq.  invited.  CT  res.  add  7V2%  tax. 


STUCK  ON:  Quest,  Masquerade,  Covet.  Mirr., 
Witness ,  Mask  Sun  ,Serp  Star.  30  +  pg  adventure 
walk-throughs  divided  into  nonpeek  sections. 
Story,  hints,  instrux  +  maps  if  appl.  $5.95  ea. 
Ultima  III  Hint  &  Solve  $4.95.  Straight-away 
Guides  avail,  for  Infidel  &  more  $2.95  ea.  Send 
for  FREE  list.  Adventure  Solutions,  5199  NE, 
12  Ave.,  Ft.  Lauderdale,  FL  33334. 

I  Apple  HI  1 


It's  here  at  last,  The  4  Billion  Year  Code.  Protect 
your  Apple  HI  files  and  beat  the  WHIZ  KIDS  at 
their  own  game.  Advanced  data  encryption  al- 
gorithm will  password  protect  any  type  of  file: 
spreadsheets,  DB  files,  programs,  word  proc- 
essing files,  and  more  (Hard  disk  supported). 
Breaking  into  a  file  protected  by  Password  IE 
can  take  4  billion  years!  Keep  your  information 
YOURS.  Can  you  afford  not  to?  Introductory 
offer:  $55.  From:  GREBAR,  Box  83  Station  C, 
Winnipeg,  Canada. 



A  complete  record-keeping  system  for  large  and 
small  vehicle  fleets.  Covers  repairs,  mainte- 
nance, expenses,  parts  costs,  labor  costs,  ven- 
dors, mechanics,  vehicles,  and  departments  at 
machine  language  speed.  $649.  Nordic  Soft- 
ware Inc.,  4910  Dudley,  Lincoln,  NE  68504; 
(402)  466-6502.  MC/Visa  accepted. 


Let  your  Apple  II,  11+  or  He  maintain  your 
schedule  of  appt.  &  social  events.  Even  remem- 
bers birthdays,  holidays,  etc.  from  year  to  year! 
Easy  to  use,  only  $19.95.  DOS  3.3  DGD  Soft- 
ware, 980  Masefield  Rd.,  Balto.,  MD  21207. 


The  complete  statistical  analysis  program  for 
business  and  science.  You've  seen  the  rest,  now 
try  the  best.  Free  brochure.  Software  Special- 
ties, Box  329,  Springboro,  OH  45066;  (513) 


AGEMENTsoftware  for  owners  of  single 
family,  apartments,  condos,  offices,  mini- 
storage,  duplexes.  Provides  instant  cash  flow 
analysis,  records  expenditures  on  each  unit, 
prints  cash  flow  reports  and  summary  of  opera- 
tions report,  and  accumulates  cost  for  tax  pur- 
poses. $149.95.  Tomar  Productions,  Box 
740871,  Dallas,  TX  75374;  (214)  750-1212. 

DIRECT  MAIL  H-a  sophisticated  mail 
merge  for  Apple  H/IIe.  Merge  form  letters  from 
Apple  Writer  and  other  text  processors  with 
Visifile,  General  Manager,  PFS,  DIF  or  Text 
files.  Fast  processing.  Easy  to  use.  Builds  mail- 
ing lists.  Performance  guaranteed.  $99.95  plus 
shpg.  Eval.  disk  and  manual  available.  VEN- 
TURE SOFTWARE  INC.,  Box  6502-S, 
Nashua,  NH  03063;  (603)  889-2556. 

LETTER  MENU-an  integrated  series  of 
WPLs  for  Apple  Writer  with  more  than  1,500 
lines  of  WPL  commands.  Simplify  daily  cor- 
respondence. Letter  building/addressing  are 
automatic.  Easy  to  use.  Menu  driven.  Tutorials 
give  educational  tips  for  writing  better  WPLs. 
$39  ppd.  or  manual  only  $6.  VENTURE  SOFT- 
WARE INC.,  Box  6502-S,  Nashua,  NH  03063; 
(603)  889-2556. 


Sophisticated!  Bar  and  P&F  charts,  mov.  aves, 
oscillators.  Many  indicators  (R.S.I,  %R,  OBV, 
-I-  more).  Auto  or  manual  data.  Very  powerful 
and  very  friendly!  Great  buy  at  only  $99. 
Demo— $10.  Brochure— DECISION  TOOLS, 
199  N.  El  Camino  Real,  Suite  F-293,  Encinitas, 
CA  92024;  (619)  942-7148. 


MIN-ROUTE  can  be  used  by  urban  and  resource 
planners  in  evaluating  road  networks.  The  pro- 
gram will  find  the  shortest  path  through  a  road 
network  from  a  point  of  departure  to  a  destina- 
tion. Requires  Apple  II  +  /lie  and  1  drive. 
$49.95.  TW2  Consulting,  Box  1074,  Eagar, 
AZ  85925. 


The  permanent  portfolio  analyzer  designs, 
analyzes  and  tracks  a  portfolio  that  is  balanced 
for  the  long  term,  offering  capital  preservation 
and  appreciation,  no  matter  what  course  the 
economy  takes.  "...  a  well-executed, 
well-written,  well-documented  package,"  says 
Softalk's  Ken  Landis.  $295.  Demo  disk  $25. 
Visa/MC.  C.R.  Hunter  &  Associates,  1527 
Northwood  Dr.,  Cincinnati,  OH  45237;  (513) 


For  MULTIPLAN  users,  Este  has  two  modules. 
Intervivos  calcs  federal  &  state  taxes  for  '84  & 
'87,  links  plans  of  spouses,  compares  tax  & 
asset  savings  of  two  plans,  figures  fees  &  more. 
Postmortem  has  the  same  features  &  calcs  cash 
needed  to  settle  current  estate.  "What  if"  & 
professional  reports.  Requires  64K.  Apple  or 
MSDOS.  $69.95.  Wirewright,  One  Irvine  Row, 
Carlisle,  PA  17013;  (717)  243-5513. 


Frames,  trusses,  continuous  beams,  retaining 
walls,  for  48K  Apple  with  disk  drive  using  Ap- 
plesoft. Finite  element.  Patterson  Engineering, 
17315  Ash  St.,  Fountain  Valley,  CA  92708; 
(714)  848-7866. 


A  powerful  program  for  AUTOMATIC  printing 
of  disk  labels  showing  FILES,  DOS— sec  free  & 
used.  Built-in  default  &  escape  functions,  auto 
config.  for  printer  slots  &  drives.  Completely 
MENU-driven.  Req.  no  doc.  Includes  300  5  in. 
labels.  Req.  64K  Apple  II,  II +  ,  He  disk  dr., 
printer.  Only  $59.95  +  $3  ship.  NY  res.  add 
sales  tax.  Practical  Software  Ltd.,  Dept.  ST, 
Box  64,  Pomona,  NY  10970;  (914)  425-1158. 



With  APPLE-BISYNC  your  Apple  II  or  lie  can 
communicate  directly  with  IBM  mainframe  sys- 
tems software.  Ideal  to  transfer  data  files  in  both 
directions.  EASY  TO  USE!  Complete  RJE  ca- 
pabilities: submit  jobs/data,  extract  listings/re- 
ports. True  RJE  3780  emulation.  Also  Apple  to 
Apple  communication.  URGEO  Software,  Box 
305,  Cheney,  WA  99004;  (509)  838-6058. 


No  matter  what  your  game,  you  need  WIZI- 
NEWS!  The  source  for  news,  gossip,  tips,  ar- 
ticles, interviews  for  ALL  fantasy/adventure 
games!  Subscribe:  $8/4  issues,  sample  $2. 
Nichols  Services,  6901  Buckeye  Way,  Colum- 
bus, GA  31904. 


Wizardry's  BEST  players  use  the  WIZISYS- 
TEM!!!  NEW  85+  page  manual:  complete 
charts,  great  tips,  step-by-step  help  for  all  3 
games  ($15).  Superior  maps  $5  (Sc.  1,  2,  or  3). 
All  $25.  OUR  fix  disk  modifies/prints  all  3 
games  AND  is  but  $15!  FREE  support/updates. 
Other  Wiz-Products,  too!  Visa/MC.  Don't 
waste  $$  on  inferior  imitations!  Nichols  Ser- 
vices, 6901  Buckeye  Way,  Columbus,  GA 
31904;  (404)  323-9227. 


Frustrated?  Rookies  and  skilled  players  alike 
win  with  our  system.  Fully  detailed  maps  con- 
taining all  notes  and  hints  needed.  $6  each  sce- 
nario. Master  Manual  has  secret  tricks  and 
helpful  hints,  only  $12.  All  for  only  $22.50. 
Master  Maze  System,  1404  S.  Ocean  Blvd., 
Myrtle  Beach,  SC  29577. 


The  ULTIMAte  Editor  that  lets  you: 
Edit  towns,  dungeons,  &  the  world. 
Populate  your  world  with  creatures. 
Uses  easy  on-screen  editing  technique. 
Manual  is  included. 

Make  Ultima  III  scenarios  for  only  $25  ( +6.5  % 
CA  resident).  Send  Check  or  MO  to: 
529  Farragut  PI.,  Danville,  CA  94526. 

ULTIMAte  Solutions  .  .  . 

Exodus's  End  for  Ultima  III  and  Minax's  Bane 
for  Ultima  II  will  solve  all  your  problems!  With 
both  programs:  Completely  overhaul  your  char- 
acter, print  out  statistics  to  printer,  save  or  back 
up  characters  for  later  use.  Send  $9.95  for  one, 
$15  for  both  prgms  to: 

Olorin  Software 
Box  96 
Friendship,  OH  45630. 


Who  cares?  All  you're  really  interested  in  is 
winning  at  Ultima  II  and  ///,  right?  World's 
easiest  to  use  character  editors.  $9  each  or  $14 
for  both  disks.  Specify  U  or  HI.  Mike  Scanlin, 
34  Giralda,  Long  Beach,  CA  90803. 


The  First  and  The  Best  WIZARDRY  MAPS. 
All  Three  maps  for  $7  or  $3  each  scenario. 
SEND  to:  Stanley  Kasper,  4932  N.  Ridgeway, 
Chicago,  IL  60625. 


Ultima  III  Character  Editor.  You  can  easily 
modify  all  of  your  character's  stats!  Poisoned? 
Dead?  Ashes?  Not  enough  Strength,  Intelli- 
gence, Dexterity,  or  Wisdom?  Insufficient 
H.P.,  Gold,  Food?  Need  weapons  or  armour? 
Edit  Anything!  48K  Applesoft  DOS  3.3  Charac- 
ter Editor  $13,  Notes  &  Map,  $6.50.  JENS 
Designs,  Box  1795,  Sandy,  UT  84091. 


Frustrated?  Rookies  and  skilled  players  alike 
win  with  our  system.  Fully  detailed  maps  con- 
taining all  notes  and  hints  needed.  $6  each  sce- 
nario. Master  manual  has  secret  tricks  and 
helpful  hints,  only  $12.  All  for  only  $22.50. 
Master  Maze  System,  1404  S.  Ocean  Blvd., 
Myrtle  Beach,  SC  29577. 


Teleported  into  solid  rock?  Restore  your  charac- 
ters with  Legacy  Breaker.  Works  with  all  three 
scenarios,  modifies  everything,  including  items, 
except  chevrons.  Only  $20.  Quantum,  106  E 
Washington,  Coleman,  MI  48618. 

H+  CAD 

Comprehensive,  menu-oriented,  graphics  pro- 
gram for  students  and  engineers.  Isometrics, 
wire  frames,  architectural,  etc.  Rectilinear  and 
polar  lines,  circles,  triangles,  rectangles,  ellip- 
ses plain,  solid,  dashed,  rotated,  arcs,  arrows, 
cursor  draw/erase/fill,  load,  save,  text  any  size. 
With  coord,  graph  pad.  $39.95  plus  $2  shipping 
(6%  tax  in  CA).  CADSOFT,  8125-B  Ronson 
Rd.,  San  Diego,  CA  92111. 



Create  perfect  pie,  bar,  and  line  charts  in  26  different 
styles,  color  or  B  &  W.  Automatic  scaling  and 
labeling.  Includes  bonus  graphics  illustrator, 
letterer,  shape  maker,  and  plot-to-printer  utilities. 
All  on  disk.  Apple  11+  or  He.  Satisfaction  or  money 
back  (Really!)  Only  $29.95.  SPECTRAL  GRAPHICS, 
540  N.  California,  Suite  22A,  Stockton,  CA  95202. 
CalL.(209)  463-7309  for  C.O.D.  orders  only. 

KOALA  PAD  $84.95 

W/Micro  Illustrator.  For  Apple  JJ,  JJ  +  ,  or  lie. 
Also  $24  for  smoked  Flip  Disk  Box— 70  cap. 
$2.50  shpg.  each.  IL  res.  +7%.  Shipped 
promptly  HELSINGOR,  1402  Lama  Ln.,  Mt. 
Prospect,  IL  60056. 


Customize  your  own  Basic  character  set  and  add 
text  to  the  hi-res  screen.  Draw  shapes  with 
keyboard.  Create  multi-shape  tables  automati- 
cally. Reproduce  lo-res  graphics  on  hi-res 
screen.  Page  mover  (1,  2,  &  3).  Duplicate  any 
portion  of  hi-res  screen  w/  or  w/o  erase.  Visible 
sort.  Exciting  graphics.  More.  All  BASIC. 
Nonprotected.  Documented.  $30  (5%  tax  in 
IN).  WWM  ENTERPRISES,  R.R.  22,  Box  31, 
Terre  Haute,  IN  47802. 

3M  DISKETTES  .  .  .  $20.95 

Box  of  10  5.25"  SS/DD/RH  diskettes  for  Ap- 
ple. Ship  in  24  hrs.  Check/MC/Visa.  $2  ship- 
ping. Order  now!  Cactus  Computer,  3090  E. 
Palouse  River  Dr.,  Sp305,  Moscow,  ID  83843; 
(208)  882-8603. 


5.25"  SS/DD  $218/100;  5.25"  DS/DD 
$320/100;  Flip  'N'  Sort  (75  capacity)  $19.95; 
Library  Case  $2.50  each.  Free  Brochure.  Unik 
Associates,  12545  W.  Burleigh,  Brookfield,  WI 
53005;  (414)  782-5030. 


Disk  File  Work  Station 

•  Stores  100  Disks,  Dust  Free 

•  25  Disk  Titles  Clearly  Visible 

•  Fast,  Easy  Access,  Stackable 

•  Top  Flips  Back,  Locks  Upright 

$Q95  AddSI  SO 
%J  Postage  &  Handling 

Cash. check  or  M  O  NoCOD  s 


42  Oliver  Slreel  Depl  S,  Newark,  N.J  07105 



SAVE  MONEY  !  Apple  II  */e  users  can  use  the 
diskette  flip  side,  if  another  "write  enable' 
notch  is  correctly  made. 

quickly  SOLVES  that  PROBLEM. 
It's  like  FREE  DISKETTES! 
Stainless  Steel  Guide 
Easy  Leverage  Handle 
Clippings  Catcher 
•  Square  Notch  Cut 
Black  Finish 
•  Get  THE  BEST' 


BE  SAFE  !  Your  FREE'  disk  is  CERTIFIED 
100%  ERROR  FREE  with  CERTIFIX  by 
lets  you  use  the  rest.  Displays  status 
report  &  saves  it  to  disk.  Next,  CERTIFIX 
automatically  formats  then  offers  to  initialize 
with  genuine  Apple  DOS  3.3  too  Great  for 
testing  economy  disks.  CERTIFY.  FIX  & 
INITIALIZE  every  disk  with  CERTIFIX ! 

100%  %onq  7*>ack  SaUijactm  GcwMtee  / 
DISK  NOTCHER  is  $14.95 
CERTIFIX'"  is  just  $24.95 
ONLY  $29.95  for  BOTH! 
Add  $1  50  s/h  •  CA  add  6V?  %  tax 


OAKLAND.  CA  94614 


APPLE  CHIPS™  Kits  provide  step-by-step  in- 
struction manual  and  IC  chips  so  anyone  can  fix 
most  system  failures.  Kit  contains  at  least  one  of 
every  IC  (except  6502  &  ROMs).  Motherboard 
Chip  Kit  $49.95.  Disk  U  Chip  Kit  $34.95.  Com- 
bination Motherboard  &  Disk  $79.95.  Add  $2 
shipping/order.  Send  check  to  Apple-Dayton, 
Inc.,  Box  1666,  Fairborn,  OH  45324.  OH  res. 
add  5.5%  tax.  Or  call  (513)  879-5895.  MC/Visa 


RIBBONS-Apple  DMP/C.  Itoh/NEC  8023 
$4.29.  Epson  MX-70/80  $3.85.  STORAGE 
UNIT-75  capacity  $15.75/10  capacity  $1.49. 
For  price  list  call  (415)  778-2595  or  write: 
Argonaut  Dist.,  1104  Buchanan  Rd.  ST  A.,  An- 
tioch,  CA  94509. 

LOADER  by  MICRO  WARE.  Five  new 
beautiful  fonts  on  disk  for  only  $9.95  plus  $1 
shipping.  Free  sample  printout  on  request.  Send 
check  to  FONTWARE,  Box  423,  Massillon, 
OH  44648. 


Box  of  ten  5.25"  SS/SD,  w/hub  rings,  quality 
guaranteed  for  a  lifetime  of  heavy  duty  use. 
$20/box  postage  paid!  MC/Visa,  checks,  MO 
welcome.  AZ.  res.  add  5%  sales  tax.  DATA 
BYTE,  2361  Tee  Dr.,  Lake  Havasu,  AZ  86403; 
(602)  855-1592. 


DISKETTES  $20.50 
Authorized  3M  distributor.  Buy  wholesale 
5.25"  SS/DD  $20.50.  DS/DD  $25.50.  Prompt 
delivery!  For  price  list  call  (415)  778-2595  or 
write:  Argonaut  Dist.,  1104  Buchanan  Rd. 
STA.,  Antioch,  C A  94509. 


End  of  1983  production  year  close-out  sale  on 
joysticks  for  Apple  II,  II +  ,  lie.  High  quality, 
with  2  pushbuttons  and  self-centering  stick. 
(Self-centering  springs  are  easily  removed  and 
replaced.)  Cost  $22.95  +  $2.35  postage  and 
handling  per  unit.  Vermont  residents  add  4% 
sales  tax.  Bernard  Kessler  &  Associates,  Box 
568,  Colchester,  VT  05446. 

64K/128K  RAMDRTVE  He. 

RAMDRTVE  He  is  the  best  disk  emulation  for 
64K  or  128K  extended  80-column  cards.  Sup- 
ports DOS  3.3,  Apple  Pascal  1.1,  and  128K 
PRODOS/RAM!  Features  access  indicators, 
DOS  speedup,  and  disk  copy  utility.  Not  pro- 
tected! Separate  CP/M  version  (thru  2.23)  avail- 
able. $29.95.  Precision  Software,  6514  N.  Fres- 
no St.,  Milwaukee,  WI  53224;  (414)  353-1666. 

$AVE  Z-80  PRO!  $99.95  $AVE 

Amazingly  low  introductory  price,  the  Z-80 
PRO!  is  the  one  for  you.  Totally  compatible 
with  all  CP/M  software  and  Microsoft  disks  (no 
pre-boot  necessary).  Specifically  designed  for 
operation  in  the  Apple  II +  ,  He,  and  Franklin. 
Immediate  delivery  and  6-month  Money  Back 
Guarantee  If  Not  Completely  Satisfied.  Send 
$99.95  to:  Computer  Accessories  &  Training, 
2120  Turner  Rd.,  Richmond,  VA  23225. 


Verbatim  =  $2\l\0\  $205/100. 
Datalife  =  $26. 50110;  $250/100.  All  w/sleeves. 
Add  $2  shipping/10;  $6/100.  IL  res.  +7%. 
Shipped  in  48  hrs.  HELSINGOR  INC.,  1402 
Lama  Ln.,  Mt.  Prospect,  IL  60056. 


Double  your  disk  capacity!  Our  rugged  ETC- 
501  DISKNOTCHER  aligns  and  cleanly  cuts 
another  write-enable  notch  to  turn  your  SS  5.25" 
disk  into  a  double-sided.  Value  priced,  only 
$9.95  +  $1.50  shipping.  Protect  your  valuable 
disks  with  the  DATA  SAFE,  durable  flip  file 
storage  for  50  disks.  Only  $15.95  +  $2.50 
shipping.  Send  orders  to:  Jacobson  Industries, 
Box  96,  Hollister,  CA  95024.  (In  CA,  please 


New!  Designed  to  FIT  TRACTOR  FEED  PA- 
PER! No  more  stripping  or  punching  holes. 
DATABINDS  are  sturdy,  attractive,  vinyl- 
covered,  office-quality  notebooks.  Large 
capacity  1 W  metal  rings  are  cleverly  spaced  to 
fit  paper  fan-folded  or  sideways.  Black,  brown, 
blue,  green,  or  orange.  $6  each,  set  of  5/$26. 
Add  $2  shpg/order.  DATABIND,  Box  D, 
Margate,  NJ  08402. 


Greyhound  Handicapping  Tutorial 
Three  menu-driven,  multifactor  systems. 
Modeling  Coefficients  to  meet  YOUR  needs. 
Apple  B  $39.  TOUT  Co.,  Box  3145,  Pomona, 
CA  91769. 

WIN$$         CRAP$  WIN$$ 

Crapshooting  Tutorial 
Skill-building  exercises,  tests,  systems,  & 
simulations.  Apple  11  + ,  He  disk.  $39  incl.  tax. 
TOUT  Co.,  Box  3145,  Pomona,  CA  91769. 


Thoroughbred  Handicapping  Tutorial 
Five  menu-driven,  multifactor  systems.  Model- 
ing Coefficients  to  meet  YOUR  needs.  Apple  H, 
$89.  TOUT  Co. ,  Box  3 145,  Pomona,  CA  91769. 


New  improved  version  7!  Keeps  names,  ad- 
dresses, phone  numbers,  birthdays,  anniver- 
saries, &  much  more.  32  items  for  402  families. 
Reports  are:  ADDRESS  BOOK,  PHONE  LIST, 
etc.  Easy  to  usel  Unlocked.  For  11+  or  e 
(w/64K).  Satisfaction  guaranteed!  $19.95. 
Ck/MC/Visa  to  OPT-SYSTEMS,  2109  W. 
Edgewood  Dr.,  Jefferson  City,  MO  65101. 


Computer  Guide  to  Annuals  and  Perennials. 
Plan  your  flower  garden  from  PFS  "DATA" 
disk.  Apple  H/IIe  $19.95.  S&J  Software,  7614 
Highland  St.,  Springfield,  VA  22150. 


Handles  the  record  keeping,  calculating,  and  re- 
port writing  of  the  golf  league  secretary.  In- 
itializes to  your  league  stats. Flex. hep  choices. 
File  editor.  Includes  auto  schedule  generator. 
Applesoft  or  Pascal.  Send  $50  to  TOMSOFT, 
32007  Claeys,  Warren,  MI  48093. 


BRAND  NEW!!:The  I  CHING  in  modern  im- 
agery!!! Complete,  easily  understandable,  in- 
sightful. /  Ching  Oracle  Disk  for  APPLE  U  se- 
ries (48K)  just  $59.95  (includes  shipping  and 
sales  tax).  ALSO  available:  <  <  < STARS 
AND  DICE  DISK>  >  > .  Combines  astrology 
and  dice  in  modern  imagery  to  answer  your  per- 
sonal questions.  GREAT  FUN!!!  Just  $29.95 
complete.  SEND  YOUR  CHECK  TODAY  to 
CA  94662. 


Put  an  end  to  lost  recipes  and  dirty  cookbooks! 
Easy  entry  of  your  recipes  on  a  U+/IIe.  Look  at 
recipes  on  the  screen  or  print  1  or  more,  then  off 
to  the  kitchen!  View  or  print  listings  of  recipes. 
Users  guide  designed  for  new  computer  users  (1 
or  2  drives).  $15.95  +  $2.  post  (CA  +  6Vi%). 
Check  or  MO.  PCS,  99  E.  Middlefield  Rd.,  #9, 
Mountain  View,  CA  94043. 



Enter  departing  city  and  destination  city.  ROADSEARCH- 
PLUS  computes  and  prints  the  best  route  with  miles, 
time  and  fuel.  Add  up  to  50  USA/CANADA  cities  to  the 
original  406.  DOS  3.3.  Unlocked.  15  day  Moneyback 
Guarantee.  $74.95  ($34.95  with  non-expandable  data- 
base). Add  $1 .50  S/H.  Check/Visa/MC.  At  your  dealer  or. 

Columbia  Software 

Box  2235  Z,  Columbia,  MD  21045 

with  'CHYRL' 

Watch  CHYRL  or  one  of  her  4  female  or  2  male 
friends  TAKE  IT  ALL  OFF.  In  hi-res  and  color 
%  sound.  $29.95  for  2  disk  set,  add  $2  P&H. 
Many  others,  see  Mar'  84  ST  pg  221  for  INFO. 
Send  SASE:  SANSOFT  PLUS,  Box  590228, 
Houston,  TX  77259-0228.  Visa  or  MC,  Check, 
COD.  Weshipfast.  (713)482-6898  ANYTIME. 


The  Sports  Trax  Series  tracks  player  and  team 
stats  as  well  as  league  standings  during  a  season. 
Enter  game  results  for  each  player  and  the  pro- 
gram automatically  updates  totals,  averages, 
and  standings.  Each  disk  can  store  eight  leagues 
of  eight  teams  each.  Can  be  used  to  track  ama- 
teur leagues  as  well  as  sports  simulations,  such 
as  Strato-Matic  or  APBA.  Sports  now  available 
are:  *Baseball/Softball  *Soccer 
♦Basketball  *Hockey 
Select  the  sport  and  send  $24.95  to:  FJ  VOSS, 
459  Sierra  Vista  Ln. ,  Valley  Cottage,  NY  10989. 


Designs  for  home  from  over  20  national  mfgrs. 
Discounts  *  Never  A  shipping  Charge  *  Visa 
MasterCharge  *  Interior  Design  Systems,  3641-S 
St.  Mary's  PI.  NW,  Washington,  DC  20007. 


This  unique  kaleidoscopic  game  of  color  and 
classical  music  is  for  ages  6  months  to  adult.  For 
Silicon  Valley  kids.  Send  $19. 95  to  Byte-Omega, 
695  Torrington  Dr.,  Sunnyvale,  CA  94087. 


GAMES  $2.50 

The  New  Foxxivision  Demo  Disk  is  packed  on 
both  sides  with  quality  entertainment,  graphics 
and  games!!!  We  have  the  lowest  prices 
anywhere.  Send  $2.50  to  Foxxivision  Inc., 
28090  Tavistock,  Southfield,  MI  48034  or  send 
for  our  free  brochure] ! ! 


Announcing  the  greatest  price  break  in  Apple 
games  history!!!  Five  new,  original,  enjoyable 
games  for  everyone  in  the  family.  Great 
graphics,  animation,  machine  language  speed, 
&  superb playability.  Send  $4.95  to  Foxxivision 
Inc.,  28090  Tavistock,  Southfield,  MI  48034. 
Extremely  fast  &  reliable  delivery! 


Smash  a  homer  in  Foxxivision's  new  hi-res 
baseball  game!  Complete  with  super  graphics 
and  machine  language  speed.  Foxxivision  Inc., 
28090  Tavistock,  Southfield,  MI  48034. 

Home  Education 


CROSS  WORD— Study,  quiz,  or  just  fun!  36 
crossword  puzzles  with  scriptural  quotes,  ques- 
tions, hints,  and  answers.  Create  your  own 
puzzles  or  change  existing  ones.  Send  for  free 
description  or  $39.95  (  +  6%  CA).  VISION 
SOFTWARE,  Box  11131,  Costa  Mesa,  CA 
92627;  (714)  642-3255  (Apple  n  +  ,  He.) 


S.A.T.-MATH:  5-part  Test/Instruction  Set: 
Algebra,  Geometry,  Logic,  etc.  (Includes 
Geometry  on  the  hi-res  screen)  -  $24.95.  Also 
tion, handling,  graphing;  all  menu-driven;  pie, 
bar,  linear  charts  (B&W);  auto-scaling;  make 
hard  copy  (specify  printer)  -  $14.95.  64K  Apple 
II+/IIe.  Reitz  Video  Products,  Box  82,  Dear- 
born, MI  48121. 


Educational  programs  for  the  home  and  Drug 
Interaction  programs  for  the  health  professional. 
For  complete  information  please  write: 
1620  Ensenada  Dr.,  Modesto,  CA  95355. 


By  Richard  Voigt  MD,  In  Depth  Poisoning  is  a 
program  for  anyone  who  cares  for  children. 
3-week  money -back  guarantee.  Apple  11+ /He. 
48K  $39.95  +  $2.50  shipping.  Health  Ed  Soft- 
ware, Box  1209,  Fairfield,  IA  52556.  Upcom- 
ing topic  Headaches.  MC/Visa. 


Nearly  a  thousand  items,  mostly  education,  for 
grades  K-12.  Largely  APPLE  but  other  popular 
machines  represented  as  well.  Write  EAV  Inc., 
Pleasantville,  NY  10570  or  call  toll  free:  (800) 


Documented  public-domain  software,  send 
SASE  for  list.  Teacher's  Gradebook  2.0,  $25. 
Loan  Schedule,  $50.  Celestial  Software,  749  N. 
Clarkson,  Fremont,  NE  68025. 


gram that  allows  a  statistical  comparison  to  be 
made  between  brand  preferences  and  actual 
tasting  preferences.  Can  be  used  with  a  group  or 
individual.  A  good  party  program.  Printer  out- 
put is  optional.  Results  saved  to  disk.  $19.95. 
Requires  Apple  11+ /Be  and  1  drive.  TW2  Con- 
sulting, Box  1074,  Eagar,  AZ  85925. 


For  Spanish,  French,  German,  and  other  lan- 
guages. No  extra  hardware  required.  Apple 
11  + /lie.  Word  processor  and  educational  pro- 
grams. Free  catalog.  Le  Professeur,  959  NW 
53rd  St.,  Ft.  Lauderdale,  FL  33309;  (305) 


You  enter  test  (assgnmt)  score  -  It  gives  percent, 
grade,  and  "to  date"  grade,  percent,  and  point 
total.  You  select  %  cutoff  levels.  Four  different 
hard-copy  printouts  (1  to  post  selected  results). 
Sorts  &  Searches  on  all  fields.  Primarily  used 
w/up  to  15  grade  entries/semester.  $25.  L.F. 
Gaither,  3738  Thesta,  Fresno,  CA  93726;  (209) 

with  the  Apple's  Core  for  beginners  $49.95. 
To  learn  more  advanced  programming,  order 
Part  II:  The  Seed  $59.95.  Each  program,  con- 
tains 2  teaching  disks  +  an  instructional  man- 
ual. Add  $2  for  shipping.  Send  check/MO 
(COD  accepted).  Le  Professeur,  959  NW  53rd 
St.,  Ft.  Lauderdale,  FL  33309;  (305)  771-6498. 


Your  own  private  tutor  with  the  artificial  in- 
telligence to  help  you  study  any  subject.  You 
provide  the  content.  Mike  O'Tutor  helps  you 
study  and  makes  up  questions.  Send  $49.95  to 
WilloughbyWare,  RR  1,  Box  304,  Centerview, 
MO  64019;  (816)  732-5787. 

ARENA!  test  your  skill  in  the  ARENA.  A  hi- 
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the  enemy  (Fuzzy,  Polly,  Fuzzy  jr.)  get 
through;  each  time  you  do,  PULSAR,  the  mas- 
ter will  send  out  a  mine  to  increase  the  hazards 
of  the  ARENA.  Your  weapon  is  a  single  con- 
trol, four-gun  surround  for  Apple  II,  II +  , 
IIe/48K,  DOS  3.3  (requires  joystick  or  paddle). 
$29.95  postpaid  to  BORDER  SOFTWARE, 
BOX  66973,  Ste.  1153,  Houston,  TX  77006. 
Dealer  inquiries  welcome. 



Minute  Manual  for  Apple  Writer  He  $7.95 
Minute  Manual  for  Apple  Writer  n+  $7.95 
Apple  Writer  Glossary  Disk  $14.95 
Minute  Manual  for  DB  Master  (Ver  3)  $12.95 
Data  Disks  (2)  for  MM  for  DB  Master  $9.95 
Minute  Manual  for  PFS:  File/Report/Graph/ 
Write  (avail,  this  month)  $12.95 
Send  check  and  add  $1  S/H;  (301)  995-1166 
MinuteWare,  Box  2392,  Columbia,  MD  21045. 


Only  $30/yr  for  source,  brief  abstract  of  thou- 
sands of  Apple  II-relevant  magazine  refs  from 
USA,  UK,  Australia.  Categorized  and  listed  by 
key  words.  Airmail  update  SIX  times  a  year. 
Articles,  Utes,  Progs,  Reviews,  etc,  etc.  THIS 
$30  (U.S.  or  Australian)  bank  draft  to 
Daryl's  Apple  Digest,  26  Parslow  St.,  Malvern, 
Vic.  3144  Australia;  tel  +61-3-20-5950. 


$2.95  HINT  BOOKS.  Coded  clues, 
maps,  solutions:  Quest,  Infidel,  Death  Carib, 
Witnes,  Deadlin,  Starcros,  Transyl,  Drk  Crys, 
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Manor,  Missn  Astr,  Softporn,  Voodoo  Cstl,  Mys 
House,  Ulyses,  Pirat  Adv,  Advland,  or  send  20C 
stamp  for  free  clue  no  oblig.  Aspen  Apple  Soft- 
ware, Dept  S,  Box  1962,  Boulder,  CO  80306. 


Explains  this  integrated  software  system  for 
those  who  have  one  or  more  of  these  programs 
and  for  those  who  want  to  find  out  about  them. 
Quick  guide  to  over  50  step-by-step  procedures. 
Two  tutorials  for  business  and  education.  Many 
procedures  not  found  in  original  manual.  $12.95 
+  $1.  MinuteWare,  Box  2392,  Columbia,  MD 

(for  the  lie)  MADE  EASY" 

20  page  "plain  English"  booklets.  Formletters 
included.  Learn  to  use  in  one  sitting.  Specify. 
Send  $5.95  each  post-paid  (check  or  MO)  to  J. 
Mandell,  Box  7063,  Charlottesville,  VA  22906. 


Have  you  ever  wished  you  could  get  rid  of  them 
and  trade  them  in  for  one  of  your  favorites? 
Well,  your  dreams  have  been  answered!  Write 
to  us  requesting  free  information  about  our 
game  trading.  United  Apple  Game  Trades,  Box 
73-9,  Long  Beach,  CA  90808. 


Adventure  games  are  great  until  solved.  Arcade 
games  can  become  stale.  Now  exchange  your 
unwanted  games  for  ones  you  would  like  to 
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tion, a  list  of  five  games  for  us  to  make  your  ex- 
change from,  and  $5.50  to: 

National  Home  Computer  Game  Exchange 
Box  20285,  Columbus,  OH  43220. 

**$1.00— FREE!!! 

When  you  call 
(219)  534-1012 

Hoosier  Software 
Box  275,  Goshen,  IN  46526 


The  lowest  prices  on  games  like  Zaxxon  and 
Lode  Runner.  Also  Mazetron  for  $11 .95.  We 
have  it  all.  For  games  and  price  list  write  to 
P-Soft,  Box  354,  El  Segundo,  CA  90245. 


Not  using  that  Utility?  Tired  of  that  Game?  Ex- 
change it!  Send  MANUFACTURER'S  ORIGI- 
NAL disk,  instructions,  etc.  No  duplicated  disk 
or  photocopies  accepted.  Send  disk  with  three  to 
five  acceptable  exchanges  of  equal  dollar  value 
along  with  $6.  postage  and  handling  to 

Box  864930,  Piano,  TX  75086. 

SAVE  UP  TO  50%  ON 

Floppy  Disks 
&  Computer 

we  Discount  the  Top  Brands 
3M-Scotch    •  verbatim* 
Memorex  •  BASF  •  Maxell- 



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The  Best  In  Price, 
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SAKATA  13"0olor  Monitor  with 

full-year  warranty ... ^239 

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KOALA  PAD  w/Illustrator . . . ^79  JM 

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GOLD  DISK*"  Software 
Box  102 

Qlen  Arm,  Md.  21057 
TOLL  FREE  i-aoo-36e-22eo        FfeQ  Ca 

For  specific  software  no!  listed, 
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TransPak  I  -;p299 

lran^enu  it. 


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;  Pen  System  tor 
§  Apple  II  Computers 


Dollars  &  Sense  -  $69.95 
MasterType  -  $29.95 
HomeWord  -  $49.95 
PFS:File  -  $86.95 
For  a  complete  catalog  of  personal  and  small 
business  computer  software  and  hardware  at  ex- 
cellent prices,  write:  SBCC,  Box  1191,  Thou- 
sand Oaks,  CA  91360;  (805)  492-9391. 
Service  Is  Our  Motto! 


Krell  Logo  Koala  Pad 

Word  Attack!  Think  Tank 

New  Step  by  Step  Enchanter 
Just  a  sample  of  the  over  50  programs  on  special 
this  month.  All  our  other  programs  are  at  low, 
low  prices  too.  Call  or  write  for  our  free  price 
list.  Educators— ask  for  our  special  education 
edition.  Bytes  &  Pieces,  Box  525,  Dept.  S,  East 
Setauket,  NY  11733;  (516)  751-2535. 


RENT  today's  most  popular  software:  recrea- 
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FREE  brochure.  The  Soft  Source-R  Inc.,  Dept. 
J,  Box  2931,  Joliet,  IL  60434. 


Because  we're  keeping  our  overhead  low  so 
you'll  get  the  cheapest  software  prices.  Write 
for  our  free  catalog.  Alligator  Enterprises,  1 105 
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carry  business,  education,  and  entertainment 
software.  All  major  brands  are  available.  Call 
for  **FREE**  catalog.  (800)  345-8112.  In 
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Check  our  fantastic  prices!  Write  for  our 
**FREE**  price  list!  KERR  SOFTWARE,  box 
5301-ST,  Long  Beach,  CA  90805;  (213)  428- 
8193.  Source:  CL0854. 


RENT  APPLE  software  including  top  selling 
business  programs  and  games.  Rental  is  for  a 
2-WEEK  period  and  prices  are  approx.  1/5  of 
retail.  For  free  catalog  write:  BIG  BLUE  SOFT- 
WARE RENTALS  (Canada),  Box  15896  Sta- 
tion F,  Ottawa,  Ont  K2C  3S8. 


Step-by-step  disk-based  intro  to  sequential  text 
files  on  any  Apple  II.  Teaches  you  to  read, 
write,  use,  EXEC.  $25  (CA  add  tax).  Send 
check  to  Computer  Explanations,  2438  La  Con- 
desa  Dr.,  Los  Angeles,  CA  90049. 

!!  C  COMPILER  !! 

A  Compiler  for  only  $49.95!! 
Includes  macro  preprocessor,  conditional  com- 
pilation, and  more. . . . Major  subset  of  C  (no  reals 
or  structures).  Operates  under  Apple  Pascal  1.1 
(not  included).  Order  today.  Send  $49.95  +  $3 
P&H  to  THUNDER  SOFTWARE,  Box  31501, 
Houston,  TX  77231;  (713)  728-5501. 


For  the  11+ /lie:  Program  a  key  to  type  several 
characters  (function  keys),  use  your  APPLE 
while  it  is  printing  (spooler),  send  what  you  see 
on  the  screen  to  a  file.  $27.95.  For  the  He:  Turn 
the  extended  80-column  card  into  a  fast  126- 
block  RAMDISK  drive,  $19.95.  Source  in- 
cluded! David  Neves,  2801  Monroe  St.,  -2e, 
Madison,  WI  53711;  (608)  238-0020. 


Only  $23.50.  This  mnemonic  assembler  is  the 
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the  assembler.  Menu-driven.  All  for  only 
$23.50  +  $3  P&H.  Same-day  shipping.  Apple 
II  family  48K.  Thunder  Software,  Box  31501, 
Houston,  TX  77231;  (713)  728-5501.  Order  to- 
day. C  COMPILER  for  Apple  Pascal  $49.95. 

Softalk's  classified  advertising  section  offers 
a  considerably  less  expensive  way  than  normal 
display  advertising  to  reach  tens  of  thousands  of 
Apple  owners. 

Classified  advertising  space  is  available  at 
the  rate  of  $10  per  line  for  the  first  ten  lines, 
with  a  five-line  minimum.  Each  line  over  ten 
lines  is  $25  per  line. 

Heads  will  be  set  in  10-point  boldface,  all 
capitals  only.  Italics  are  available  for  body  text 
only;  please  underline  the  portions  you  would 
like  italicized. 

The  body  text  of  the  ad  will  hold  roughly  45 
characters  per  line.  Spaces  between  words  are 
counted  as  one  character.  Heads  will  hold 
roughly  24  characters  per  line,  with  spaces  be- 
tween words  counted  as  one  character.  Please 
indicate  if  you  would  like  the  head  centered  or 
run  into  the  text. 

Display  advertising  may  be  placed  in  the 
classified  section  at  $100  per  column  inch;  no 
advertising  agency  commisions  shall  be  granted 
on  such  advertising.  Ads  must  be  black  and 
white,  may  be  no  larger  than  Vi -page,  and  must 
fit  within  the  three-column  format. 

Ad  copy  for  classified  ads  and  camera-ready 
art  for  classified  display  advertising  should  be 
received  no  later  than  the  10th  of  the  second 
month  prior  to  the  cover  date  of  the  issue  in 
which  you  want  the  ad  to  appear.  Payment  must 
accompany  ad  copy  or  art. 

Please  call  or  write  for  additional  infor- 

Softalk  Classified  Advertising 
7250  Laurel  Canyon  Boulevard 
Box  60 

North  Hollywood,  CA  91603 
Attention:  Linda  McGuire  Carter 
(213)  980-5074 

DMP  Utilities 

"  ...  does  what  Apple  should  have  done  for  the  DMP  a  year  ai>o.  "(Somuc,  Ke» 

•  24  custom  fonts  for  your  Apple  DMP "  or  Imagewriter  "printer. 

•  Full  featured  font  editor  supports  proportional  and  variable  width  characters. 

•  User  friendly  selection  of  all  printer  features  plus  60  page  manual 

$50  from  your  dealer  or  postage  paid  directly  from  us.  Write  for  full  hardware 
character  fonts,  and  additional  information. 

Apple  Dot  Matrix  Printer.  Imagewriter,  and  Apple  are  trademarks  o*  Apple  Computer,  Inc 

ist,  examples  of 

Vilbcrg  Brothers  Computing,  PO  Box  79,  Mt.  Horeb,  WI  53572 

(608)  S74-6433  evenings  or  CompuServe  73765,124 


A  step-and-trace  utility  for  Applesoft  Basic. 
Traces  and  displays  actual  statements  and  varia- 
bles of  programs  while  they  are  running.  Com- 
pletely transparent;  does  not  interfere  with 
graphics,  text  display,  DOS,  or  I/O  commands. 
$44.95.  Nordic  Software  Inc.,  4910  Dudley, 
Lincoln,  NE  68504;  (402)  466-6502.  Visa/MC 


Turn  your  UCSD  Pascal  Editor  into  a  full-blown 
professional  word  processor/report  writer  simi- 
lar to  the  famous  UNIX™  NROFF  utility. 
Justifies,  centers  text;  multiline  headers  and 
footers;  automatic  page  and  section  numbering, 
table  of  contents,  and  index  generation.  Not 
copy  protected!  Send  $85  (or  Visa/MC)  to  DIG- 
ITRY  COMPANY,  INC.,  266  River  Rd., 
Edgecomb,  ME  04556. 

NO  MORE  POKE  33,33 

With  DOS  command  EDIT,  list  any  line,  cursor 
jumps  to  line  number  ready  for  editing.  This  and 
many  other  DOS  UTILITIES— change  DOS 
commands,  free  space  on  disk,  auto  patch  to 
DOS,  INIT  new  DOS  to  other  disks  without 
erasing,  more.  Also  DISK-ZAP:  read/write  any 
sector,  CAT-ZAP:  restore  deleted  files,  more. 
For  n+  (48K)  or  He,  $19.95.  University  Micro 
Software,  Box  723,  Natick,  MA  01760. 


Solve  complex  problems  efficiently,  and  save 
programming  time!  Adds  fast  matrix  functions 
to  Applesoft:  multiply,  INV,  DET,  TRN,  SYS, 
&  more.  Easy  to  use.  MATRIX  II  disk,  tutorial 
manual,  &  demo  programs,  $19.95.  Apple 
H+/48K  or  Be,  DOS  3.3.  LRS  Systems,  810  N. 
Seventh  St.,  St.  Charles,  MO  63301. 


Assembly  Libraries:  for  Videx  Videoterm  &  Ul- 
traterm  (all  modes);  at,  set  cursor,  &  attributes, 
fielded  screen  reads,  echo,  rdscreen,  slot3  .  .  . 
EXTENSIONS:  Str2int,  xlate,  verify,  strip,  addr, 
word/byte  peek/poke.  Generalized  QUICKSORT! 
MORE  .  .  .  $40.  For  complete  desc.  send  SASE 
to  RTSoftware,  Box  674,  Columbia,  MD  21045. 


40  Programs/60  cents  each.  Change  DOS  com- 
mands. Alphabetize  the  catalog.  Autonumber 
programs.  Graphically  display  disk  space  use. 
Recover  deleted  files.  Compact  disk  files  to  save 
space.  Read,  write,  &  edit  disk  contents.  32 
other  essential  tools.  PLUS  a  complete  text  file 
and  program  line  editor  and  a  chart  of  100  + 
peeks,  pokes,  &  calls.  $24  postage  paid.  Kodiak 
Associates,  Box  2731,  Decatur,  AL  35602. 


This  is  the  best  menu  generator  money  can  buy . 
Make  custom  menus  for  all  your  DOS  3.3  disks 
in  seconds.  E-Z  MENU  MAKER  will  generate 
sorted  menus  from  the  disk  catalog  automatical- 
ly. Upon  booting,  the  menu  will  run,  brun,  or 
exec  any  program  with  the  touch  of  a  key.  Pro- 
gram with  instruction  booklet  is  only  $14.95. 
NM  res  add  5  %  tax.  Send  check  or  M/O  to: 
TIPS,  Box  312-A,  Hobbs,  NM  88240. 


*Edit  Applesoft  programs  fast 
*User-modifiable  keyboard  macros 

♦Global  search  and  replace 
♦Supports  Apple  n  +  ,  Be,  Be  80-col. 
Send  $19.95  to  Cauldron,  Box  8227,  S.M.,  KS 
66208  (Kansas  residents  add  $.91  sales  tax). 


Catalog  of  LOW  cost  ($5-$20)  utilities.  All  with 
SOURCE  text.  Includes  print,  file,  input,  sort, 
&  others.  Kingdom  Computer  Concepts,  Box 
182,  St.  Johnsbury  Ctr.,  VT  05863. 

Word  Processing 


Contains  glossary  files  for  Epson  MX/FX, 
Gemini  10/10X,  Apple  DMP/Imagewriter, 
NEC,  Prowriter,  and  Okidata.  Access  any  print 
command  in  Apple  Writer  11+  or  He  with  a 
single  keystroke.  Underlining  and  superscripts 
on  Epson  MX  and  Gemini,  also  Sub/Super- 
scripts on  Apple  DMP  $14.95  +  $1  S/H. 
MinuteWare,  Box  2392,  Columbia,  MD  21045. 


Confused  about  getting  all  the  FX-80  print  op- 
tions to  work  when  using  Apple  Writer  Ilel  Our 
EPSON  GLOSSARY  makes  it  easy!  Just  load 
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+  $1  shipping.  (NYS  sales  add  sales  tax). 
AEROCAL,  Box  799,  Huntington,  NY  11743. 


Control  all  the  functions  of  your  Prowriter,  in- 
cluding: double  width,  boldface,  underline, 
pica,  elite,  proportional  compressed,  super- 
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easily.  $9.95— comes  on  disk,  with  complete  in- 
structions. Nerdworks,  195  23rd  NE,  Salem, 
OR  97301;  (503)  585-1373. 

MAY  1984 

tion  sounded  a  lot  more  impressive  than  man- 
ual. "Doc-yoo-men-tay-shun,"  he  thought. 
"Man-yoo-al. "  Hmm.  Five  syllables  versus 
three.  Better  check  this  one  out.  Here's  what  he 

"One  of  the  most  powerful  features  of  Docu- 
Writer  is  that  it  allows  the  user  to  move  blocks 
of  text  around  the  document  at  the  touch  of  a 
key.  Of  course,  we  at  DocuSoft  realize  that 
everyone  is  different,  so  that's  why  we  made 
each  command  key  customizable  by  the  user. 
Now,  it  may  take  a  little  getting  used  to,  but  I 
assure  you  that  DocuWriter  is  state-of-the-art 
word  processing,  offers  ease  of  use,  and  is  ex- 
tremely user-friendly . ' ' 

The  man  walked  away  from  this  booth,  too. 
DocuWriter  obviously  wasn't  for  him.  Based  on 
what  the  salesman  said,  it  was  probably  for  law- 
yers, politicians,  and  government  workers, 
whose  everyday  work  involves  documents.  It 
probably  wasn't  for  people  who  write  letters, 
school  papers,  business  reports,  and  office 
memorandums.  Or  was  it? 

Was  there  something  magical  about  this 
word  processor  that  could  turn  a  letter  into  a 
document?  He  thought  about  it  for  a  while. 

"Whatcha  doing,  honey?" 

"Oh,  just  writing  a  document  to  mom.  She 
says  she  just  loves  receiving  documents  from 

"How  nice.  That  reminds  me,  did  you  see 
the  nice  thank-you  document  we  received  from 
the  Gilmours?  They  said  the  blender  we  gave 
them  for  their  wedding  had  great  ease  of  use." 

Maybe  he  didn't  need  such  a  program.  On 
the  other  hand,  if  it  did  create  documents,  he 
wouldn't  need  a  lawyer  anymore;  he  could  just 
boot  up  the  program,  and  presto:  documents. 

If  nothing  else,  at  least  it  was  end  user- 
friendly.  He  surmised  that  the  term  meant 
"friendly  to  the  user."  What  if  a  nonuser  came 
along  and  tried  to  run  the  program?  That  would 
be  a  sight;  friendly  to  one  person,  hostile  and 
belligerent  to  the  next.  None  of  this  mattered, 
though.  He  wasn't  a  user.  If  he  were,  he'd  still 
be  back  at  the  MondoSoft  booth. 

Across  the  aisle  was  a  tiny  booth  that  didn't 
seem  to  be  displaying  any  software,  but  little 


The  Stating 
of  the  Art: 
A  User-Friendly 

Manufacturers  producing  floppies  and  friendly 
documentation  for  usering  often  access  confusing  on 
the  way  to  ease  of  use. 

At  the  West  Coast  Computer  Faire  last 
March,  a  man  stopped  at  one  of  the  booths  and 
asked  about  the  word  processor  on  display. 
Here's  what  he  was  told. 

"One  of  the  most  powerful  features  of  Mon- 
doWriter  is  that  it  allows  the  user  to  move 
blocks  of  text  around  the  document  at  the  touch 
of  a  key.  Of  course,  we  at  MondoSoft  realize 
that  everyone  is  different,  so  that's  why  we 
made  each  command  key  customizable  by  the 
user.  Now,  it  may  take  a  little  getting  used  to, 
but  I  assure  you  that  MondoWriter  is  state-of- 
the-art  word  processing,  offers  ease  of  use,  and 
is  extremely  user-friendly . ' ' 

The  man,  who  happened  to  be  a  human  be- 
ing and  wished  to  remain  one,  walked  away.  He 
didn't  walk  away  because  he  was  insulted  or  in- 
timidated. He  walked  away  because  the  product 
was  obviously  not  for  him.  It  was  for  something 
called  a  user.  Whatever  a  user  was,  certainly  he 
was  not  one.  The  word  sounded  like  it  meant 
"something  that  uses." 

Last  winter,  the  man's  daughter  was  used  by 
some  cradle  robber  at  her  high  school.  On  pub- 
lic television  the  night  before,  there  was  a  spe- 
cial about  cocaine  users.  And  that  day,  the  man 
could  have  used  his  car  to  get  to  the  Faire,  but 
he  drove  it  instead;  otherwise,  it  might  have 
turned  into  a  used  car  when  he  arrived.  Nope, 
he  wasn't  a  user. 

User  isn't  an  insulting  term,  just  an  awk- 
ward one.  Computer  enthusiasts  don't  often  call 

themselves  users,  but  they  don't  mind  being  re- 
ferred to  as  such.  Computer  clubs  have  names 
like  Mid  Valley  Apple  Users  Group,  but  you 
don't  hear  people  in  singles  bars  say,  "No  kid- 
ding, you're  a  user?  Wow,  I'm  a  user,  too!  Kar- 
ma." They'll  usually  say  something  just  as  bad: 
"I'm  into  computers,"  which  ranks  up  there 
with  "I'm  into  aerobics. "  (If  a  person  who  uses 
computers  is  a  user,  does  that  mean  a  person 
who  does  aerobics  is  a  doer?  Ugh.) 

It's  understandable  for  computer  hobbyists 
to  call  themselves  users.  But  what  is  it  that 
makes  writers  of  software  manuals  fall  in  love 
with  the  word?  There  must  be  some  inherent 
satisfaction  in  writing  sentences  like,  "The 
function  keys  are  user-definable,"  instead  of 
"You  can  change  the  function  keys." 

On  top  of  all  this  are  the  hardware  and  soft- 
ware producers  who  refer  to  their  customers  as 
end  users.  They  never  do  say  who  the  front,  be- 
ginning, or  middle  users  are.  But  that's  okay, 
just  as  long  as  their  products  are  end  user-de- 
finable or  end  user-friendly.  Which  brings  us 
back  to  our  man  at  the  Faire. 

MondoSoft  wasn't  satisfied  with  having  a 
product  that  was  easy  to  use;  its  software  devel- 
opers added  a  feature  to  boast  the  fact— ease  of 
use.  The  man  visiting  the  booth  assumed  this 
meant  the  program  wasn't  hard  to  use.  The 
toaster  he  bought  the  other  day  wasn't  hard  to 
use  either,  but  it  didn't  have  ease  of  use.  A 
smart  shopper  would  have  noticed  that  immedi- 
ately and  looked  for  a  toaster  that  had  it.  It  was 
hard  for  the  man  to  believe  that  some  software 
had  ease  of  use,  while  nothing  else  had  diffi- 
culty of  use.  "Ease  of  use,"  he  mumbled  to 
himself.  If  a  product  didn't  feature  those  three 
words,  it  wasn't  worth  buying. 

At  the  next  booth  the  man  met  a  slick- 
looking  salesman  with  a  forty-dollar  haircut, 
nice  shoes,  and  a  suit  that  was  cut  too  big. 

"If  you  have  any  questions,"  the  salesman 
said,  "just  take  a  look  at  our  user-friendly  docu- 
mentation." There  was  that  word  again. 

Now  the  man  was  confused.  All  the  software 
he  had  at  home  came  with  manuals.  Here  was 
one  that  actually  had  documentation.  He  wasn't 
sure  what  the  difference  was,  but  documenta- 

wooden  boxes  instead.  This  looked  like  a  safe 
booth  to  visit. 

"Hi,  we're  Disk  Philes,  and  we  manufac- 
ture storage  boxes  for  your  floppies.  Each  box 
accommodates  up  to  thirty  floppies  and  can  be 
expanded  to  hold  increments  of  fifteen  flop- 

So  much  for  safe.  Whatever  a  floppy  was, 
he  didn't  have  any.  He  had  floppy  disks,  but 
nothing  called  floppies.  Only  later  did  he  realize 
the  woman  at  the  booth  meant  floppy  disk  when 
she  said  floppy.  He  didn't  need  such  a  box,  but 
it  did  remind  him  to  pick  up  some  legals  and 
scratches  from  the  stationery  store  on  his  way 
home.  May  as  well  get  some  fountains,  felts, 
and  ballpoints  that  write  in  erasable,  too. 

The  man  avoided  entirely  the  Word-for- 
Word  booth,  which  was  exhibiting  diskettes.  He 
didn't  need  any  diskettes,  because  he  didn't 

have  a  diskette  drivette.  Diskettes,  he  figured, 
must  have  gotten  their  name  because  they're 
smaller  than  industrial-sized  eight-inch  disks. 
So  what  does  that  make  the  3  1/2-inch  ones  that 
go  with  Apple's  Macintosh?  Diskettettes? 

It  was  time  to  go.  On  the  way  out,  the  man 
was  stopped  by  someone  handing  out  pamphlets 
describing  a  "new  state-of-the-art  product." 
Thank  goodness  for  that.  If  there's  anything  the 
computer  world  doesn't  need,  it's  old  state-of- 
the-art  products.  Maybe  that  should  be  former 
state  of  the  art  or  state  of  the  old  art.  Most  of  the 
exhibitors  at  the  Faire  said  their  products  were 
state  of  the  art.  If  that  were  true,  every  product 
would 've  been  as  good  as  every  other  one.  And 
that  obviously  wasn't  true. 

According  to  the  person  handing  out  the 
pamphlets,  the  product  was  a  "state-of-the-art 
business  package"  that  offered  spreadsheet,  da- 

tabase, and  word  processing  capabilities  in  one 
program,  on  a  single  disk. 

The  state  of  the  artfulness  of  the  program 
was  that  "all  programs  reside  in  memory  at 
once,  reducing  the  necessity  of  having  to  access 
the  disk." 

"Is  this  true?"  he  asked  the  woman  with  the 

"Yes;  the  program  accesses  the  disk  only 
for  data  retrieval.  It  never  needs  to  access  the 
program  disk." 

As  the  man  walked  out  the  door  (or  accessed 
the  exit),  he  thought  to  himself,  "Access  the 
disk."  Was  that  like  combinationing  a  lock, 
oven  mittening  a  pot,  and  drivewaying  the  ga- 
rage? It  gave  him  something  to  think  about  as  he 
free  way  ed,  avenued,  and  streeted  home. 

He  forgot  to  stop  at  the  cleaners  to  pick  up 
his  monogrammeds.  —Matthew  Yuen 


DOS:  Apple's 
Unsung  Champion 

It 's  popular  to  knock  DOS,  but  Woz 's  elegant, 
powerful  workhorse  keeps  surprising  us. 

Wilt  Chamberlain  sounded  a  plaintive  note 
last  month  when  Kareem  Abdul-Jabbar  broke 
his  all-time  NBA  scoring  record.  He  pointed  out 
that  nobody  made  any  hoopla  over  his  record 
while  he  was  setting  it  and  that  it  was  only  one 
of  dozens  that  he  holds. 

Chamberlain  also  bewailed  the  general  con- 
sensus that  Bill  Russell  was  a  better  player  than 
he,  asserting  that  if  rebounding  records  had 
been  kept  during  his  career,  he'd  lead  in  that 
category  and  he  might  even  lead  in  blocked 

It  was  kind  of  bemusing  to  watch  Chamber- 
lain make  a  valiant  attempt  to  be  a  good  sport 
about  his  record  being  broken.  But  even  with 
that  record  gone,  nobody  thinks  Chamberlain  is 
the  Rodney  Dangerfield  of  professional  basket- 

There  are  lots  of  parallels  to  Chamberlain's 
situation  of  being  relatively  unappreciated.  Bea- 
trice spent  millions  of  dollars  on  advertising 
during  the  Winter  Olympics  to  raise  the  con- 
sciousness of  the  populace  to  the  parent  com- 
pany of  such  famous  brand  names  as  Samsonite. 

The  Apple  II  computer  has  its  own  valuable 
but  reasonably  unappreciated  player.  It's  the 
disk  operating  system,  known  as  DOS.  For 
those  of  you  new  to  computing,  that  sounds  like 
floss  and  not  like  gross.  What  DOS  does  is  in- 

struct the  computer  how  to  store  and  retrieve 
files  from  the  disk.  Lots  of  folks  like  to  put  the 
knock  on  DOS.  It's  too  slow,  it's  too  limited,  it 
can't  do  sophisticated  tasks. 

Apple  itself  seems  to  have  sided  to  some  de- 
gree with  the  critics  by  bringing  out  ProDOS, 
which  is  theoretically  a  stronger,  more  versatile 
operating  system  that  will  aid  business  applica- 
tion developers.  In  addition,  it  will  recognize 
Apple  in  data  files. 

But  for  those  of  us  who  have  come  to  know 
and  love  DOS,  all  this  criticism  is  just  so  much 
misplaced  bushwa.  The  number  of  programs 
that  got  their  start  under  DOS  is  too  long  to  in- 
clude, but  start  with  VisiCalc,  DB  Master, 
Home  Accountant,  MasterType,  Ultima  III, 
Choplifter,  and  Sargon.  That's  an  incredible 
range  of  product,  both  in  complexity  of  effort 
and  in  diversity  of  application,  that  all  function 
under  DOS. 

DOS  was  the  brainchild  of  Steve  Wozniak. 
It's  told  that  Wozniak  labored  twenty-four 
straight  hours  on  the  project,  after  which  it  was 
essentially  what  you  see  today.  That's  probably 
apocryphal,  but  it's  too  good  a  story  to  debunk. 

If  you  think  Apple  DOS  is  slow,  try  a  com- 
parable program  on  the  Commodore  64.  If  you 
think  DOS  is  unsophisticated,  try  some  of  your 
favorite  tricks  on  an  Atari  800.  If  you  think  MS- 
DOS  is  the  bee's  knees,  ponder  the  benchmark 
test  published  in  Interface  Age,  when  a  typical 
set  of  accounting  functions  took  twice  as  long 
on  the  IBM  Personal  Computer. 

Softalk  processed  its  circulation  records  on 
Apple  II  computers  for  the  first  thirty  months  of 
its  existence.  When  the  time  came  to  change 
over  to  a  minicomputer,  the  circulation  list  was 
157,000  records  strong.  It  was  no  fun  to  handle 
that  many  records  on  the  Apple  II ,  but  with  the 

help  of  three  hard  disks,  it  was  possible. 

A  look  at  the  print  program  that  generated 
four-up  Cheshire  labels  for  Softalk' s  monthly 
mailing  gives  an  indication  of  the  complexity 
available  under  the  DOS  umbrella. 

When  the  print  program  was  run,  three  aux- 
iliary data  files  were  opened.  One  read  into 
memory  the  list  of  circulation  codes  that  were 
current.  A  second  file,  which  was  read  as  the 
printing  progressed,  listed  all  single  zip  codes  in 
which  there  were  six  or  more  subscribers.  A 
third  file,  likewise  read  progressively  during 
the  run,  listed  all  multiple  zip-code  cities  in 
which  there  were  six  or  more  subscribers. 

In  addition,  of  course,  the  program  walked 
across  more  than  three  hundred  data  files  that 
were  strung  out  across  three  hard  disks. 

As  the  program  worked,  it  would  look  at  the 
code  in  each  record,  compare  it  to  the  list  read 
into  memory,  and  make  a  print  or  no-print 
determination.  If  the  determination  was  made  to 
print  the  record,  the  codes  were  analyzed  to  de- 
termine if  a  legend  should  be  written  on  the  la- 
bel (many  of  you  first  received  Softalk  with  a 
legend  stating  that  your  subscription  was  spon- 
sored by  your  local  retail  store  or  by  a  software 
publisher).  Then  the  zip  code  was  compared 
against  both  the  single  zip-code  file  and  the  mul- 
tiple zip-code  file  to  determine  if  the  printed  la- 
bel should  be  marked  as  belonging  in  one  or 
both  of  those  categories. 

Once  that  determination  was  made,  the  label 
was  printed  to  paper  and  the  zip  code  of  the  la- 
bel was  incremented  by  one  in  a  file  that  was  be- 
ing created  as  printing  took  place.  The  end  out- 
put consisted  of  the  mailing  labels  and  a  DOS 
text  file  containing  a  listing  of  the  number  of 
copies  sent  to  each  zip  code. 

The  DOS  text  file  was  then  converted  to  an 
Apple  in  file,  and  postal  reports  were  generated 
using  data  stored  on  a  ProFile  hard  disk. 

The  point  of  all  this  is  the  complexity  of  the 
overall  effort.  An  Apple  II  was  capable  of  print- 
ing different  data  to  two  different  output  devices 
while  reading  simultaneously  from  three  files 
and  holding  a  fourth  file  in  memory. 

How  fast  was  it?  The  Apple  II  had  to  wait 
for  an  Epson  100.  When  it  was  linked  to  a  high- 
speed serial  printer  (a  Printronix  six-hundred- 
line-per-minute  printer),  it  could  drive  the  print- 
er at  about  one  hundred  fifty  lines  per  minute. 

The  print  program  was  the  genius  of  Ken 
Williams  of  Sierra  On-Line,  who  threw  it  off  in 
about  twelve  hours  and  spent  about  four  hours 
subsequently  smoothing  it  out. 

That's  one  of  the  beauties  of  DOS;  it's  easy 
to  understand  and  easy  to  implement  for  those 
reasonably  conversant  with  its  intricacies.  And 
it's  certainly  versatile  enough  for  most  applica- 

We  all  appreciate  the  special  genius  Wozni- 
ak demonstrated  in  designing  the  Apple  II .  Now 
it's  time  to  pay  homage  to  his  efforts  in  creating 
DOS.  It's  a  marvelous  tool— versatile  and  un- 

The  line's  been  stolen  so  many  times  that  the 
author  has  passed  into  anonymity.  But  it  could 
just  as  well  have  been  written  about  DOS  as  the 
other  products  to  which  it's  been  applied. 

Simplicity  is  the  ultimate  sophistication. 

—Al  Tommervik 


WleeklyReader  m 
Family  Software  1 

A  division  of  Xerox  Education  Publications 
Middletown.CT  06457 

Beach  landing  is  a  registered  trademark  of  Optimum  Resource.  Inc 
Apple  is  a  registered  trademark  oi  Apple  Computer.  Inc.  Atari  is  a 



MAY  1984 


A  Simple  Trick 

To  Improve 
dBase  Formats 

How  to  get  cleaner  reports  when  using  the  well-known 
CP/M  relational  database. 

dBase  II  can  be  a  very  powerful  database 
management  system.  The  basic  structure  of  the 
program  is  simple.  To  create  a  database,  you 
enter  the  name  of  the  field,  the  number  of 
characters  in  that  field,  and  the  type  of  field 
(numeric,  character,  or  logical).  If  necessary, 
enter  the  number  of  decimal  places  for  each  ap- 
propriate field. 

The  report  formats  are  also  simple.  For  each 
column  of  data,  you  enter  the  width  of  the  col- 
umn, the  field  name,  and  the  heading  for  that 
particular  column. 

Because  dBase  II  is  so  simple,  it's  limited. 
As  a  result,  the  majority  of  its  users  resort  to 
programming.  By  writing  programs  and  inte- 
grating them  with  the  original  database,  users 
make  the  program  limitless. 

Programming  can  be  fun  and  productive  if 
you're  interested  in  it  and  have  some  program- 
ming experience.  But  if  you  aren't  a  program- 
mer and  aren't  inclined  to  be  one,  how  do  you 
get  what  you  want  out  of  the  program  and  the 

There  are  commands  in  dBase  II  that  can 
work  wonders  for  you.  Consider  one  of  the 
most  common  problems  experienced  in  dBase, 
that  of  column  headings.  A  work  report  from 
Hot  Air  Appliance  Repair  illustrates  this. 

There  are  basically  four  matters  of  concern 
here:  The  column  headings  are  not  neat,  but 
sloppy  and  nonconforming;  the  column  heads 

are  too  close  together;  extra  lines  have  been  in- 
serted between  some  of  the  column  headings 
and  the  underlining;  and  the  headings  do  not  ap- 
pear to  be  centered  above  the  text. 

This  report  was  not  the  result  of  a  user  error. 
You  can  get  the  same  results  by  following  the 
directions  in  the  dBase  II  manual.  That  is  per- 
haps what  makes  it  so  frustrating:  You're  doing 
exactly  what  you  should  do,  but  the  results  are 

But  take  heart.  There  is  a  solution— without 

Log  on  to  dBase  II,  set  the  default  to  B  if 
necessary,  and  enter: 



001  DATE:RPT,C,8 

002  DATE:SVC,C,8 

003  EQUIPMENT, C, 15 

004  PROBLEM, C, 20 

005  TECHNICIAN, C, 10 

006  WORK, C, 20 

007  FOLLOW:UP,C,15 

008  < RETURN > 

This  gives  a  sample  database  to  illustrate  the  re- 
port commands  necessary  for  generating  the 
beautiful  report  you  want.  If  you  enter  the 
records  shown  in  Hot  Air's  report,  you'll  be 

able  to  print  out  a  sample  report  after  com- 
pleting the  following  exercise. 

After  adding  the  records,  press  control-W 
simultaneously  to  save  the  records  and  return  to 
the  dot  prompt.  Then  type: 


You'll  have  a  chance  to  change  the  left 
margin,  the  number  of  lines  per  page,  or  the 
width  of  the  report.  For  the  moment,  type: 

W  =  120 





Now  you  can  enter  the  information  required 
to  create  the  first  column.  There  are  three  prob- 
lems with  this  column  in  Hot  Air's  original  re- 
port: The  heading  isn't  centered,  there's  an 
extra  line  in  between  the  heading  and  the 
underlining,  and  the  whole  thing's  too  close  to 
the  next  column.  To  correct  these  problems,  we 
must  understand  why  they  occurred. 

In  fact,  the  heading  is  centered— but  over  the 
whole  column  rather  than  just  the  text.  It  ap- 
pears off-center  because  all  the  text  is  flush  left. 
Because  it's  easier  to  change  the  format  of  the 
heading  than  that  of  the  text,  we'll  trick  our 
eyes  into  thinking  the  heading  is  centered  by 
making  it  flush  left,  too.  This  is  accomplished 
by  using  the  less  than  ( < )  when  entering  the 

The  reason  for  the  extra  line  between  the 
heading  and  the  underlining  is  simple.  There 
are  eight  characters  in  the  field.  There  are  also 
eight  characters  in  the  word  reported.  Whenev- 
er the  title  uses  all  the  character  spaces  allowed 
in  its  field,  the  program  automatically  sends  a 
carriage  return  to  the  printer.  The  situation  is 
easily  remedied  by  lengthening  the  field. 

Lengthening  the  field  solves  the  third  prob- 
lem by  widening  the  space  between  the  col- 
umns. The  number  of  characters  you  add  to  the 
field  is  up  to  you.  For  this  example,  use  two 
spaces.  At  the  prompt,  type: 
















Figure  1.  Hot  Air  Appliance  Repair,  Inc. 







1/20/84  1/22/84  DRYER  NOT  DRYING 

1/20/84  1/23/84  REFRIGERATOR  NOT  COOLING 

1/21/84  1/25/84  WASHER  NO  HOT  WATER 

1/22/84  1/25/84  REFRIGERATOR  NOT  COOLING 









Figure  2.  Cool  Breeze  Appliance  Repair,  Inc. 

The  Be 

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provide  clear,  meaningful  comparisons. 


-aa .  3i 

■  fnr  the  IBM-PC  and  APPLEII_ 

Comparisons  of  Apple,  Commodore,  Digital,  Honeywell  and  IBM  on  price,  PE 
ratio,  %  Changes  in  Sales  and  Earnings.Recent  Data.  Plotted  in  30  seconds. 

You  be  the  judge... send  for  our 
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•  Perform  simple  or  complex  'screens' 
to  find  certain  kinds  of  companies. 
In  less  than  30  seconds,  you  can  match 
criteria  of  your  own  choosing  against 
companies  in  the  database  to  find  only 
those  that  "fit."  Request  large 
companies  with  stable  earnings  and  low 
P-E  ratios... or,  if  you're  more  aggres- 
sive, relatively  small  companies  with 
impressive  sales  and  earnings  perfor- 
mance. Request  only  companies  in 
certain  industries... or  companies  with 
low  prices  and  high  betas.  You  can 
easily  customize  information  items, 
criteria  sets  and  report  formats  to  suit 
your  own  preference. 

No  printed  description  can  do  justice 
to  the  performance  of  Stockpak  II.  So 
we've  prepared  a  demonstration  disk- 
ette to  show  you  why  and  how  our 
software  can  help  you  make  better 
investment  decisions. 

Send  for  STOCKPAK  li  s  Demon- 
stration Kit.  It's  just  $10.00. 
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Type  of  computer 

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diskette  @  $10.00. 

□  I'm  convinced.  I  wish  to  subscribe  to  Stock- 
pak II  now  on  a  money-back-if-not  satisfied 
basis.  I  get  your  Program  Diskette  plus 
12  monthly  Database  Diskettes  for  the 
annual  subscription  price  listed  below. 

□  COMPOSITE  (1,500  leading  companies 
from  the  NYSE.  ASE  and  OTC).  $275.00 

□  ALL- NYSE  (about  1,500  com- 
panies]. $275.00 

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companies).  $520.00 

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&  Poor's) 

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bill  you  for  applicable  sales  tax.  Apple  II  is  a  registered 
trademark  of  Apple  Computer,  Inc.  YD4-S018 


MAY  1984 

0  F  T  A  L  K  # 


and  enter: 


For  the  heading,  enter: 



The  system  automatically  breaks  between 
the  words  date  and  reported,  because  it 
recognizes  that  both  words  won't  fit  on  the 
same  line  within  the  allotted  character  spaces. 
You  also  want  the  underlining  to  be  printed  on  a 
separate  line,  so  you  must  send  a  command  to 
the  printer  to  indicate  this. 

The  semicolon  (;)  performs  this  function. 
Whenever  the  system  encounters  a  semicolon,  it 
commands  the  printer  to  perform  a  carriage  re- 
turn. To  ensure  that  the  report  appears  the  way 
you  want,  place  semicolons  wherever  you  de- 
sire carriage  returns.  The  semicolon  between 
the  words  date  and  reported  ensures  consisten- 
cy from  one  report  to  the  next;  the  one  between 
reported  and  the  dashes  ensures  that  the  word 
reported  will  be  underlined. 

Enter  the  less  than  sign  ( < )  as  the  first 
character  of  a  heading  to  indicate  that  all 
characters  following  on  the  same  line  should  be 
flush  left.  This  is  the  same  line  as  the  command, 
not  necessarily  the  same  line  on  the  report. 

Now  let's  enter  the  second  column: 

002  10,DATE:SVC  <  RETURN  > 


You  enter  this  column  in  the  same  manner  as 
the  first  one  for  virtually  the  same  reasons. 
Entering  the  width  of  the  field  as  ten  characters 
instead  of  eight  leaves  two  additional  blank 
spaces  between  this  column  and  the  next  one. 
The  heading  is  flush  left  (the  less  than  sign),  and 
the  semicolons  indicate  carriage  returns,  ensur- 
ing that  the  title  encompasses  three  lines. 

If  you  were  to  print  out  these  two  fields  right 
now,  you'd  see  that  the  underlining  appears  on 
the  same  line.  However,  the  next  column  has  a 
unique  problem. 

The  third  column  only  encompasses  two 
lines:  the  word  equipment  on  one  line  and  the 
underlining  on  the  second  line.  If  you  enter  the 
third  column  like  the  first  and  second,  the 
underlining  will  be  uneven.  This  is  unaccept- 

Again,  the  solution  is  simple.  Merely  use  the 
semicolon  to  enter  a  carriage  return  before  the 
heading  begins.  Type  the  information: 




The  field  width  is  now  lengthened  by  two 
characters  just  as  in  the  first  two  columns.  The 
less  than  sign  indicates  that  the  title  is  to  be  flush 
left.  The  semicolon  sends  a  carriage  return  to 
the  printer,  ensuring  that  the  word  equipment  is 
placed  on  the  same  line  as  reported  and  service 
and  that  the  underlining  for  column  3  is  on  the 
same  line  as  for  columns  1  and  2. 

Enter  the  fourth  column  just  like  the  third: 

004  22, PROBLEM  <  RETURN  > 



The  next  column  presents  the  same  problem 
as  the  first  one.  Because  the  word  technician  is 
ten  characters  and  the  width  of  the  field  is  also 
ten  characters,  an  extra  carriage  return  is  in- 
serted. Again,  lengthen  the  field  width.  Since 
the  heading  will  encompass  three  lines,  no 
preceding  semicolons  are  necessary.  Enter: 

005  12.TECHNICIAN  <  RETURN  > 


 < RETURN > 

Enter  the  sixth  and  seventh  columns  like  col- 
umns three  and  four: 

006  22.WORK  <  RETURN  > 


  < RETURN > 

007  15, FOLLOW: UP  <  RETURN  > 



The  last  field  needs  no  additional  character 
spaces  because  it's  the  last  column.  Press  return 
at  column  008  and  the  report  should  begin  to 

The  report  should  look  like  Cool  Breeze  Ap- 
pliance Repair's  report. 

You  can  experiment  with  underlining, 
semicolons,  and  heading  formats  to  produce  the 
reports  you  require. 

Underlining,  for  instance,  does  not  have  to 
end  at  the  last  character  of  the  title,  but  can  con- 
tinue for  the  width  of  the  field.  Just  remember 
not  to  place  a  character  in  the  last  character 
space  of  the  field  or  you'll  get  that  unwanted 
carriage  return. 

You  can  use  semicolons  in  text  to  ensure 
carriage  returns.  For  instance,  if  you're  adding 
records  and  entering  information  in  a  long  field 
(such  as  a  description),  you  may  want  a  single 
phrase  to  stand  out.  By  entering  a  semicolon 
before  and  after  that  phrase,  you'll  be  placing  it 
on  a  line  by  itself  when  the  report  prints. 

Since  text  is  always  flush  left,  it's  usually 
best  to  make  the  column  titles  flush  left  too. 
However,  numbers  are  always  flush  right,  and, 
unless  the  title  is  flush  right  also,  it  won't  ap- 
pear to  be  in  the  same  column.  Make  titles  flush 
right  by  entering  the  greater  than  sign  ( > ).  For 
a  description  field,  you  may  wish  to  center  the 

To  modify  this  sample  report,  type: 

The  suffix,  .FRM,  must  appear  after  the  file 
name  in  order  to  modify  a  report.  When  the  re- 
port appears  on  the  screen,  you  scroll  to  the  line 
you  wish  changed  and  alter  it  with  the  same  edit 
keys  you'd  use  to  edit  records. 

Through  simple  commands,  the  report 
generator  becomes  a  much  more  powerful  tool. 
Without  programming.      —Trish  McClelland 


Happiness  Is  an 


The  results  of  De-war's  study  of  people  in  the 
computer  industry  might  cause  lines  in  its  personnel 
offices— if  it  had  personnel  offices. 

I'm  not  a  drinker.  My  forays  into  the  realm 
of  hard  liquor  have  left  me  sick  and  exhausted 
and  repentant  and  in  debt. 

My  only  connection  with  the  Dewar's  com- 
pany, makers  of  Dewar's  White  Label  Scotch, 
is  a  series  of  magazine  advertisements  known  as 
Dewar's  Profiles,  which  depict  interviews  of 
young  successful  professionals  and  determine 
why  it  is  that  they  do  such  and  such  and  how 
compatible  their  lives  are  with  Scotch. 

Dewar's  profiles  are  expanding.  The  com- 
pany has  begun  a  series  of  booklets  known  as 
"The  Dewar's  Profiles  of  Americans  at 
Work,"  based  on  interviews  of  members  of 
various  professions.  One  report  in  the  series 
was  entitled  "Dewar's  Career  Profile:  Com- 
puter Professionals,"  and  the  findings  are 
worth  examining. 

The  Dewar's  report  focuses  on  "six  differ- 
ent types  of  computer  professionals":  educators, 
systems  analysts,  computer  programmers,  data 
processing  consultants,  entrepreneurs,  and  com- 
puter sales  or  marketing  personnel.  Among  the 
more  interesting  findings  is  that  70  percent  of 
those  interviewed  said  they  are  "very  satisfied" 
with  their  jobs,  24  percent  are  "somewhat  satis- 

fied," and  only  6  percent  were  either  "not  very 
satisfied"  or  "very  dissatisfied." 

In  addition,  the  Dewar's  profile  groups  com- 
puter professionals  into  three  work  types— com- 
puterholics  (a  dicey  term  for  somebody  in  the 
liquor  business),  overtimers,  and  nine-to-fivers. 
The  largest  group  is  the  overtimers,  who  com- 
prised 57  percent  of  those  responding.  They  are 
described  as  those  who  work  forty-one  to  forty- 
nine  hours  per  week,  occasionally  on 
weekends.  The  next  largest  group  is  the  com- 
puterholics,  defined  as  those  who  work  at  least 
fifty  hours  per  week  and  frequently  work  on 
weekends.  They  comprised  22  percent  of  those 

Upon  reviewing  these  two  sets  of  statistics, 
it  is  apparent  that,  while  nearly  80  percent  of 
people  who  work  with  computers  work  more 
than  forty  hours  per  week,  most  people  who 
work  with  computers  are  very  satisfied  with 
their  jobs.  Sure,  you  say,  of  course:  If  you  like 
your  job  you're  willing  to  work  overtime. 

If  they  simply  liked  their  jobs  more  than 
they  might  like  other  jobs,  it  would  explain  why 
they  have  the  jobs  they  do,  why  they  stay  in  the 
jobs  they  do  for  long  periods  of  time,  and  even 


MAY  1984 

why  they  will  go  to  lengths  to  keep  their  jobs- 
including  working  some  overtime.  But  so  many 
computer  professionals  put  in  so  much  overtime 
that  they  can't  just  be  doing  jobs  they  prefer  to 
other  jobs.  They  must  prefer  their  jobs  to  their 
non-work-related  activities.  Many  work  over- 
time not  because  they  have  to  do  so  to  get  the 
job  done,  but  because  they  like  what  they  are 
doing  more  than  they  like  doing  other  things. 

The  respondents  were  asked  how  greatly 
they  value  their  leisure  time.  The  majority— 55 
percent — said  their  leisure  time  was  very  impor- 
tant. But  if  they  place  such  a  high  value  on  their 
leisure  time,  why  don't  they  take  more  of  it? 
The  Dewar's  poll  further  asked  what  rewards 
they  seek  in  their  leisure-time  activities.  Relaxa- 
tion was  the  most  common  response.  Every- 
body has  to  sleep  sometime. 

Okay,  that's  an  exaggeration,  but  the  point 
is  that  computer  professionals  are  finding  many 
of  life's  rewards  in  their  work,  and  when  they 
are  not  working  they  are  more  than  likely  just 
relaxing  rather  than  pursuing  some  demanding 
hobby  or  developing  an  athletic  expertise. 

Job  satisfaction  is  subjective;  the  Dewar's 
report  factors  satisfaction  into  halves:  work  ex- 
perience (what  happens  at  work,  not  work 
history)  and  expectations  brought  to  the  job.  As 
far  as  expectations  go,  people  who  work  with 
computers  by  and  large  know  what  they  are  get- 
ting into  before  they  get  into  it.  Computer  sci- 
ence courses  in  colleges  are  legendary  for  being 
time-consuming.  Patience  and  a  willingness  to 
work  overtime  are  bred  in  such  classes — or  per- 
haps it's  just  that  those  without  the  required  pa- 
tience and  enthusiasm  are  weeded  out  and  en- 
couraged to  investigate  liberal  arts  fields.  When 
students  of  computer  science  are  finally  em- 
ployed, they  expect  to  work  a  lot. 

For  expectations  concerning  career  advance- 
ment, Dewar's  reports  that  54  percent  of  those 
polled  are  "at  least  as  far  along  as  expected" 
when  they  began  their  careers,  and  28  percent 
are  "even  further  along."  That  comes  to  82 
percent  who  are  at  least  as  successful  as  they  ex- 
pected to  be. 

Work  experience  is  broken  down  by  Dewar's 
as  the  product  of  "meaningfulness,  responsi- 
bility, and  knowledge  of  results."  No  argu- 
ment, but  do  meaningfulness,  responsibility, 
knowledge  of  results,  acceptable  career  growth, 
and  fulfilled  expectations  fully  explain  why 
computer  professionals  are  long-working  and 
satisfied  people?  Or  is  something  more  in- 

An  economist  would  say  yes,  money.  In- 
deed, there  have  been  instances  of  computer 
scientists  turning  out  unbelievably  advanced 
ideas  or  products  and  reaping  equally  unbelieva- 
ble rewards.  Computer  money  is  like  entertain- 
ment money— sports  money,  movie  money,  that 
kind  of  thing— it  is  highly  visible  but  hard  to  get 
a  hold  of.  If  computer  scientists  and  business- 
people  went  into  computer  fields  strictly  for  the 
money,  most  of  them  would  have  given  up  by 
now.  Although  people  in  computer-related  pro- 
fessions are  generally  assured  of  a  comfortable 
income — even  those  who  work  forty  or  fewer 
hours  a  week— they  have  no  assurance  of 
wealth.  Their  overtime  is  not  motivated  by 

If  money  has  any  involvement  at  all,  it  is  that 
the  computer  profession  has  enough  money 
available  to  investigate  new  avenues,  try  new 
tactics,  enjoy  the  childishness  of  secrecy.  Peo- 
ple in  computer  fields  often  have  the  resources 
to  do  what  they've  always  wanted  to  do  in  their 
garages  but  could  not  afford.  Which  raises  the 

interesting  point  that  many  computer  profes- 
sionals are  doing  at  work  what  they  would  other- 
wise be  doing  at  home  as  a  hobby,  and  that 
many  nonprofessionals  are  just  as  devoted  to 
their  avocational  computing. 

There  is  a  last  factor,  however,  that  perhaps 
best  explains  the  results  of  the  Dewar's  profile, 
and,  in  addition,  helps  to  explain  why  computer 
amateurs — hobbyists,  hackers,  gamers,  and  gen- 
eral muckers-about— can't  wait  to  get  home 
from  their  forty  hours  a  week  and  put  forty 
more  in  on  their  computers:  play. 

Computers— especially  micros— are  fun. 
They  are  fun  to  work  with  because  they  repre- 
sent such  a  leap  over  the  tools  that  used  to  be  so 
prevalent.  They  provide  an  avenue  for  great  in- 
ventiveness because  they  are  new — for  comput- 
er applications,  imagination  is  the  only  limit.  In 
some  ways  that  has  always  been  the  message  of 
the  magazine  you  are  reading. 

Computers  bring  the  fun  of  toys  to  the  work- 
place. They  are  like  Tinker  Toys  or  Erector 
Sets— they  represent  an  almost  limitiess  poten- 
tial. Devise  a  simpler  user  interface;  draw  a  bet- 
ter hi-res  picture;  create  a  better  sound.  Make  it 
faster,  give  it  a  better  memory,  sell  it  for  less. 
Computer  scientists  and  businesspeople  thrive 
on  challenge.  Give  them  a  problem  and  stand 
back.  Or  risk  becoming  part  of  the  solution; 
they'll  use  whatever's  at  hand. 

Fantasies  come  alive  in  the  computer  indus- 
try. Images  of  recluses  working  singly  for  long 
hours,  cloistered  in  darkened  offices  poring 
over  cryptic  mathematic  formulas  or  sounding 
the  depths  of  language  intricacies  in  order  to 
devise  a  better  game  are  not  only  common,  they 
are  true. 

Also,  because  it  is  young  and  because  it 
sprang  forth  in  California,  the  microcomputer 
industry  is  fun.  The  competition  makes  such 
childlike  things  as  secrecy  and  espionage  possi- 
ble. For  example,  a  feeling  of  electricity 
sparked  the  air  just  before  Apple  unveiled  the 

In  his  book  on  stimulating  creativity  in  the 
business  environment,  A  Whack  on  the  Side  of 
the  Head,  Roger  van  Oech  writes,  "I've  no- 
ticed that  a  fun  working  environment  is  much 
more  productive  than  a  routine  environment. 
People  who  enjoy  their  work  will  come  up  with 
more  ideas.  The  fun  is  contagious,  and  every- 
body works  harder  to  get  a  piece  of  that  fun." 

Dewar's  quotes  Ed  Young,  a  systems 
development  manager  at  National  Advanced 
Systems  and  one  of  their  respondents,  under  the 
heading  of  "Personal  Motivation:  Career  Goals 
and  Rewards":  "I  like  the  instantaneous  grati- 
fication of  computers,  and  they  also  fit  in  with 
my  desire  to  build  things."  It  almost  sounds 
like  some  kid  evaluating  an  involvement  with 

Darwin  Scott,  another  Dewar's  respondent, 
says,  "It's  a  fuzzy  boundary  for  me  between 
work  and  nonwork.  I  do  computer-related  ac- 
tivities with  friends."  Work  and  play  fall  to- 
gether for  Scott.  If  he  spends  upward  of  forty 
hours  a  week  at  work,  the  reason  is  apparent. 

How  about  for  the  more  famous  computer 
professionals?  Does  play  explain  their  devotion 
and  intensity? 

In  his  introduction  to  von  Oech's  book,  No- 
lan Bushnell,  the  founder  of  Atari,  writes, 


Connections  you  can  use  to  do 
most  of  your  banking  right  in  your 
own  living  room. 

Introducing  PRONTO,®  the  home 
banking  system  from  Chemical. 

PRONTO  offers  money  manage- 
ment and  banking  services  24  hours 
a  day.  And  does  it  all  with  the  help  of 
your  IBM,  Apple,  or  Atari  computer, 
and  your  telephone. 

With  PRONTO,  you  can  check 

your  balance,  or  check  which  checks 
have  cleared. 

Pay  bills  to  over  400  merchants 
and  services. 

Or  transfer  money  from  one  ac- 
count to  another. 

And  no  matter  what  kind  of 
business  you  conduct  on  PRONTO, 
it's  strictly  your  business. 
Because  you'll  be  the  only 
one  with  access  to  your 

financial  information. 

For  a  demonstration,  use  your 
connections  and  call  us  toll-free 
at  1-800-782-1100. 

Or  come  into  any  one  of  our  260 
Chemical  Bank  locations. 




MAY  1984 

turn  DOT  MATRIX 

INTO  A  DAISY  .  .  - 

(B  rand  new!  Now  I 
can  turn  GEMINI 
as  well  as  EPSON 
printers  into 

\a  daisy! 

with  the  NicePrint  Card 
(formerly  SUPER-MX  Card) 
for  the  Apple  II,  II+,  or  He. 

The  standard  of  printing  excellence  is 
the  daisy-wheel  printer.  The  NicePrint 
interface  card  improves  EPSON  or 
GEMINI  printers  so  they  have  just  about 
the  same  quality  print  as  the  daisy-wheels! 
And  this  high  quality  is  easily  available 
to  all  Apple  software,  even  copy-pro- 
tected diskettes. 

Here   is  a  sample  o-f 
d  d  t.  m  a  t  r  i  ;•;   p  r  i  n  t.  i  n  g  „ 
Change  it  into  a  daisy 
with  NicePrint! 

Four  optional  font  styles  are  available 
in  addition  to  the  standard  Roman  font 
shown  above  that  simply  plug  into  the 

Letter  Gothic,  ORATOR 
LARGE*  Sty£e, 
and  <01Ab  English". 
All   fonts  can  have 
under 1 ine 9  boldface, 
italics,    wide  , 
suPER/SUB-scripts , 
pica,   elite,  and  condensed. 


The  NicePrint  card  has  all  the  Apple 
Hi-Res  graphic  dump  commands  that 
the  Grappler  has  including:  double 
dumps  (both  pages  side  by  side),  dump 
from  page  1  or  2,  double  size,  empha- 
sized, rotated,  strip  chart  recorder 
mode,  and  text  screen  dump. 

Spies  Laboratories 

(pronounced  "speez") 

P.O.  Box  336 
Lawndale,  CA  90260 
(213)  538-8166 

Apple  II  is  a  TM  of  Apple  Computer.  Inc. 
Grappler  is  a  TM  of  Orange  Micro.  Inc. 

"Personally,  I  believe  that  innovation  is  a  lot  of 
fun.  This  is  what  has  motivated  me  to  try  the 
various  things  I've  done.  You  see,  I  love  to 
build.  .  .  .  The  creative  aspects  of  how  some- 
thing is  put  together,  whether  it's  a  toy  bridge, 
or  an  array  of  integrated  circuits,  or  a  new  com- 
pany, really  excite  me."  Later  in  the  introduc- 
tion he  writes,  "I've  also  found  that  innovative 
people  have  a  passion  for  what  they  do." 

Steve  Jobs  is  the  renowned  model  of  the  ca- 
pricious child-chairman. 

Bert  Kersey,  programmer  and  president  of 
Beagle  Bros,  seemingly  runs  his  company  like 
an  afterschool  clubhouse,  complete  with 

Mark  Pelczarski  likes  to  draw. 

Steve  Wozniak  builds  things  in  garages  and 
throws  money  away  at  rock  concerts. 

Dave  Gordon— well,  Dave  Gordon. 

Al  Tommervik  takes  naps. 

To  suggest  that  these  computer  industry  lead- 
ers are  children  is  insulting.  To  say  that  they 

know  how  to  have  fun  like  children,  to  lose 
themselves  to  enthusiasm  like  children,  to  study 
minutiae  and  dream  of  universes  the  way  chil- 
dren preoccupy  themselves  with  such  matters  is 
to  pay  them  the  compliment  of  carrying  the 
richness  of  play  into  the  adult  world.  Computer 
professionals  stop  and  smell  the  roses.  And  pull 
off  the  petals  and  stab  one  another  repeatedly 
with  the  thorns  and  play  in  the  mud  and  have 
water  fights  and  look  for  bugs.  The  computer 
industry  has  room  for  inventiveness,  unortho- 
doxy,  tears,  fears,  laughter,  secretiveness,  es- 
pionage, petty  jealousy,  games— it  has  room  for 

In  a  product  brochure,  Datamost  Software 
came  up  with  this  line:  "Lucky  for  you  we 
didn't  listen  to  our  mothers  when  they  begged 
us  to  get  real  jobs." 

I  think  that  sums  up  the  explanation  for  the 
Dewar's  profile.  It  also  explains  why  I  am  not  a 
drinker:  Scotch  clashes  with  my  chocolate  milk. 

—Todd  Zilbert 


Priming  Your 
Original  Computer 

Hold  on!  Relax.  And  don 't  bother  typing  this  program 
into  your  Apple. 

Working  with  computers  makes  things  easy 
beyond  speeding  up  work  and  providing 
magical  diversion. 

It's  so  easy  to  forget  our  bodies— to  awaken 
after  a  spell  to  realize  that  our  necks  are 
cricked,  stomachs  growling,  or  hands  cramped. 

According  to  the  National  Institute  of  Oc- 
cupational Safety  and  Health,  computer  entry  is 
the  number  one  most  stressful  profession— even 
more  stressful  than  air  traffic  controlling.  Peo- 
ple who  work  long  periods  before  a  computer 
complain  of  a  host  of  symptoms  ranging  from 
eyestrain,  carpal  tunnel  syndrome  (in  the 
hands),  backaches,  and  CRT  radiation-related 
problems.  In  addition,  psychologically  related 
symptoms  include  alienation/detachment  from 
people  ("hackers'  syndrome"),  impatience 
with  ambiguity  (rejection  of  the  existence  of 
mixed  feelings,  pressure  to  be  always  logi- 
cal and  decisive),  and  fear/ resentment  of  the 

Remember,  you  are  in  control.  GSI,  GSO, 
or,  as  they  say  in  Silicon  Valley,  "Good  Stuff 
In,  Good  Stuff  Out." 

Here  is  a  program  to  take  care  of  the  most 
important  element  in  the  system— you. 


40  NEW 
50  GOTO  200 






210  FORX  =  1T0  3:  INHALE:  PRINT  "I  am 

becoming";:  EXHALE:  PRINT  "...more 

and  more  relaxed  and  alert  with  every 


230  FOR  Y  =  1  TO  3:  INHALE:  PRINT  "I  am 
letting  go";:  EXHALE:  PRINT  "...of 
excessive  tensions,  worries,  and  fears." 
250  FOR  R  =  1  TO  3:  INHALE:  PRINT  "I  am 
becoming";:  EXHALE:  PRINT  "  more 
and  more  confident  and  creative  all  the 

270  FOR  B  =  1  TO  3:  INHALE:  PRINT  "My 
breathing  is  becoming  smoother  and 
deeper";:  EXHALE:  PRINT  "...and  I  am 
becoming  even  more  relaxed." 
320  END 

Psychophysical  Basic  runs  slowly,  at  first. 
With  running  (practice),  the  program  is  auto- 
matically compiled  into  Biomachine  Language 

Many  other  subroutines  are  available  and 
may  be  included  to  release  accumulated  muscle 
tension,  prevent  CRT  eyestrain,  and  ergonomi- 
cally  increase  creativity  and  user's  friendli- 
ness. —Robert  Pater 


All  tM  hits  your  Apple 








is  missing. 

If  you  thought  you'd  never  find  fun  games  for  your 
hardworking  Apple,  happy  days  are  here.  Because  now 
ATARISOFT  brings  you  great  arcade  hits  never  before  seeni 
on  your  Apple  screen. 

Pick  from  Pac-Man,1  Donkey  Kong-  by  Nintendo; 
Centipede?"  Defender/  Joust?  Jungle  Hunt;  Moon  Patrol? 
Pole  Position?  Galaxian,1  Ms.  Pac-Man,1  and  Battlezone™  > 

So  dust  off  your  joystick  (or  if  you  don't  have  a  stick,  you 
can  play  with  a  flick  of  your  fingers  on  your  keyboard)  and 
ask  your  dealer  for  all  the  ATARISOFT  hits.  The  software  your 
hardware's  been  waiting  for. 

Apple  is  a  registered  trademark  of  Apple  Computer,  Inc  This  software  is  manufactured  by  ATARI,  Inc  tor  use  on  the  Apple  II  computer 
and  is  not  made,  sponsored,  authorized  or  approved  by  Apple  Computer,  Inc  1  Trademarks  of  Bally  Mfg  Co  Sublicensed  to  ATARI, 
Inc.  by  Namco-America,  Inc  2  Trademarks  and  ©  Nintendo  1981 , 1983  3  Trademarks  and  ©  Williams  1980, 1982.  manufactured 
under  license  from  Williams  Electronics.  4.  Trademark  and  ©  of  Taito  America  Corporation  1982.  5  Engineered  and  designed  by 
Namco  Ltd.,  manufactured  under  license  by  ATARI  Inc  Trademark  and  ©  Namco  1982  Atari*   O  A  Warner 

Communications  Co.  ©  1984  ATARI  Inc.  All  rights  reserved. 



Our  intention  is  not  to  put  a  wire  into  people  's  heads  and  hook 
them  up  to  a  database. 

— Mike  Spindler,  Apple's  vice  president 
and  general  manager,  Europe 

There  was  a  time  not  long  ago  when  the  prospect  of  an  Ameri- 
can phenomenon  called  the  hamburger  gaining  acceptance  in  the 
culinary  paradise  called  Paris  seemed  about  as  likely  as  D'Arta- 
gnan  becoming  one  of  the  queen's  most  trusted  champions  in  the 
first  few  chapters  of  The  Three  Musketeers.  And  yet,  though 
hamburgers  are  not  the  meal  of  preference  for  the  average  Pari- 
sian, they  have  for  the  most  part  gone  the  way  of  D'Artagnan  and 
found  their  way  into  the  heart  of  many  a  Frenchman. 

Hamburgers  and  personal  computers,  of  course,  are  not  often 
thought  of  as  similar,  but  in  the  never-to-be-outguessed  game  of 
European  marketing  of  American  products,  they  share  certain 
characteristics.  The  most  obvious  similarity  is  the  time-lag  factor. 
Europeans  take  great  pride  in  their  ability  to  cook  good  food,  pos- 
sibly the  best  food  in  the  world.  It'll  take  time  for  them  to  get 
used  to  the  idea  of  forsaking  the  usual  blanquette  de  veau  for  even 
an  occasional  Big  Mac. 

Likewise  they  have  done  without  personal  computers  for  the 
last  two  thousand  years.  But  just  as  hamburgers  have  found  a 
home  on  the  avenue  des  Champs-Ely  sees  and  the  boulevard  St. 
Germain,  so  has  a  personal  computer  brand  called  Apple  marched 
through  the  Arc  de  Triomphe  on  its  way  to  widespread  accep- 
tance in  the  homeland  of  Lafayette  and  Victor  Hugo.  And  as  the 
Allied  forces  knew  when  they  landed  on  the  beach  at  Normandy, 
the  liberation  of  Europe  starts  best  on  French  soil. 

An  American  Computer  Company  in  Paris.  Located  on  the 
rue  de  Chartres  in  Neuilly-sur-Seine,  just  outside  Paris,  Apple 
Computer  International  is  the  strategic  planning  center  for  Ap- 
ple's efforts  in  Europe.  Though  the  office  is  a  stone's  throw  from 
the  avenue  Charles  de  Gaulle,  which  becomes  the  avenue  de  la 
Grande  Armee  at  Porte  Maillot  and  then  the  avenue  des  Champs- 
Elysees  at  the  Arc  de  Triomphe,  it  is  technically  outside  the  city 
limits  of  Paris. 

The  purpose  of  Apple  Computer  International  is  to  provide  a 
centralized  sales  and  marketing  force  for  the  introduction  of  new 
products  and  the  formulation  of  Apple's  basic  European  strate- 
gies. Apple  Computer  International,  in  its  role  as  strategic  head- 
quarters for  all  of  Europe,  handles  the  introduction  of  a  product 
and  the  setting  up  of  initial  marketing  strategies  and  pricing  struc- 

Below,  Apple  Computer  International's  editorial  services  manager  Jon 
Bruce  demonstrates  that  all  Apples  don't  have  to  be  beige  colored  to  be 
useful.  Opposite  page,  most  of  Apple  Computer  International's  staff  in  front 

TALK  MAY  1984 II 

tures.  After  three  months,  the  individual  areas  take  over  the  re- 
sponsibilities of  managing  a  product. 

Apple  is  present  in  most  European  countries— France,  West 
Germany,  the  United  Kingdom,  Italy,  Sweden,  the  Netherlands, 
Austria,  Belgium,  Denmark,  Norway,  Finland,  Switzerland, 
Portugal,  Greece,  and  Yugoslavia— as  well  as  in  Iceland,  Turkey, 
Cyprus,  Malta,  and  Israel.  These  countries  have  their  own  opera- 
tions that  are  responsible  for  the  day-to-day  job  of  marketing  and 
distributing  Apples. 

The  most  recent  figures  put  Apple's  sales  outside  the  United 
States  at  25  percent  of  the  company's  total  sales,  and  Europe  ac- 
counts for  the  largest  part  of  this  25  percent.  Apple  has  to  be  con- 
sidered the  leading  personal  computer  manufacturer  in  Europe, 
though  it  is  only  in  the  last  year  that  this  distinction  has  come  to 
mean  much.  By  and  large,  Europeans  have  been  slower  to  em- 
brace the  personal  computer  phenomenon  than  people  in  the 
United  States. 

The  challenges  of  marketing  American  products,  particularly 
personal  computers,  on  the  European  continent  make  for  quite  a 
story.  Localization— making  a  product  suitable  for  a  specific 
country — and  distribution  are  the  most  crucial  areas  a  company 
must  concern  itself  with.  But  the  larger  question  of  just  how  wel- 
come American  companies  are  overseas  cannot  be  ignored. 

Phil  Roybal,  until  late  last  year  Apple's  European  marketing 
manager,  says  the  situation  in  Europe  is  the  same  for  Apple  as  for 
any  foreign  company.  As  long  as  Apple  is  creating  local  jobs, 
boosting  the  local  economy— basically  being  a  "good  European 
citizen"— there  are  no  problems  with  local  governments.  When 
spin-off  job  opportunities,  such  as  dealerships,  are  created,  they 
contribute  to  a  positive  balance  of  trade. 

Late  last  year,  Roybal  stepped  down  from  his  European  post 
of  one  year— which  had  him  spending  half  his  time  in  California 
and  the  other  half  in  Paris.  He  says  Apple's  goal  was  to  build  up 
the  organizations  in  each  of  the  countries  so  that  they  could  oper- 
ate more  or  less  independently,  with  only  a  modicum  of  direction 
from  the  Paris  office— which,  in  turn,  gets  its  direction  from 
Cupertino.  But  before  you  get  the  idea  that  Apple  Computer  In- 
ternational is  just  a  funnel  for  directives  from  the  big  boys  in 
Silicon  Valley,  read  on. 

Mighty  Mike.  Once  you've  heard  him  talk  and  seen  him 
pound  the  table  a  dozen  times  in  as  many  minutes  to  emphasize 
his  words,  it's  easy  to  understand  how  Mike  Spindler  landed  the 
pivotal  job  of  Apple's  vice  president  and  general  manager  for  Eu- 
rope. A  native  German  who  speaks  several  languages  with  ease, 
Spindler  is  much  more  than  an  efficient  marketeer.  Like  Jean- 
Louis  Gassee,  the  amazing  individual  who  has  made  France  Ap- 
ple's most  lucrative  foreign  market,  Spindler  is  a  persuasive 
messenger  bringing  the  promised  land  of  personal  computing  to 
the  peoples  of  Europe. 

"We  are  a  consumer  marketing  company  selling  personal 
tools,  which  someone  might  accidentally  call  computers,  through 
dealers.  We're  marketing  these  tools  to  individuals  on  a  wanted 
rather  than  a  needed  basis.  You  have  to  start  talking  to  the  guts 
rather  than  the  intellect,  to  the  buyer's  ego— to  his  ability  to  say, 
T  want  to  learn  about  this  because  I  think  these  tools  will  become 
part  of  my  life.'  " 

Spindler' s  introduction  to  Apple  occurred  in  early  1980.  At 
the  time,  he  was  Intel's  European  marketing  manager,  working 
out  of  Brussels.  Then,  as  now,  Regis  McKenna  was  Intel's  public 
relations  agency.  One  day  Regis  McKenna  himself  came  by  and 

Apple  Computer  International  execs  (top  to  bottom):  Mike  Spindler,  vice 
president  and  general  manager;  Henri  Aebischer,  marketing  manager,  Ap- 
ple II  division;  Bob  Kissach,  marketing  manager,  32  division;  Fred  Bullock, 
product  marketing  manager  for  the  Apple  lie;  and  Marek  Milik,  creative 

Services  manager.  Photos  by  David  Hunter 

MAY  1984 



showed  Spindler  copies  of  American  microcomputer  magazines 
and  basically  said,  "This  is  the  next  thing." 

Spindler  has  worked  his  way  down,  so  to  speak,  from  main- 
frames to  minicomputers  to  microcomputers.  In  the  midsixties  he 
helped  engineer  peripherals  for  mainframes  at  a  company  called 
Siemens.  From  Siemens,  Spindler  went  on  to  Digital  Equipment 
Corporation,  where  he  eventually  became  involved  with  the 
marketing,  largely  through  OEMs,  of  minicomputers. 

It  was  while  he  was  learning  the  art  of  the  "technosell"  that 
Spindler  recognized  the  threat  the  semiconductor  industry  posed 
to  minicomputer  manufacturers  by  virtue  of  its  ability  to  produce 
microprocessors.  Spindler  could  see  that  advances  in  software, 
such  as  real-time  operating  systems,  were  going  to  undercut  the 
minicomputer  manufacturers  just  as  that  industry  had  once  pulled 
the  rug  out  from  under  mainframe  suppliers. 

Spindler  saw  the  opportunity  to  participate  in  an  exciting  new 
industry  and  joined  Intel.  As  it  worked  out,  the  semiconductor 
companies  failed  to  recognize  the  chance  to  beat  the  minicom- 
puter manufacturers  at  their  own  game.  Thus,  Spindler  was 
primed  to  join  an  organization  like  Apple. 

"For  me,  Apple  was  an  opportunity  to  start  again,  to  build  a 
company  and  a  market,"  Spindler  recalls. 

Remembrance  of  Things  Past.  In  the  late  seventies,  a  man 
by  the  name  of  Andre  Sousan  set  up  independent  arrangements 
with  European  import  companies  to  buy  Apples  at  arm's  length. 
It  was  a  primitive  importing  operation,  with  no  marketing  and 
sales  support,  that  had  limited  success.  Spindler  calls  it  "a  real 
buy-and-sell  situation.  The  local  distributor  would  do  the  best  he 
could."  To  this  day,  Spindler  believes  that  distributor  is  the 
wrong  label  to  attach  to  the  entity  that  moves  machines  in  Europe. 
"It's  a  push  market;  we  must  be  a  marketing  company." 

Apple  first  entered  the  European  theater  en  force  in  1980.  The 
company  did  three  things  immediately:  built  a  manufacturing 
plant  in  Cork,  Ireland,  opened  a  large  distribution  center  in  the 
Netherlands,  and  implemented  a  management  structure  in  the 
form  of  a  marketing  and  sales  headquarters  in  Paris. 

Apple  was  fortunate  to  land  the  services  of  Jean-Louis  Gas- 
see,  who  has  created  an  extremely  strong  dealer  network  in 
France.  Gassee  wrote  the  book  on  making  Apples  attractive  to  the 
French  people.  He  formed  a  distribution  company  which  he  has 
since  sold  to  Apple.  Now,  as  director  of  Apple  (Seedrin)  SARL, 
he  uses  his  strong  character,  active  intellect,  and  personal  love  of 
Apple  to  point  the  way  to  success  in  the  rest  of  Europe. 

"We  weren't  promoting  the  idea  of  personal  computers," 
says  Spindler,  "as  personal  tools  for  individuals  in  schools,  busi- 
nesses, and  wherever  to  use  for  themselves.  The  existing  market 
was  more  or  less  the  old  game  of  accounting,  payroll,  inventory. 
Everybody  looked  at  the  Apple  U  as  a  poor  man's  data  processing 
unit  that  they'd  hook  up  to  a  mainframe."  Selling  Apples  as 
business  machines  took  the  personal  out  of  personal  computers, 
and  it  was  Gassee  who  showed  that  Apples  could  appeal  to  the 
strongly  entrenched  cultural  consciousness  of  Europeans. 

Spindler  feels  that  Apple  is  on  the  right  track,  moving  away 
from  the  traditional,  classical  technosell  method  of  marketing 

In  addition  to  marketing  Apples  in  a  way  that  appeals  to  Euro- 
peans, Apple  had  to  make  a  greater  effort  to  localize  software. 
"The  people  in  the  home  office,  as  smart  as  they  were,  had  more 
than  enough  to  do.  There  was  no  easy  way  for  them  to  localize  the 
software  that  makes  Apples  so  popular  in  the  States." 

Two  for  the  Road.  Last  year,  when  John  Sculley  came  on  as 
president  of  Apple,  one  of  the  first  moves  he  made  was  to  simpli- 
fy the  structure  of  the  company,  forming  two  basic  product 
groups— the  Apple  U  division  and  the  32  division.  At  Apple  Com- 
puter International,  each  of  the  two  groups  has  its  own  marketing 
manager  who  reports  to  Spindler,  who  in  turn  reports  directly 

to  Sculley. 

Henri  Aebischer,  a  three-year  veteran  of  Apple,  is  the 
marketing  manager  for  the  Apple  II  group.  A  native  of  Switzerland, 
Aebischer  has  a  reputation  for  being  a  connoisseur  of  French 

Aebischer  took  what  he  calls  the  "traditional  path"  for  Ap- 
ple's European  executives.  That  is,  he  worked  in  the  minicom- 
puter industry,  for  Data  General,  before  moving  to  the  field  of 
microcomputers.  It  was  at  Data  General  that  Aebischer  met  Jean- 
Louis  Gassee,  who  in  turn  introduced  him  to  Mike  Spindler.  As 
an  "old  crocodile"  of  the  computer  industry,  Aebischer  brings 
years  of  experience  to  the  job. 

Though  he  believes  that  the  Mac  may  eventually  surpass  the  II 
family  in  total  number  of  Apple  units  sold,  Aebischer  also  be- 
lieves that  the  "II  will  stay  here  for  a  long,  long  time. 

"The  Apple  II  began  "s  a  general-purpose  machine,  but  as 
time  went  by  it  became  a  'niche  machine.'  "  explains  Aebischer. 
Users,  with  a  choice  of  some  ten  thousand  pieces  of  software,  be- 
gan to  use  the  II  for  specific  vertical  market  applications.  The 
sum  total  effect  was  that  the  market  "appeared  horizontal,  but  it 
was  probably  made  up  of  many  vertical  segments." 

The  philosophy  behind  Apple's  existing  and  future  eight-bit 
machines  is  basically  the  same  throughout  the  world:  Take  a  win- 
ning product  and  improve  it  so  it  stays  a  winner.  Aebischer 
defines  Apple's  philosophy  as  decreasing  cost  and  compacting 
value.  The  brand-new  Apple  lie  (the  c  stands  for  compact)  con- 
tinues the  tradition  started  with  the  Apple  U  Plus  and  He. 

In  addition  to  lowering  costs  and  achieving  a  more  economical 
design  of  the  U,  Apple  is  striving  to  increase  functionality.  That  is 
why  modern  features  like  the  mouse  and  integrated  software- 
technological  advances  previously  available  only  on  the  higher- 


ON  51/4"  DISKETTE  j 

For  Apple*  II  or  II  + 
with  48K  memory  and 

Trial  issue  $8.50 
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Outside  USA  &  Canada  $54.00 


P.O.  Box  1537 
Columbus,  IN  47202-1537 

*  Apple  and  Applesoft  are  registered 
trademarks  of  Apple  Computer,  Inc. 

Charge  card  orders  may  call  (812)  376-3372 

priced  Lisa  and  Macintosh— are  becoming  standard  options  for 
the  II  family.  "We  don't  want  to  strip  the  II  of  its  functionality 
just  so  we  can  sell  it  for  $400,"  says  Aebischer. 

Localizing  Lisa.  Aebischer  cites  the  Lisa  as  an  example  of 
how  good  Apple  has  become  at  localizing  products.  "The 
strategy  is  to  localize  a  product  as  soon  as  possible.  Lisa  was  very 
complex.  Here  in  Europe,  we  had  all  seven  manuals  for  the  ma- 
chine translated  and  printed  less  than  three  months  after  Lisa 
started  shipping  in  the  States.  It  was  a  major  task  with  a  lot  of 
nitty-gritty  details." 

Though  up  till  now  the  acceptance  of  personal  computers  has 
been  much  slower  in  Europe  than  the  U.S.,  Aebischer  believes 
that  the  acceptance  curve  may  be  exponential.  There  are  still  hur- 
dles caused  by  the  economic  environment,  but  the  computer 
awareness  of  Europeans  is  on  the  rise.  Almost  as  important  as 
the  pricing  of  products  is  the  careful  nurturing  of  the  various 

"The  Latin  countries  love  the  personal  computer  concept. 
The  French  are  very  individualistic.  Just  drive  in  Paris  some- 
time. The  French  drive  crazily  because  they  think  they  are  alone 
on  the  road." 

Germany,  on  the  other  hand,  is  a  different  story,  according  to 
Aebischer.  "There  they  say,  'We  are  comfortable.  Why  should 
we  try  to  improve  our  productivity?'  Their  attitude  is  becoming 
very  conservative,  even  a  little  pessimistic  perhaps." 

At  least  four  times  a  year  Aebischer  travels  to  the  United 
States  to  meet  with  the  folks  in  Cupertino,  visit  dealers,  and  look 
at  the  largest  Apple  market  close-up.  "All  of  us  here  read  the 
U.S.  press.  The  States  are  a  kind  of  guinea  pig  for  us.  What  hap- 
pens there  will  happen  here." 

Aebischer  believes  that  the  tide  may  be  turning.  He  attributes 
this  to  the  increased  visibility  of  Apple  in  Europe  and  to  the  ex- 
istence of  innovators,  who  take  up  the  challenge  of  making  per- 
sonal computers  useful  for  themselves.  When  a  talented  individ- 
ual creates  a  program  or  application  and  shows  it  to  someone, 
who  in  turn  sees  a  need  for  his  own  machine,  he  is  contributing  to 
that  curve. 

Managing  the  European  MacMarket.  Although  Macintosh 
was  announced  in  Europe  at  the  same  time  as  in  the  United  States, 
the  machine  is  still  not  being  shipped  to  European  dealers 
in  quantity. 

Bob  Kissach,  marketing  manager  for  the  Apple  32  division, 
will  have  been  with  Apple's  European  troops  three  years  come 
August.  A  native  of  Leeds  in  northern  England's  Yorkshire 
County,  Kissach  has  a  laugh  that  probably  could  be  heard  easily 
from  the  highest  balcony  seat  in  London's  Albert  Hall. 

Kissach  has  worked  with  American  companies  for  a  total  of 
fourteen  years.  Nine  of  those  years  were  spent  with  Data  General 
and  included  a  stint  in  Marlborough,  Massachusetts.  He's  been  in 
Paris  for  seven  years,  first  with  DG  and  now  with  Apple. 

"The  experience  we've  gained  from  marketing  the  II  and  III 
in  Europe  has  helped  on  a  lot  of  levels  with  Macintosh  and  Lisa. 
Of  course,  the  main  task  is  localization.  We've  tried  to  put 
nothing  inside  a  machine  that  is  country-specific. 

"There  are  needs  to  localize  the  power  supply  and  the  analog 
board,  but  the  digital  board  is  identical  throughout  the  world." 
Likewise,  says  Kissach,  the  iconographic  labeling  over  the  ports 
on  the  back  of  Macintosh's  case  means  the  case  can  be  the  same 
for  any  country,  regardless  of  the  native  language. 

"Usually  it  is  very  difficult  to  localize  software.  Someone 
would  have  to  go  through  the  source  code  and  translate  it  man- 
ually. With  Macintosh  there  are  resource  files  that  allow  us  to 
change  messages,  menus,  dates,  times,  sorting  sequences,  and 
character  sets.  With  one  of  these  resource  editors  we  can  stretch  a 
dialog  box  to  fit  a  specific  language."  This  can  be  crucial. 

English  is  a  very  compact  language  compared  to,  say,  Ger- 

man. An  item  on  an  English  memo  that  is  seven  characters  long 
may  require  over  ten  characters  in  German. 

In  addition  to  recognizing  the  importance  of  localizing  prod- 
ucts, Apple  has  learned  that  software  sells  machines.  "We're  try- 
ing to  re-create  the  U  phenomenon,"  Kissach  says.  "The  Macin- 
tosh is  totally  open  to  developers." 

Kissach  has  been  involved  with  the  Macintosh  product  for 
more  than  a  year  and  a  half.  The  announcement  of  the  machine  in 
January  was  attended  in  Europe  by  the  same  razzmatazz  and  press 
coverage  that  made  the  U.S.  introduction  of  Macintosh  such  a 
media  event.  Kissach  and  others  attribute  a  lot  to  Lisa  for  the 
overwhelming  acceptance  of  Mac  in  Europe.  Although  few  peo- 
ple seemed  to  be  able  to  afford  the  high-priced  Lisa  when  it  was 
first  introduced  (the  price  was  the  equivalent  of  $12,000),  the  ma- 
chine generated  great  interest. 

Apple  is  also  trying  to  foster,  says  Kissach,  a  more  evenly 
balanced  exchange  of  software.  This  means  that  a  software  com- 
pany in  France  should  think  of  selling  its  products  not  only  in  the 
United  States  but  in  other  European  countries  as  well.  The  fact 
that  software  for  the  Macintosh  can  be  easily  translated  is  helping 
this  effort  along  considerably. 

Cooking  Up  a  Consistent  Look.  Marek  Milik  is  Apple's 
creative  services  manager  for  Europe.  His  job  is  to  maintain  the 
consistency  of  Apple's  graphic  look  throughout  the  Continent. 
The  graphic  look  includes  brochures,  packaging,  magazines, 
fliers,  print  advertising,  and  television  commercials — anything 
the  public  sees. 

Milik  says  that  people  in  the  States  don't  often  realize  the 
enormous  differences  there  are  between  countries  in  Europe. 
"Here,  flying  from  San  Francisco  to  Los  Angeles  is  the  equiva- 
lent of  flying  from  London  to  Paris,  London  to  Rome,  Paris  to 
Zurich.  And  each  time  you're  experiencing  completely  different 
nationalities,  languages,  and  ways  of  thinking.  Our  job  is  to 
transform  the  Apple  graphics,  which  all  originate  in  America,  so 
they  look  European." 

It  is  crucial,  says  Milik,  for  an  American  company  to  play 
down  the  fact  that  the  product  being  offered  is  American.  "A 
Frenchman  wants  to  buy  something  French,  or  at  least  buy  some- 
thing that  is  not  crammed  down  his  throat  as  American.  It's 
getting  better  now,  but  in  the  past  Apple's  graphics  have  been 
very  Californian." 

The  problem  of  localizing,  but  not  overlocalizing,  Apple's 
image  is  a  complex  one.  "A  Frenchman  also  doesn't  want  to  buy 
something  that  looks  too  German  or  too  Italian."  Up  until  last 
October,  says  Milik,  all  the  designs  of  brochures  and  packaging 
for  the  various  European  countries  originated  from  the  Paris  of- 
fice. Now  that  this  aspect  of  Apple's  European  operations  has 
been  decentralized,  there  is  a  real  effort  to  make  sure  that  the  in- 
dividual areas— all  of  which  now  have  their  own  communications 
and  marketing  departments — don't  radically  change  Apple's 
overall  public  image. 

"You  have  to  rationalize  some,"  Milik  says.  "There  are  a 
thousand  little  things  that  the  individual  areas  have  to  do,  but  they 
can't  start  changing  the  big  things,  like  the  packaging  and  the 

Milik  works  closely  with  the  creative  managers  of  the  various 
individual  countries,  as  well  as  with  Cupertino.  "In  the  States, 
I've  told  them  that  if  you  shoot  a  picture  of  a  man  sitting  at  a  desk, 
take  the  telephone  off  the  table.  It's  not  that  we  don't  have 
telephones  out  here,  but  they're  slightly  different  in  each  country. 
So  take  it  off,  or  shoot  six  or  seven  versions  of  the  picture." 

Another  telling  example  of  the  problems  of  localizing 
graphics  is  found  in  the  packaging  for  the  Uc.  On  one  side  of  the 
United  States  box  is  a  picture  of  a  smiling  woman  in  blue  jeans 
holding  a  Uc.  In  Germany,  for  instance,  this  concept  would  not 
work  well.  So  the  picture  was  changed  to  three  businessmen  in  an 




Congratulations!  You  not  only 
have  a  powerful  new  operating 
system  in  Apple's*  ProDOS,  you  can 
now  get  an  incredibly  versatile 
Clock/Calendar  card  to  use  with  it. 

PROCLOCK  is  the  first 
Clock/Calendar  designed  for 
ProDOS-based  systems  as  well  as 
other  Apples  running  DOS  3.3, 
CP/M**,  Pascal,  Applesoft*,  and 

What's  more,  PROCLOCK  fully 
emulates  Superclock  II, 
Thunderclock  Plus  and  Apple 
Clock*.  So  programs  written  for 
these  products  can  be  used  without 
any  modification. 

Of  course,  PROCLOCK  will  time- 
and  date-coding  files.  And  consider 
how  much  money  you  could  save 
by  timing  your  modem  to  transmit 
when  the  phone  rates  are  cheapest. 
You  can  even  use  PROCLOCK  as 
part  of  an  automatic  appliance 
control  system. 

Plus,  PROCLOCK's  powerful  inter- 
rupt capabilities  are  invaluable  to 
programmers  working  with  time- 
sensitive  routines  and  multi-tasking. 
It  can  generate  interrupts  at  inter- 
vals of  1  millisecond,  1  second,  1 

minute,  1  hour,  or  any  combination 
of  those.  And  all  interrupts  are 
software-controlled  and  handled 
through  PROCLOCK's  on-board  PIA. 

Speaking  of  software,  you  also  get 
a  diskette  full  of  sample  programs, 
utilities  and  applications  like  our 
Time-Clock  II  job/time  logging 

PROCLOCK  even  includes  one 
feature  we  don't  expect  anyone  to 
take  advantage  of— a  10-year  lithium 
battery  that  keeps  the  clock  running 
even  if  your  computer  is  left  off  for 
long  periods  of  time. 

But  just  try  to  keep  away  from 
your  Apple  long  enough  to  put  that 
to  the  test!  With  PROCLOCK,  you'll 
have  a  whole  new  world  of  applica- 
tions to  explore.  And  plenty  of  time 
to  explore  it.  Because  PROCLOCK  is 
a  reliable,  well-built  piece  of  hard- 
ware. So  well-built,  it's  backed  by  a 
five-year  warranty. 

Ask  your  dealer  about  PRO- 
CLOCK.  It's  perfect  timing  for  Pro- 
DOS  users! 

Another  practical  product  from 
Practical  Peripherals— makers  of 
GraphiCard™,  and  seriALL™ 


31245  La  Baya  Drive,  Westlake  Village,  CA  91362 
(818)  991-8200  •  TWX  910-336-5431 

*  ProDOS,  Apple,  Applesoft  and  Apple  Clock  are  registered 
trademarks  of  Apple  Computers,  Inc.  **CP/M  is  a  registered 
trademark  of  Digital  Research,  Inc. 



MAY  1984 

elevator;  two  are  carrying  briefcases  and  one  is  holding  a  He. 

International  Signs  of  Modern  Times.  Apple's  chief  com- 
petitor in  the  United  States  is  IBM,  and  Big  Blue  (or  the  Big  Let- 
ters, as  Spindler  refers  to  the  largest  computer  firm  in  the  world) 
is  gaining  momentum  in  the  European  personal  computer  market. 
IBM  has  been  slow  to  enter  the  European  market;  the  PCjr  and 
Portable  PC  are  still  to  be  introduced— "It's  a  case  of  pick  your 
rumor  as  to  when,"  says  Kissach. 

Even  so,  Kissach  and  Apple  recognize  that  IBM  can  have  the 
same  effect  in  Europe  that  it  did  in  the  United  States — that  is,  it 
can  help  legitimize  the  market.  Up  till  now,  says  Kissach,  some 
people  have  viewed  the  IBM  PC  as  a  "me  too"  machine.  "IBM 
is  a  well-respected  name  here,"  Kissach  says,  "but  it  doesn't 
have  the  same  magic  that  it  has  in  the  States. 

"But  they're  moving.  Already  we're  seeing  a  polarization  oc- 
curring with  the  dealers,  where  stores  are  starting  to  carry  Apple, 
IBM,  and  maybe  one  other  brand.  Even  in  Europe  it  seems  to  be 
shaping  up  into  a  two-horse  race,  though  Victor— which  entered 
the  market  a  year  before  IBM— has  sold  quite  a  lot  of  its  machines 

Regardless  of  IBM's  strategies,  Apple  remains  secure  in  its 
own  still-developing  attack.  Fred  Bullock,  product  marketing 
manager  for  the  Apple  lie,  puts  it  this  way:  "Apple's  first 
priority  is  not  to  be  IBM-compatible  but  to  be  the  best."  Spindler 
too  feels  that,  particularly  in  Europe,  Apple  has  little  to  fear  from 
the  Big  Letters  as  long  as  product  and  not  name  is  the  main  focus. 

"If  you  say  that  a  machine  has  MS-DOS  compatibility,  what 
does  that  mean  to  the  first-time  user?  Nothing.  We're  trying  to 
move  away  from  that  world  of  a  data  processing  elite,  with  their 
blue  suits  and  a  huge  programming  staff.  Distribution  means 
growing  sales,  not  a  growing  technical  support  staff." 

Fruits  of  Technology  Over  There.  Free  to  do  its  own  thing, 
Apple  is  clearly  on  the  road  to  explosive  growth  in  Europe.  The 

last  year  has  seen  sales  double  in  France.  Kissach  believes  that  if 
the  German  market  picked  up,  the  European  scene  would  be 

"This  whole  business  is  communication,"  says  Spindler. 
"We're  our  own  worst  enemy.  I  go  to  Cupertino  once  a  month  to 
discuss  changing  resources,  product  allocations,  and  future  defi- 
nitions of  markets.  We  engage  in  a  sort  of  body  language  with 
dealers.  Dealers  are  very  important  in  Europe.  We  try  to  con- 
vince them  that  Apple  is  a  partnership,  not  dominance,  not 
George  Orwell." 

Inseinely  Great.  With  all  this  talk  of  marketing,  localization, 
and  cooperative  strategies,  very  little  mention  has  been  made  of 
what  a  delightful  group  of  people  work  at  the  Paris  office.  They 
now  number  about  forty-five  and  there's  hardly  an  American  in 
the  bunch.  Editorial  services  manager  Jon  Bruce,  when  he  is  not 
producing  six  or  seven  different  documents  in  what  he  calls  the 
"midatlantic"  style  of  writing,  produces  the  cheerfully  irrev- 
erent Apple  Computer  International  employee  newsletter,  called 
Apparis.  Flipping  through  past  issues  gives  a  reader  a  privi- 
leged look  at  a  group  of  people  who  care  very  much  about  their 
work,  but  also  about  having  fun— people  who  know  how  to  keep 
a  sense  of  humor  even  when  they  work  long  hours  and  wear  many 
different  hats. 

Apple  Computer  International  is  reminiscent  of  the  early  days 
of  Apple— the  enthusiasm,  the  excitement,  the  uncertainty  about 
what  will  happen  next.  Henri  Aebischer  says  that  hardly  six 
months  goes  by  without  some  radical  change  occurring  on  the 
European  front.  That  the  changes  have  been  mostly  for  the  good 
should  give  Americans  encouragement.  In  personal  computing, 
these  Europeans  are  not  behind  us  trying  to  catch  up,  they're  cre- 
ating something  brand-new— just  as  they  did  when  they  carved 
the  Americas  out  of  the  New  World.  We  can  learn  from  them  as 
they  have  learned  from  us.  JM 

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MAY  1984 

S  O  F  T  A  L  If 


Mind  Your 


Can  summertime  be  almost  here?  It  cer- 
tainly can!  And  perhaps  after  a  long  winter, 
your  trusty  Apple  could  use  a  tune-up.  More 
about  that  later.  We  have  quite  a  variety  of  sub- 
jects to  cover  this  month.  In  the  course  of  things 
we'll  make  good  on  leftover  promises,  intro- 
duce some  new  topics  for  discussion,  and  con- 
tinue to  develop  ideas  that  have  been  presented 
over  the  last  few  months.  So  why  not  pour  your- 
self a  bit  of  lemonade,  put  your  feet  up,  sit 
back,  and  relax. 

Continuing  Communications.  Last  month 
we  talked  about  telecommunications  and  its  im- 
pact on  microcomputer  users.  This  time,  we'll 
address  a  specific  question  that  a  number  of 
readers  have  asked,  namely:  What  factors 
should  be  considered  when  selecting  a  modem? 

As  you'll  recall,  a  modem  is  the  device 
that's  connected  to  your  Apple  and  serves  to 
link  your  machine  to  another  computer.  There 
are  five  factors  to  consider  when  selecting  a 

1 .  What  kind  of  interface  does  the  modem  re- 
quire? What,  you  may  ask,  is  an  interface? 
Well,  your  Apple  must  somehow  connect  (in- 
terface) with  the  modem.  If  you're  going  to  use 
the  telephone  lines  as  the  means  of  transmitting 
data  (there  aren't  many  other  choices  available 
to  most  of  us),  then  you  need  some  sort  of  con- 
nector. Since  modems  use  the  serial  method  of 
transmission  (one  bit  after  another),  the  inter- 
face connected  to  your  machine  must  also  be 
serial.  Some  micros  have  this  interface— which 
is  usually  called  an  RS-232  serial  interface- 
built  in.  An  RS-232  interface  is  also  available 
via  some  sort  of  communications  card  that's 
designed  to  be  placed  in  one  of  the  vacant  slots 
of  your  Apple.  Some  modems  come  with  this 
card,  while  others  require  that  it  be  purchased 

2.  At  what  speed  will  the  modem  send  data? 
Common  speeds  are  300  baud  (bits  per  second) 
and  1200-baud.  Faster  speeds  are  possible,  but 
they're  not  really  appropriate  for  use  over 
telephone  lines.  The  faster  the  transmission 
speed,  the  faster  information  is  obtained.  For 
example,  using  a  1200-baud  modem  would  en- 
able you  to  transmit  or  receive  a  twelve-page  re- 
port in  the  same  amount  of  time  it  would  take  to 
send  or  receive  a  three-page  document  at  300 
baud.  If  you're  paying  for  the  time  it  takes  to 
send  and  receive  files  (either  as  part  of  your 
phone  bill  or  in  the  form  of  charges  for  using 
one  of  the  information  services),  then  getting  a 
1200  baud  modem  might  well  be  worth  the  ex- 
tra expense.  Look  around;  some  modems  offer 
switch-selectable  speeds. 

3.  How  does  the  modem  connect  to  the 
telephone?  Most  modems  take  advantage  of  a 

common  telephone  jack  (one  of  the  newer  ones, 
not  the  old  four-prong  type).  This  is  by  far  the 
best  connection  method,  resulting  in  a  transmis- 
sion that  is  more  noise-free  and  allowing  for 
some  nice  features,  such  as  automatic  dialing. 
The  alternative  is  to  get  a  device  called  an 
acoustic  coupler— a  small  unit  into  which  you 
place  the  telephone  handset.  Though  different 
from  a  modem,  an  acoustic  coupler  serves 
essentially  the  same  purpose.  Acoustic  couplers 
are  cheaper  than  modems,  but  they  are  also  less 

4.  What  software  is  available  to  support 
communications  with  this  modem?  This  con- 
sideration is  certainly  an  important  one— after 
all,  it  was  probably  the  software  that  facilitated 
a  lot  of  those  nifty  things  that  made  you  want  a 
modem  in  the  first  place.  Make  sure,  at  the  mini- 
mum, that  the  software  you  get  allows  for  easy 
transfer  and  printing  of  files.  And  of  course,  it 
might  be  a  big  plus  if  this  same  software  also 
made  it  possible  for  you  to  communicate  with  a 
variety  of  host  computers. 

5.  Are  there  any  extras  included  with  the 
modem  package?  Some  packages  offer  special 
features,  such  as  the  ability  to  answer  incoming 
calls  to  your  computer  automatically,  the  ca- 
pacity to  remember  several  telephone  numbers 
and  automatically  dial  them  at  your  command, 
and  the  ability  to  dial  up  an  information  service 
late  at  night  (when  rates  are  cheaper)  and  re- 
trieve the  data  you  need. 

The  Magic  Numbers.  If  you're  interested 
in  telecommunications  and  you've  decided  to 
purchase  a  modem,  the  next  obvious  question 
concerns  where  or  whom  you  might  call. 

Certainly,  many  business  people  use  their 
modem-equipped  micros  to  communicate  di- 
rectly with  their  company's  main  computers. 
This  enables  them  to  enter  or  retrieve  informa- 
tion directly  (either  at  home  or  at  work)  from 
existing  resources.  It's  also  possible,  of  course, 
to  communicate  information  from  one  micro- 
computer to  another  (the  Apple  at  home  can 
communicate  with  the  Apple  at  work). 

A  modem-equipped  Apple  can  also  be  used 
to  connect  with  and  obtain  information  from 
one  of  several  commercial  on-line  information 
services.  These  on-line  sources  provide  access 
to  programs,  news,  classified  ads,  and  a  variety 
of  special  services.  Among  the  information  ser- 
vices available  are  the  following: 

The  Source  (McLean,  VA).  UPI  news,  busi- 
ness databases,  financial  information,  airline 
schedules,  electronic  mail  services,  user  bulle- 
tin boards,  and  various  consumer-oriented  data- 
bases. For  information,  call  (800)  336-3366. 

GTE  Telenet  Medical  Information  Network 
(Vienna,  VA).  This  service  provides  informa- 

tion of  interest  to  physicians,  nurses,  therapists, 
and  pharmacists.  It  includes  electronic  mail  ser- 
vices, bulletin  boards,  access  to  medical  data- 
bases, and  information  from  several  medical 
journals.  For  information,  call  (703)  442-1900. 

Newsnet  (Bryn  Mawr,  PA).  Provides  com- 
plete information  from  more  than  150  different 
business  newsletters.  For  information,  call 
(800)  345-1301,  (800)  527-8030  in  Penn- 

Dialog  Information  Services  (Palo  Alto, 
CA).  Has  one  of  the  largest  collections  of  data- 
bases available.  For  information,  call  (415) 

More  than  Just  Graphs.  In  a  previous  col- 
umn, we  took  a  look  at  some  of  the  major  busi- 
ness graphics  packages.  The  primary  purpose  of 
the  packages  we  examined  at  that  time  was  the 
production  of  relatively  high-quality  business 
graphs— mainly  bar  charts,  line  graphs,  and  pie 
charts.  Some  of  the  specialized  packages  also 
allowed  the  user  to  create  organizational  charts, 
flow  charts,  and  schematics. 

If  you're  really  interested  in  graphics,  it's 
very  possible  that  you  would  like  to  do  some- 
thing that  the  packages  we've  evaluated  so  far 
don't  allow — namely,  animating  your  own  pic- 
tures. If  incorporating  animation  into  our  pre- 
sentations meant  having  to  acquire  program- 
ming expertise,  most  of  us  would  not  bother. 
The  task  is  reasonably  complex  and  tedious, 
and,  we'd  likely  conclude,  not  worth  the  time 
that  would  have  to  be  invested.  Fortunately, 
there's  an  alternative  to  this  long  process,  a 
package  that's  well  worth  the  time  one  must  in- 
vest in  learning  to  use  it. 

The  package  is  Accent  Software's  TGS:  The 
Graphic  Solution.  This  complete  animation  sys- 
tem can  provide  creative  computer  users  with  a 
variety  of  possibilities  to  incorporate  into  sales 
presentations,  training  aids,  educational  presen- 
tations, graphs,  and  charts.  The  Graphic  Solu- 
tion can  be  used  to  combine  text  and  graphics 
via  much  the  same  approach  you'd  take  if  you 
were  creating  a  motion  picture.  First  you  create 
the  actors  (your  shapes)  and  then  you 
manipulate  them  '  'on  film. ' ' 

TGS  runs  on  any  Apple  II  with  64K  (ac- 
tually, there  are  versions  requiring  only  48K, 
but  the  extra  16K  is  well  used).  It  will  take  a 
few  hours  to  learn  all  the  features  of  this  fine 
package,  but  your  time  will  be  well  rewarded. 
TGS  gives  great  feedback— when  you  have  cre- 
ated an  animation  and  you  see  it  work,  the  feel- 
ing is  terrific! 

Essentially,  what  takes  place  is  this.  You 
create  your  shapes  on  a  low-resolution  screen 
using  very  simple  cursor  movements.  When- 
ever you  wish,  you  can  jump  to  the  high- 




!!§•  III!   ill  he  - ;??!  fH 

'!!!!;  ! 

•3&    &  S& 


For  Apple®  II,  II  +  ,  lie,  III  emulation,  and  Apple  look-alikes  -  48K  DOS  3.3 


Our  checkbook  program  is 
plain  vanilla... no  complex  set-ups, 
no  intricate  budgets, 
and  no  monthly  closings. 

At  first  people  laughed.  "Are  you  kidding?  A  ninty- 
nine  dollar  checkbook  program?" 

It's  true,  Money  Street  isn't  cheap,  in  fact  it's  one  of 
the  more  costly  checkbook  programs.  But  with 
software  as  with  everything  else,  you  get  what  you 
pay  for. 

Money  Street  gives  you  ease  of  learning.  You'll 
have  it  up  and  running  in  thirty  minutes,  or  your 
money  back. 

Money  Street  gives  you  speed.  Examples:  Three 
seconds  from  main  menu  to  any  sub-section.  Eleven 
seconds  from  boot  to  data  entry.  Twenty  seconds 
from  boot  to  print. 

Not  Another  Home  Accountant 

Don't  confuse  Money  Street  with  other  programs. 
Maybe  you've  been  disappointed  by  a  budget 
program  like  The  Home  Accountant.  We 
sympathize.  All  you  wanted  was  an  easy  way  to 
manage  your  finances,  and  you  end  up  with  a 
tangle  of  budget  categories  and  useless  graphics. 

Money  Street  is  different.  We  promise  Money 
Street  won't  drive  you  up  the  wall  with  complex 
set-up,  yard  long  print-outs,  or  monthly  closings. 
With  Money  Street  it's  put  up  or  shut  up:  If  you 
don't  fall  in  love  with  Money  Street,  you  get  your 
money  back.  (See  below  for  details.) 

Delighted  Users 

•  "For  once,  the  authors  were  more  interested  in 
the  end  user  than  showing  off  their 
programming  prowess.  Entries  are  simple  to 
make  and  modify.  You  set  up  100  expense  or 
income  codes  (checks,  deposits),  subtotalled  as 
you  want;  just  do  Ctrl-0  to  toggle  between  the 
Code  Dictionary  and  the  entry  function."  Al 
Aston,  Arlington,  TX. 

•  "This  'simple'  checkbook  program  has  got  to  be 
the  best  thought  out,  designed,  debugged,  and 
user  friendly  applications  software  in  existance.  I 
use  it  to  manage  my  own  finances  but  it  has 
completely  replaced  some  rather  expensive  and 
well  known  bookkeeping  software  in  my  two 
busy  practices."  Dr.  Arthur  Epstine,  Roslyn,  NY. 

•  "The  program  is  fabulous  — I  love  it."  Richard 
Rodney,  D.D.S.,  Toronto,  Canada. 

•  "The  program  is  both  easy  to  use  and  a  very 
helpful  addition  to  my  software  library.  The  most 
useful  features  are  the  automatic  totaling  of 
categories  and  the  automatic  retrieval  of  split 
entries."  Louis  Wofsy,  Burk,  Virginia. 

•  "As  promised,  it  is  not  only  easy  to  learn  but  an 
extremely  valuable  tool  for  keeping  tax  deductible 
items  readly  at  hand."  H.M.  Stover,  Yountville, 

•  "You  guys  are  great!"  Dick  Palmer,  San  Diego, 

15  Ready-to-print  reports!  Press  four 
keys  and  the  program  will  print  any  of  15  different 
reports.  Just  select  from  the  Report  Menu,  and 
the  program  does  the  rest.  Start-up  to  print  time  is 
usually  20  seconds.  Reports  include: 

1 .  Monthly  code  totals 

2.  To-date  code  totals 

3.  Sort  by  amount 

4.  List  code  dictionary 

5.  List  by  payee 

6.  List  deposits 

7.  List  un'cld  checks 

8.  List  un'cld  deposits 

9.  List  all  entries 

10.  Sort  by  date  cleared 

1 1 .  Print  check  registry 

12.  Print  selected  month 

13.  Print  selected  code 

14.  List  code  totals 

15.  List  monthly  totals 

Saves  money  eight  ways: 

1 .  Find  tax  deductions  and  credits. 

2.  Saves  CPA  write-up  fees. 

3.  Allows  "before  year-end"  tax  planning. 

4.  Saves  accounting  time;  provides  input  for 
journals,  ledgers,  and  reports.  The  program  also 
doubles  as  a  mini-accounts  receivable,  inventory 
keeper,  and  job  cost  system. 

5.  Saves  interest  expense  by  keeping  exact 

6.  Saves  NSF  charges. 

7.  Saves  credit  card  interest  charges. 

8.  Changes  your  financial  attitudes;  puts  you  in 


•  100  user-defined  accounts  •  On  screen  chart  of  accounts  • 
Account  sub  totals,  grand  totals  •  Handles  unlimited  checking 
accounts  •  Three  minute  year-end  rollover  •  Credit  card  accounting 

•  Full  editing,  even  after  entry  •  Check  search  and  scan  screen  • 
Help  screen  *  Wildcard  searches 


•  2400  Checks  per  data  disk  •  200  uncleared  items  •  Scan  speed:  6 
per  second  •  Amount  limit:  $999,999.99  •  100  account  categories 


•  Finds  tax  deductions  •  Single  entry  accounting  •  Job  costing  • 
Budgets  and  estimates  •  Mini  accounts  receivable  •  Mini  inventory 

•  Tracks  personal  loans  •  Real  estate  rentals  •  Stock  purchases/ 
sales  •  Increases  "float" 


•  Prints  trial  reconciliation  •  Balances  checkbook  and  statement 

•  Creates  cancelled  check  file  •  Prints  detailed  audit  trail  • 
Includes  check  register  •  Prints  checkbook  "history"  •  Captures 
monthly  income  •  Easy  to  use 

15  Ready-to-print  reports  I 

•  Monthly  code  totals  •  To-date  code  totals  •  Sort  by  amount 

•  List  code  dictionary  •  Sort  by  payee  •  List  deposits  •  List 
uncleared  checks  •  List  uncleared  deposits  •  List  all  entries 

•  Sort  by  date  cleared  •  Print  check  registry  •  Print  selected 
month  •  Print  selected  code  •  List  code  totals  »  List  monthly  totals 

How  it  works.  On  your  computer  screen,  you, 
create  a  facsimile  of  your  checkbook.  You  see  17 
items  per  screen  and  can  scroll  for  more.  As  the 
computer  balances  your  checking  account,  you  giffl 
each  check  or  deposit  its  own  category  code.  You 
get  100  you  name'em  codes.  Press  Ctrl-0  and  see  a  | 
code  dictionary.  To  set  up  codes,  just  type  them  in. 
You  can  add,  delete  or  change  code  labels  any  time 
without  affecting  data. 

-  30  00  SUGAR  PURCHASES 

Money  Street's  most  amazing  feature 

is  its  "real  time"  data  bank.  It  accumulates  year-to- 
date  totals  for  each  of  the  100  categories.  You  see 
these  totals  instantly.  Just  enter  a  check,  and  look 
at  the  bottom  of  the  screen.  The  year-to-date  total 
will  flash  into  view  with  each  new  entry. 

Pays  for  itself.    Money  Street  keeps  things 
simple  and  keeps  them  honest.  It  can  pay  for  itself 
ten  times  over  just  by  saving  the  cost  of  organizing 
and  totaling  data.  As  one  customer  put  it:  "Why 
pay  my  $100-an-hour  CPA  to  count  beans?" 

Money  Street.. .It's  totally  new. 

If  you  own  real  estate,  Money  Street  tracks  rents, 
tallies  repair  costs,  and  helps  establish  "cost  basis" 
for  capital  gain  tax  treatment.  It's  also  ideal  for  trust 
accounting,  retail  stores,  and  home  budgeting. 

Money  back  no  matter  what.  Why  not 

give  us  a  try?  If  you  aren't  delighted,  we'll  give  you  a 
full  refund  on  any  mail  order  purchase  from  us. 

Includes  tutorial  and  program  map. 

Money  Street  includes  Program  Map,  complete 
documentation,  on-screen  demo,  plus  tutorial.  For 
Apple®  II,  II  + ,  lie.  III  emulation,  and  Apple  look- 
alikes.  Requires  3.3  DOS,  48K.  Money  Street  works 
with  one  drive,  but  two  are  preferred.  It's  also  okay 
without  a  printer,  but  you'll  miss  a  few  reports. 
Master  Charge,  Visa,  COD  okay.  Add  $2.50  on  all 
orders  for  postage  and  packing.  To  order  or  get 
additional  information:  call  24  hours  and  leave  your 
name  with  our  answering  machine. 

The  program  is  copy  protected.  We  sell  back-up 
disks  for  $10.  We  also  offer  a  special  utility  disk  that 
makes  two  back-up  copies,  tranfers  code  labels, 
and  allows  screen  sorts  of  a  single  month  or  code 
category.  Price  is  $25. 

Computer  Tax  Service 
P.O.  Box  7915 
Incline  Village,  NV  89450 
(702)  832-1001 

Money  Street  is  a  Trade  Mark  of  Bullseye  Software. 
Apple  is  a  registered  trade  mark  of  Apple 
computers,  Inc. 



MAY  1984 



resolution  screen  to  see  what  the  object  you're 
working  on  looks  like.  Once  you've  created  a 
shape,  you  can  save  it  to  disk.  If  you've  created 
some  shapes  using  other  packages,  TGS  can 
handle  them  also.  And  if  you  prefer  to  use  a 
KoalaPad  or  a  Gibson  light  pen  instead  of  mov- 
ing the  cursor  via  the  keyboard,  you  can  pur- 
chase an  expansion  module  from  Accent  Soft- 
ware that  ties  TGS  directly  to  those  input 

Once  you've  created  a  shape,  you're  ready 
to  move  into  an  animation  mode  where  you  can 
trace  a  path  for  your  shape  using  simple 
keyboard  commands.  From  here,  you  can  move 
into  show  mode,  which  allows  you  to  review 
your  film  at  any  stage.  A  speed  mode  enables 
you  to  control  the  speed  at  which  a  given  frame, 
a  set  of  frames,  or  the  entire  film,  is  shown. 
Also  available  are  line  mode,  circle  mode,  and 
text  mode,  all  of  which  permit  you  to  add  vari- 
ous enhancements  to  any  drawing  you've 

The  TGS  package  contains  two  disks,  each 
disk  holding  a  copy  of  the  main  program.  On 
the  back  side  of  the  first  disk  is  a  set  of  sample 
sequences  (animations)  and  shapes  for  you  to 
examine  and  use.  On  the  back  of  the  second  disk 
are  some  effective  demonstrations  of  what  can 
be  done  with  animation.  Looking  carefully  at 
these  sample  shapes  and  sequences  can  teach 
you  a  good  deal  about  the  program. 

In  addition,  Accent  Software  provides  an  ex- 
cellent user  guide.  This  guide  is  thorough, 
readable,  and  long— nearly  two  hundred  pages. 

And  yet  it  is  not  verbose;  the  examples  it  pre- 
sents are  clear,  concise,  and  useful,  and  they 
help  make  the  text  a  very  effective  tutorial.  If 
you  follow  along  with  what's  requested  in  each 
chapter,  it's  very  hard  not  to  learn  the  special 
features  of  TGS.  The  exercises  at  the  ends  of 
chapters  are  particularly  worthwhile.  They  do  a 
good  job  of  introducing  some  particularly  nice 
aspects  of  the  package. 

So  if  you  want  to  have  some  fun  with  graph- 
ics or  have  always  wanted  to  create  some  ani- 
mated sequences  with  your  computer,  don't 
pass  this  one  by. 

Take  a  Tablet  and  Call  Us  in  the  Morn- 
ing. With  all  the  interest  in  graphics  these  days, 
it's  not  surprising  that  various  new  devices  have 
emerged  to  facilitate  the  input  of  such  material 
to  the  computer.  If  you're  thinking  about  adding 
a  graphics  tablet  to  your  system,  you  might 
want  to  investigate  the  following  products: 

Powerpad  (Chalk  Board,  Inc.).  This  low- 
cost  product  plugs  into  a  game  slot,  has  a  12  x 
12-inch  drawing  surface,  and  is  a  good  chil- 
dren's tablet. 

KoalaPad  (Koala  Technologies  Corpora- 
tion). A  functional,  inexpensive  first  tablet  with 
good  resolution,  KoalaPad  plugs  into  a  game 
slot,  and  has  a  4  x  4-inch  drawing  surface. 
Much  software  is  being  developed  for  it. 

Hi  Pad  (Houston  Instruments).  This  is  a 
high-end  professional  graphics  tablet  that's 
especially  useful  in  science  and  engineering  ap- 

Apple  Graphics  Tablet  (Apple  Computer). 

Well  designed  and  manufactured,  this  is  a  so 
phisticated  high-end  tablet  with  plenty  of 
available  software. 

Clean  Up  Your  Act.  When  was  the  last  time 
you  cleaned  your  machine?  If  you're  like  most 
users,  you  don't  remember.  If  you  don't  give 
your  machine  some  special  attention  on  a  regu- 
lar basis,  you're  taking  a  serious  risk;  your  Ap- 
ple is  more  sensitive  than  you  may  realize. 

Keeping  your  Apple  clean  means  more  than 
just  keeping  a  dust  cover  over  your  machine,  its 
disk  drive,  and  the  printer  (you  do  that  now, 
right?).  Here  are  some  spring/summer  cleaning 

1 .  Turn  off  your  Apple  and  detach  the  power 
cord  from  the  back  of  the  machine.  Then  re- 
move the  cover  and  look  inside.  Is  it  dusty  or 
dirty  in  there?  If  so,  clean  it.  Do  not  use  deter- 
gent; a  can  of  compressed  air  of  the  sort  photog- 
raphers use  to  clean  lenses  and  negatives  might 
help  here.  While  you're  at  it,  remove  each 
peripheral  card  and  clean  its  edges — an  eraser 
can  be  a  good  tool  for  this. 

2.  Buy  a  brand-name  disk  head  cleaner  and 
use  it  to  spruce  up  your  disk  drive.  Dust,  dirt, 
human  hair,  smoke,  oil  from  a  heater,  food,  and 
aerosol  spray  mists  can  all  be  hazardous  to 
the  health  of  your  disk  drive.  It  needs  regular 

3.  Check  your  printer.  Pieces  of  paper,  ink 
from  the  ribbon,  and  dirt  can  easily  undermine 
its  sensitive  mechanisms.  Clean  it  thoroughly 
and  replace  used  ribbons  and  print  wheels. 

4.  Clean  the  outside  of  all  your  equipment, 

Now  available  at  ComputerLand,  Busl- 
nessland,  Softwaire  Centres,  and  at  all 
leading  computer  and  software  retailers. 
Ask  your  local  dealer  for  our  products 
or  order  direct  from  us  today. 



MAY  1984 

using  one  of  the  cleaners  sold  at  your  computer 
store  or  data  processing  supply  house.  These 
cleaners  have  been  designed  specifically  for  use 
on  computer  equipment. 

5.  Take  preventive  maintenance  seriously. 
For  starters,  this  means  getting  a  dust  cover  if 
you  don't  already  have  one  (and  then  using  it!). 

Preventive  maintenance  also  means  being 
aware  of  problems  that  can  arise  from  static 
electricity  build-up.  Special  carpets  and  sprays 
can  be  quite  helpful  in  preventing  problems  of 
this  sort.  Also,  it's  essential  that  you  use 
grounded  outlets— if  you're  not  doing  this,  or  if 
you're  not  using  the  two-prong  adapter  proper- 
ly, you're  asking  for  trouble.  Static  electricity 
can  easily  destroy  a  chip,  a  disk,  or  even  a 

Power  surges,  power  outages,  and  brown- 
outs can  also  cause  problems  for  your  Apple. 
You  may  need  to  buy  additional  equipment  de- 
signed to  prevent  serious  damage  to  your  com- 
puter resulting  from  external  conditions  over 
which  you  have  little  control.  Don't  wait  until 
something  happens — plan  for  it. 

Apple  HI  Things.  One  of  the  more  popular 
products  for  the  Apple  m  has  been  Apple  Com- 
puter's own  word  processing  package,  Apple 
Writer  III.  Now  this  package  has  been  up- 
graded. Among  the  noteworthy  features  of  the 
new  version  are  significantly  improved  docu- 
mentation, provisions  for  easier  cursor  control, 
a  built-in  interface  to  Apple  Speller,  a  template 
for  the  numeric  keypad  that  identifies  many  of 
the  more  commonly  used  commands,  and  a  new 



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A  professional  mailing  list  program  that  includes  a  sophisticated  duplication 
search  and  an  incredible  32,000  name  capacity  with  hard  disk  (up  to  2400 
with  Apple/floppy  version  -  up  to  5400  with  IBM/floppy  version).  Very 
straight-forward  and  easy-to-use,  includes  many  marketing  features.  Now 
with  Mail  Merge  utility  and  a  new  low  pricel 

"BULK  MAILER  is  both  a  technological  and  functional  advance  for  the  Ap- 
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•Broad  Coding  Capability  •Mail  Merge  Utility 

•32,000  Name  Capacity  «1-up  through  4- up  labels 

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Newly  revised  and  enhanced.  Perfect  for  retailers,  distributors  or  any  business 
involved  with  sales.  Can  track  up  to  2200  items  on  Apple,  and  up  to  10,000 
on  IBM,  and  provides  numerous  management  reports. 

"INVENTORY  MANAGER  is  among  the  most  complete  programs  of  its  type 
on  the  market  today."  "no  stone  unturned"  SOFTALK,  Dec.  1982 

•Detailed  Sales  Reports  «Ave/Cost  &  Ave/Sale  Price 

•Prints  Suggested  Orders  •Up  to  99  Vendors 

•Sorts  by  Vendor,  Dept. ,  Profit  *Prints  Purchase  Orders 

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Very  friendly,  fast  and  complete  legal  billing  system.  Features  our  exclusive 
"Video  Time-Slip"  for  "magic  quick"  record  entries.  Prints  detailed,  user- 
controlled  client  statements.  Very  easy-to-use  and  straight-forward. 

•Prints  Lawyer  Time  Reports        *User  Designated  Codes 
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•Up  to  3500  Time  Slips  (6500/IBM)  'Includes  Trust  Accounts 

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utility  disk  that  facilitates  the  transfer  of  files 
from  Apple  Writer  II,  Mail  List  Manager,  Quick 
File  III,  and  VisiCalc.  If  you're  still  using  the 
old  version  of  Apple  Writer  III,  you  just  might 
want  to  visit  your  dealer. 

And  while  you're  there,  you  might  want  to 
inquire  about  the  availability  of  the  new  Apple 
in  manuals.  In  particular,  you  may  find  it  help- 
ful to  look  over  the  SOS  Device  Driver  Writer's 
Guide  and  volumes  1  and  2  of  the  SOS  Ref- 
ference  manual. 

If  you're  one  who  likes  to  take  a  break  now 
and  then,  you've  probably  been  frustrated  more 
than  once  that  some  of  the  great  games  for  the 
Apple  II  can't  be  run  on  your  IH.  Now  there's  a 
plug-in  card,  Micro-Sci's  Game  Port  HI,  that 
gives  your  Apple  III  an  Apple  II  game  port. 
With  it,  most  Apple  II  game  software  will  run 
on  your  HI.  You  must,  of  course,  be  in  emula- 
tion mode,  but  that  should  be  of  little  conse- 

Bugging  a  Bug.  In  a  P.S.  to  a  recent  letter, 
one  of  our  Business  User  Group  members  asked 
for  a  brief  explanation  of  a  term  she  had  seen  in 
an  advertisement.  The  mystery  item  was  some- 
thing called  "spooling." 

It's  a  good  bet  that  the  advertisement  in 
question  had  something  to  do  with  a  printer.  Es- 
sentially, microcomputers  can  do  only  one  thing 
at  a  time.  Fortunately,  because  they  are  so  fast, 
we  don't  ordinarily  experience  much  of  a  delay 
as  they  go  about  their  business— except  when  it 
comes  time  to  print  out  whatever  we've  been 
working  on.  When  a  document  is  sent  to  the 
printer,  the  computer  itself  has  to  wait  for  the 
printing  job  to  be  completed.  And  since  the 
printer  usually  operates  at  a  much  slower  rate 
than  the  computer,  an  unnecessary  delay  oc- 
curs. Never  mind  that  you're  eager  to  get  on 
with  your  next  task;  you  must  wait  until  the 
computer  is  ready. 

The  solution  is  to  put  what  has  to  be  printed 
in  a  special  memory  area  from  which  it  can  be 
fed  to  the  printer.  Then  the  rest  of  the  computer 
can  go  back  to  work.  The  process  by  which  this 
is  accomplished  is  called  spooling,  which  can  be 
managed  in  either  of  two  ways — through  the  ad- 
dition of  a  card  containing  the  appropriate  mem- 
ory chips  (the  card  is  added  to  your  computer, 
to  your  printer,  or  to  a  box  in  between),  or 
through  software  that  places  the  information  in 
an  available  part  of  RAM  while  the  system  con- 
tinues with  other  tasks.  (This  second  choice  is 
the  more  limiting  of  the  two.) 

If  your  computer  spends  a  lot  of  its  time 
printing  reports  and  lists,  you  might  want  to 
think  about  adding  such  a  feature.  Check  those 
advertisements  again— maybe  they'll  be  clearer 
now.  Hi 

Accent  Software,  3750  Wright  Place,  Palo  Alto, 
CA  94306;  (415)  856-6505.  Apple  Computer, 
20525  Mariani  Avenue,  Cupertino,  CA  95014; 
(408)  996-1010.  Chalk  Board,  3772  Pleasant 
Dale  Road,  Atlanta,  GA  30340;  (404) 
496-0101.  Houston  Instruments,  Box  15720, 
Austin,  TX  78761;  (512)  835-0900.  Koala  Tech- 
nologies Corporation,  3100  Patrick  Henry 
Drive,  Santa  Clara,  CA  95050;  dealer  informa- 
tion numbers  (800)  227-6703,  (800)  632-2801 
(in  California).  Micro-Sci,  2158  South  Hatha- 
way, Santa  Ana,  CA  92705;  (714)  241-5600. 

Glide  through  a  full  side  of  programs  each  month. 


There's  plenty  to  explore  in  each  issue 
of  Softdisk,  the  interactive  magazette. 
More  than  a  dozen  programs  a  beginner 
can  learn  to  peek  and  poke  through. 
Move  them,  modify  them,  improve  them. 
Learn  to  understand  programming  at 
your  leisure  and  have  fun  with  a  few 
games.  Current  issues  feature  a  write- 
your-own  general  ledger  series  and  a 
DOS  tutorial.  And  now— most  of  the 
listings  that  appear  in  Softalk  each 
month  are  included  in  Softdisk.  Save 
yourself  all  that  typing! 

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Address  . 


Visa/Mastercard  # . 

MAY  1984 



Appfe  II  Forever! 

A  Baby  Apple  That's 
Nobody's  Junior  _ 


Perhaps  the  most  remarkable  quality  of  the  Apple  II  has  been 
its  durability;  it  doesn't  take  a  cynic  to  ponder  just  how  long  the 
now-seven-year-old  computer  can  continue  to  dominate — yet  just 
when  we  wonder  about  it,  some  innovator  plumbs  a  new  depth  in 
this  remarkable  machine.  And  we  realize  once  again  that  we  still 
don't  know  its  limits. 

With  the  Apple  lie,  corporate  Apple  indicated  that  it  didn't 
consider  the  Apple  II  a  dead  issue  either;  but  the  He's  innovations 
were  updates  more  than  breakthroughs.  The  news  on  the  creative 
front  at  the  time  was  Lisa.  Macintosh,  arriving  a  year  later,  set 
rumors  flying  again  about  the  remaining  life  span  of  the  Apple  II. 

Introducing  the  Apple  He.  Creative  and  innovative,  and  hard 
news  in  its  own  right,  the  He  flies  in  the  face  of  our  cynical  mo- 
ments—and Apple  knows  it.  With  the  advent  of  the  He  comes  a 
new  slogan  that  leaves  no  doubt  what  Apple  Computer  Inc.  thinks 
of  the  II  product  line:  Apple  II  Forever! 

It  isn't  what's  inside  the  computer  that's  the  biggest  news.  The 
He  is  at  heart  a  full-bodied  He—  128K  with  double  hi-res,  com- 
plete full-size  He-configuration  keyboard,  eighty  columns  (with  a 
toggle  for  forty),  and  upper  and  lower  case  standard  (with  lower 
case  accepted  even  by  Applesoft). 

It's  the  outside  that's  spectacular.  Weighing  in  at  seven 
pounds— with  disk  drive  built  in— the  He  is  a  natural  winner. 

Seven  pounds.  Less  than  a  bag  of  groceries.  A  lot  less  than  a 
bowling  ball.  About  as  much  as  a  newborn  baby.  Probably  less 
than  your  briefcase  on  a  busy  day — which,  incidentally,  it  will  fit 
into.  In  planning  the  lie,  the  Apple  design  team  combed  the  stores 
for  small  briefcases,  determined  that  the  new  Apple  should  fit 
into  the  smallest  of  them.  As  a  result,  the  lie  is  eleven  inches 
wide,  twelve  inches  deep,  and  two  inches  high. 

The  Apple  lie  is  a  computer  system  that  you  can  pass  to  a 
friend  across  the  table  with  one  hand. 

You  can  stick  it  in  a  desk  drawer  when  company  comes. 

You  can  stuff  it  under  the  car  seat  while  you're  at  the  beach. 
With  the  battery  packs  promised  soon,  you  can  take  it  to  the 
beach  with  you. 

And  when  your  next-door  neighbor  comes  borrowing,  you 
can  hide  it  under  the  soap.  Well,  almost. 

He  or  Not  He.  Skeptics  needn't  take  Apple's  word.  Develop- 
ers too  are  jumping  on  the  lie  bandwagon— responding  possibly 
even  more  vigorously,  though  not  more  excitedly,  to  the  baby 
Apple  than  to  Mac.  More  than  a  hundred  developers  exhibited 
products  at  Apple's  April  24  bash  at  Moscone  Center  in  San 
Francisco,  where  the  lie  was  introduced  to  dealers.  Almost  all 
Apple  II  and  He  software  runs  on  the  lie,  but  its  extended 
capabilities  open  up  new  avenues  for  developers,  or  make  feasi- 
ble some  old  ones  that  weren't  economically  sound  before— like 

128K  programs.  (Publishers  are  understandably  reluctant  to  ad- 
dress memory-enhanced  machines  to  the  exclusion  of  off-the- 
shelf  configurations.) 

Only  a  few  developers  already  have  products  specifically 
created  or  enhanced  for  the  lie.  Broderbund  has  modified  its 
new  Print  Shop  to  print  out  in  color  on  the  lie's  three-hundred- 
dollar  companion  Scribe  printer;  the  Broderbunch  also  demoed  a 
not-yet-titled  mouse-run  double-hi-res  graphics  package  by 
David  Snider,  facetiously  referred  to  as  "David's  Midnight 

Scholastic  claimed  the  "first  original  program  for  the  lie"  to  be 
their  Fact  and  Fiction  Tool  Kit,  a  dual  program  for  people  at  least 
eight  years  old.  Mouse-driven  and  illustrated  in  double  hi-res,  Fact 
and  Fiction  contains  Story  Maker,  which  teaches  creativity 
through  writing  and  clip  art  illustration,  and  Secret  Filer,  an  easy- 
to-use  electronic  filing  system  that's  intended  to  teach  logical 
thinking,  organizational  skills,  and  how  to  use  databases. 

Double  hi-res  is  a  popular  enhancement  that  He  owners  (with 
later  motherboards  than  revision  A)  can  enjoy;  Penguin  Software 
leads  the  pack  in  converting  its  line  of  adventures  and  graphics 
utilities  to  display  sixteen  hi-res  colors. 


gum  i 

MAY  1984 

Nor  is  hardware  to  be  forgotten.  The  disadvantage  of  the  lie 
is  its  lack  of  expandability;  it  has  no  slots.  Not  a  one.  What  the 
lie  does  have  is  a  slew  of  ports:  two  serial  RS-232  ports,  presum- 
ably for  printer,  plotter,  or  modem;  an  extended  video  port  for 
RF  modulator,  RGB,  or  liquid  crystal  display;  an  RCA  stan- 
dard composite  video  port  for  color  or  monochrome  monitor;  an 
external  disk  drive  port  (with  controller  built  in);  and  a  mouse/ 
joystick  port. 

Street  Electronics  gets  a  head  start  in  hardware  with  The 
Cricket,  a  voice,  sound  effects,  and  music  generator  combined 
with  a  clock.  Not  wanting  to  leave  lie  owners  out  in  the  cold, 
Street  simultaneously  announced  the  Alpha-Bits  serial  interface,  a 
plug-in  board  that  emulates  the  He's  serial  ports  in  the  lie. 

So  the  He's  lack  of  expandability  may  merely  come  down  to 
the  difference  between  plugging  jacks  in  the  back  and  lots  in 
the  slots. 

All  the  News  That's  Fit  lie.  The  Apple  lie  has  inspired  more 
than  a  slogan;  at  its  launching  party  in  San  Francisco,  Apple 
revealed  major  marketing  changes  in  look  and  policy  for  almost 
all  its  packages  and  products.  The  lie's  oysterlike  just-off-white 
color  is  heralded  as  the  official  Apple  color  and  its  "overall 
look" — one  assumes  Apple  refers  to  the  European-looking  italic 
keyboard  lettering,  the  long,  slender  air  vents,  and  the  beige  key- 
board—as The  Apple  Look  for  the  future. 

The  outside  packaging  is  no  less  a  change.  No  more  sedate 
white  boxes  with  the  Apple  logo.  The  new  look's  packaging  is 
brightly  colored,  with  peppy  photos  on  every  side — predominate- 
ly red  for  Apple  lis,  blue  for  the  thirty -two-bit  Apples.  Manuals, 
disk  jackets,  and  disk  labels  are  all  to  follow  the  theme.  It's  fresh 
and  slick  and  tailor-made  for  the  mass  consumer  market. 

It's  a  good  question  whether,  at  just  under  thirteen  hundred 
dollars,  the  lie  is  a  mass  consumer  product.  Apple's  betting  that  it 
is.  At  list,  the  three-hundred-dollar  Commodore  64  seems  a 
whole  lot  cheaper— until  you  add  on  its  six-hundred-dollar  disk 

drive.  The  lie's  got  the  disk  drive  built  in  and  double  the  mem- 
ory. When  the  difference  is  four  hundred  bucks  instead  of  a 
thousand,  the  masses  may  start  massing. 

Lust  for  Power.  The  reason  Apple  calls  this  eminently  carry- 
able  computer  transportable— a  word  generally  reserved  for 
anything  that  can  be  moved  from  place  to  place  by  truck  or  train, 
for  instance — as  opposed  to  portable  is  a  valid  one,  even  if  it 
destroys  a  perfectly  good  word  to  make  its  point.  Portable,  ac- 
cording to  Apple,  means  capable  of  being  used  in  the  process  of 
being  carried  around,  like  a  portable  radio.  Transportable,  says 
Apple,  means  capable  of  being  moved  from  place  to  place  fairly 
easily,  but  not  usable  in  transit.  As  it's  being  released,  the  lie, 
like  the  "transportable"  Mac,  needs  an  electrical  outlet  to  run. 

Actually,  it  needs  more  than  an  outlet — it  needs  a  power  sup- 
ply. The  one  that  comes  with  it  weighs  about  a  pound  and  a  half 
and  is  about  the  size  and  shape  of  a  small  brick.  Apple  is  encour- 
aging people  who  plan  to  take  their  He's  back  and  forth  between 
home  and  work  to  purchase  an  extra  power  pack  to  avoid  the  need 
to  transport  it,  too.  At  forty  dollars,  that's  not  a  bad  idea.  Besides 
avoiding  extra  weight,  Apple's  choosing  not  to  build  in  the  power 
supply  makes  using  the  He  with  a  battery  pack  (which,  presum- 
ably, makes  it  portable  at  last)  more  attractive. 

Also  not  included  in  the  He  system  is  a  monitor.  Apple  ex- 
pects many  buyers  to  opt  in  favor  of  using  their  television  sets  as 
monitors — so  much  so  that  an  RF  modulator  is  part  of  the  package 
and  all  mentions  of  eighty-column  mode  sport  warnings  against 
trying  to  use  it  on  a  TV  set.  It's  okay  for  the  moment;  even  busi- 
ness travelers  can  make  do  with  televisions  as  monitors  in  ho- 
tel rooms. 

To  get  the  most  out  of  the  He's  eighty  columns,  though,  you 
do  need  a  monitor,  and  Apple  has  designed  one,  priced  at  around 
two  hundred  fifty  dollars;  it's  tiny  and  fits  right  in  with  the  He.  It 
sits  on  a  stand  elevated  just  enough  above  the  lie  to  let  air  cir- 
culate; the  legs  of  the  stand  curve  forward  from  the  back  of  the 
monitor  so  the  monitor  is  cantilevered  over  the  computer. 

That's  now.  Promised  by  September  is  a  small,  slim,  full- 
screen liquid  crystal  display.  The  He's  carrying  case  already 
has  a  pocket  for  it.  Weighing  considerably  less  than  a  pound,  the 
LCD  has  eighty  columns  and  twenty-four  rows,  as  is  the  case 
with  normal  monitors.  In  fact  it  will  display  anything  a  regular 
monitor  will,  even  graphics,  although  fast  arcade-type  games  will 
leave  trails. 

With  the  arrival  of  its  LCD,  and  the  advent  of  the  third-party 
battery  power  packs  (as  well  as  a  device  for  running  the  lie 
through  your  car's  cigarette  lighter),  the  He  will  be  truly  porta- 
ble—and we  can  forget  the  ungainly  misuse  of  the  word  trans- 
portable in  the  Apple  II  world. 

A  Manner  of  Speaking.  As  it  did  with  the  Mac,  Apple  has 
carefully  kept  the  noncomputerist  in  mind  in  putting  together  the 
Apple  lie.  For  instance,  if  you  boot  your  older  II  system  with  the 
disk  drive  door  open,  the  disk  just  spins.  The  lie  speaks  a  new 
dialect.  In  the  same  situation,  it  says,  "Check  disk  drive."  And 
when  you're  making  backups,  there's  no  need  to  remember 
which  is  which— when  to  run  Copy  A,  when  to  brun  FID,  when  to 
run  ProDOS's  Filer  or  Convert;  you  just  boot  up  the  System 
Utilities  disk  and  choose  between  "Work  on  Individual  Files" 
and  "Work  on  Entire  Disks." 

The  manuals  are  totally  new.  They're  entirely  in  English 
(even  pretty  elementary  English)  and  are  peppered  with  boxes 
telling  hackers  not  to  bother  reading  on,  just  go  get  the  separate 
reference  manual  instead. 

Ilnd  to  None.  The  significance  of  the  Apple  He  is  easy  for 
Apple  II  and  Be  owners  to  overlook;  of  most  relevance  to  us  is 
that  the  greater  the  success  of  the  Be,  the  more  super  software 
there'll  be  written  for  it,  much  of  which  we'll  be  able  to  run  on  our 

may  1984  SOETALlnp  59 

Els  and  lie's.  More  significant  in  the  overall  scheme  of  things  is 
the  potential  position  the  lie  gives  Apple  in  the  micro  market. 

Since  International  Business  Machines 's  release  of  the  PCjr, 
the  Apple  He's  sales  have  boomed.  The  Apple  He,  coming  in  at  a 
price  comparable  to  a  similarly  equipped  Junior  and  light  enough 
for  virtually  anyone  to  tote  around  perfectly  comfortably,  is  al- 
most bound  to  dominate  the  higher-end  home  market  (as  well  as 
eating  into  the  more  serious-minded  lower-end).  Some  business 
travelers  may  be  tempted  to  furnish  their  offices  with  computers 
compatible  with  the  one  they'd  like  to  carry  on  the  plane. 

Then  there  are  those  who  haven't  really  considered  buying  a 

computer  yet.  In  an  informal  survey  of  computerless  people,  a 
large  percentage,  upon  seeing  the  lie,  immediately  began  plan- 
ning how  and  when  they  could  manage  to  purchase  one.  Among 
their  comments:  "It's  the  first  computer  that  doesn't  look 
threatening."  "It  doesn't  look  like  it  would  take  over  my  house 
and  life."  "It's  so  cute."  '  T  could  take  it  any  where  with  me."  "I 
could  take  it  with  me  instead  of  my  portable  typewriter— it's  even 
lighter  than  my  typewriter."  "It's  just  right  for  the  kids."  "It 
doesn't  look  like  a  machine."  "It  fits." 

Light,  sassy,  sweet.  Go  on,  just  try  to  ignore  the  delicious  lie 
in  your  future.  Ill 

Carry  On  Apple 

The  lie  Bows  in  Europe 

Fred  Bullock,  a  sharp  young  Englishman  who  moved  to  Paris 
to  join  Apple  Computer  International  (see  Exec  article),  is  the 
product  marketing  manager  in  Europe  for  the  Apple  Uc— which 
until  April  24  was  code-named  in  Europe  "Picasso."  The  han- 
dling of  the  He,  announced  simultaneously  in  the  United  States 
and  Europe  and  introduced  to  dealers  more  or  less  at  the  same 
time  on  both  sides  of  the  Atlantic,  demonstrates  the  sometimes 
complicated  preparation  needed  to  introduce  a  major  new  product. 

Bullock,  who  has  been  involved  with  the  European  introduc- 
tion of  the  Uc  since  November  of  last  year,  says  the  process  of  in- 
troducing a  new  product  all  starts  with  MRDs  (manufacturing  re- 
quirement documents).  An  MRD  is  a  report  incorporating  infor- 
mation gathered  from  talks  with  dealers  and  end  user  surveys  indi- 
cating the  manufacturing  requirements  for  a  product  in  a  par- 
ticular region. 

In  Europe,  a  region  which  is  actually  a  dozen  very  different 
countries  with  a  potentially  wide  range  of  specific  requirements, 
the  details  of  the  MRD  can  get  quite  complicated.  In  Sweden,  for 
instance,  there  is  considerable  pressure  from  unions  to  ban  sales 
of  computers  that  do  not  have  detachable  keyboards.  Likewise 
there  is  a  push  in  Germany  and  Sweden,  possibly  the  two  most 
ergonomically  conscious  countries  in  the  world,  to  ban  sales  of 
video  monitors  that  do  not  have  amber  displays. 

The  two  MRDs  from  Europe  and  the  U.S.  are  combined  to 
form  a  global  MRD  that  is  sent  to  the  engineering  department, 
which,  in  turn,  produces  an  ERS  (engineering  response).  Then 
there  is  a  "kind  of  tennis  match  between  the  engineering  and 
marketing  departments  that  takes  two  to  three  months,"  says 
Bullock.  Once  the  volleying  is  over,  a  PIP  (product  introduction 
plan)  is  created  for  both  the  U.S.  and  Europe. 

The  PIP  defines  the  product  and  its  market.  The  PIP,  at  least  in 
the  case  of  Europe,  details  any  localization  requirements.  For  in- 
stance, in  most  of  the  countries  in  Europe  the  video  display  in- 
terface must  comply  with  the  PAL  standard,  as  opposed  to  the 
NCST  standard  in  the  States.  Keyboards,  character  PROMS, 
manuals,  and  servicing  strategies  must  also  be  localized.  The  PIP 
also  defines  how  the  product  is  going  to  be  promoted  in  the  dif- 
ferent areas. 

Another  important  aspect  of  getting  a  product  ready  for  market 
is  the  seeding  of  systems  to  local  developers.  "One  of  Apple's 
main  concerns  is  to  maintain  system  compatibility— between  the 
He  and  lie— with  the  n  Plus.  It's  important  that  the  new  version  of 
the  famous  Apple  n  still  run  90  percent  of  the  existing  software. 
But  it's  also  important  that  there  be  new  software  for  a  new  ma- 

With  this  in  mind,  Apple  has  seeded  eighteen  systems 
throughout  Europe  with  the  goal  of  having  localized  software 
ready  for  the  launch  of  the  lie. 

The  Uc  is  an  ambitious  attempt  to  enter  the  high  end  of  the  dif- 
ficult European  consumer  market.  The  Uc  is  seen  as  having  the 
best  opportunity  for  success  when  marketed  as  a  personal  produc- 
tivity tool  for  businesspeople,  though  its  portability  means  it  may 
double  frequently  as  a  home  machine. 

"As  a  machine  for  the  European  consumer  market,  we  see  the 
Uc  as  affordable  enough  for  people  to  buy  with  their  own  money; 
it's  also  easy  to  use,  easy  to  carry,  and  easy  to  install,"  says 

"In  America  the  Uc  is  squarely  aimed  at  the  mass  consumer 
market, ' '  Bullock  continues . '  'But  in  Europe  the  consumer  market 
is  not  as  developed  as  it  is  in  the  States.  Here,  people  will  spend  up 
to  $600.  There  is  a  big  void  between  $600  and  $1 ,500,  and  we  see 
the  Uc  as  existing  in  the  middle  of  that  void. " 

Apple,  according  to  Bullock,  sees  the  He  and  lie  existing  side 
by  side  in  Europe.  The  main  difference  between  the  two  Us  is  the 
seven  expansion  slots  on  the  He  and  the  portability  of  the  Uc.  The 
He  is  aimed  at  education  and  more  demanding  business  applica- 
tions, those  that  require  networking  or  hard  disks,  while  the  He  is 
aimed  at  business  managers  and  perhaps  clerical  staff  workers. 

"The  He  is  not  obsolete.  We  plan  to  sell  as  many  He's  in  the 
future  as  we  are  selling  now,"  Bullock  explains.  Even  so,  the  He 
is  expected  to  top  off  at  65  or  70  percent  of  Apple's  II  family  sales 
in  Europe  within  a  year  or  so. 

''The  Uc  has  a  lot  more  functionality  than  the  lie,"  Bullock 
continues.  "One  of  the  things  that  Sculley  insisted  on  when  he 
joined  Apple  was  that  we  continue  the  Apple  tradition  of  using  in- 
novative technology. 

'  'The  Uc  is  a  good  value  for  the  money .  The  price  of  the  He  in 
Europe  will  be  approximately  6  percent  higher  than  its  price  in  the 
States.  This  increase  is  attributable  to  the  cost  of  importing  parts 
and  the  freight  charges  for  those  parts.  The  main  computer  is  manu- 
factured in  Ireland,  the  motherboard  comes  from  Singapore,  the 
monitor  is  imported  from  the  Far  East." 

The  basic  Uc  package  includes  128K,  double  hi-res  graphics,  a 
built-in  disk  drive,  eighty-column  display,  two  serial  ports,  the  ex- 
ternal power  supply,  a  standard  adapter  for  a  TV  set,  and  six 
disks'  worth  of  software. 

Apple's  strategy  is  to  provide  buyers  with  all  they  need  to  get 
the  machine  up  and  running  right  away.  Bullock  says  it  would 
have  been  nice  to  include  a  mouse,  but  every  extra  item  would 
have  driven  the  price  up  and  perhaps  turned  off  potential  buyers. 
The  same  is  true  with  Apple's  streamlined  He  monitor.  It  is  hoped 
that  the  TV  adapter  will  meet  most  buyers'  needs  until  they  can  af- 
ford the  additional  ouday  for  a  monitor.  A  liquid  crystal  display 
screen  should  be  available  later  in  the  year. 

Apple  Computer  International,  located  in  Neuilly-sur-Seine 
just  outside  Paris,  is  Apple's  strategic  headquarters  for  all  of 
Europe  and  handles  the  introduction  of  products  and  setting  up  of 
initial  marketing  strategies  and  pricing  structures.  After  three 
months,  the  individual  countries — France,  The  United  Kingdom, 
Italy,  Spain,  Portugal,  Greece,  Sweden,  Switzerland,  Norway, 
Denmark,  the  Netherlands,  Turkey,  Yugoslavia,  West  Germany, 
Belgium,  Austria,  Finland,  Cyprus,  Malta,  and  Israel— take  over 
the  responsibilities  of  managing  a  product.  "They  know  the  in- 
dividual markets  better  than  we  ever  could,"  says  Bullock.  "M 





The  "Second  Serial 
Hardware  Decision"... 

Once  you've  selected  the  right 
serial  printer  or  modem  for  your 
Apple*  system,  your  hardware 
decisions  are  over  for  a  while. 

Wrong,  of  course!  You  still 
have  to  decide  on  an  interface 
card.  This  "second  serial  hard- 
ware decision"  is  an  important 
one— one  made  much  simpler 

seriALL  Printer/Modem  Interface 

by  seriALL™,  the  new  serial 
interface  for  Apple  computers. 

At  a  significantly  lower  cost 
than  Apple's  own  serial  card 
—$159.00  vs  $195.00— SERIALL 
gives  you  a  bunch  more 
features.  Practical,  everyday 
features,  not  useless  extras. 

For  one,  seriALL  is  the  only 
interface  that  provides  graphics 
capabilities  for  serial  printers 
including  Apple's  new  dot 
matrix  Imagewriter™. 

Graphics  capabilities 
for  serial  printers 

seriALL  also  offers  27  easy 
commands  for  text  formatting 
and  screen  dumps,  making  it 
the  most  intelligent  serial 
interface  you  can  use  with  an 

Equally  important,  seriALL 
gives  you  complete  communica- 
tions interfacing  capability.  You 
can  use  it  for  modems  or  in  the 
special  terminal  mode  for 
timesharing  and  talking  to  other 

In  fact,  seriALL  completely 
emulates  the  Apple  serial  card 
as  a  communications  interface. 

No  additional  software  or  hard- 
ware modification  is  required. 

Finally,  consider  the  quality. 
seriALL's  five-year  warranty  is 
proof  that  this  interface  is  built 
to  work  long  and  hard.  No 
other  serial  card  is  backed  by  a 
guarantee  like  this. 

After  comparing  seriALL 
feature-for-feature  with  other 
serial  interface  products,  we 
think  you'll  agree— seriALL  truly 
is  the  Do-lt-AII  serial  card  for 
Apple  computers. 

Available  from  Practical 
Peripherals— makers  of 
PRinterface™,  and  GraphiCard1 

'Apple  and  Imagewriter  are  registered  trademarks  of  Apple  Computers,  Inc. 


31245  La  Baya  Dr.,  Westlake  Village,  CA  9I362  •  (818)991-8200  •  TWX  910-336-5431 

By  Jim  Merritt 

Jungle  Fever,  Part  14 

In  Your  Letter.  An  ever-increasing  number  of  your  letters  have  sug- 
gested that  this  column  address  the  advanced  concepts  of  pointers  and 
dynamic  data  structures.  Indeed,  the  first  requests  for  information  on 
those  topics  arrived  well  over  two  years  ago.  Unfortunately,  we  were 
covering  the  most  elementary  aspects  of  Pascal  at  the  time;  it  seemed  im- 
prudent then  to  launch  into  a  discussion  of  esoteric  techniques.  After  all, 
we  had  to  learn  to  walk  before  we  could  run.  In  recent  months,  however, 
we  have  ventured  fearlessly  down  the  darker,  lonelier  stretches  of  the 
Pascal  Path  and  have  in  fact  maintained  a  rapid  pace  through  the  thick 
underbrush  of  advanced  methodology.  Thus,  there  is  simply  no  point  in 
stalling  any  further. 

On  the  Street  of  Dreams.  Suppose  you  write  a  letter  to  the  Pascal 
Path  but  have  no  stamps.  You  go  to  the  post  office  and  wait  your  turn  at 
the  stamp  counter.  Eventually,  you  arrive  at  the  head  of  the  line  and  ap- 
proach a  window.  But  just  as  you  get  there,  the  clerk  pulls  down  the  shut- 
ter, on  which  is  printed  the  legend  "next  window  please,"  along  with  a 
rightward-pointing  arrow.  So  you  move  to  the  next  window,  just  as  the 
clerk  there  pulls  down  his  shutter!  And  on  you  go,  in  a  scene  straight  out 
of  an  absurdist  nightmare  or  a  television  commercial  for  overnight  couri- 
er service,  following  the  arrow  as  it  appears  in  window  after  window, 
your  frustration  building  until,  finally,  you  arrive  at  the  only  window 
that  remains  open  in  the  entire  post  office.  With  an  evil  twinkle  in  his 
eye,  the  clerks  asks,  "May  I  help  you?"  But  his  offer  of  assistance 
comes  too  late.  You  have  withdrawn  into  yourself,  mumbling  and  gig- 
gling, mad  as  a  hatter,  just  one  more  hapless  traveler  who  wandered  too 
far  into  the  philatelic  region  of  ...  the  Pointer  Zone! 

Me  and  My  Arrow.  The  basic  concept  of  a  pointer  is  as  simple  to 
comprehend  as  the  words  and  arrows  painted  on  the  stamp-window  shut- 
ters in  our  fictional  post  office.  Applying  that  concept,  however,  can  lead 
to  frustration  and  confusion  not  unlike  that  which  you'd  experience  while 
playing  out  our  post  office  scenario. 

To  a  computer  scientist,  a  pointer  is  nothing  more  than  a  datum  that 
tells  you  (or  your  program)  where  to  find  another,  more  interesting 
datum.  By  that  definition,  our  old  friend,  the  array  index,  may  be  consid- 
ered as  a  pointer  (and  righdy  so).  Given  an  Integer  variable— let's  call  it 
I— you  may  certainly  treat  its  value  as  a  datum  in  its  own  right,  perhaps 
by  assigning  it  to  other  variables  or  by  performing  arithmetic  operations 
upon  it.  But  you  may  also  use  I  as  an  index  into  an  array,  in  which  case 
it  acts  as  the  address  of  another  value  that  interests  you.  If  I  contained 
23,  for  instance,  then  the  ARRAY  reference  A[I]  names  the  same  area  in 
memory  (and  so  the  same  datum)  as  A[23].  If  you  change  the  value  in  I, 
then  A[I]  suddenly  refers  to  a  different  spot  in  RAM.  In  other  words,  the 
new  value  of  I  "points  to"  a  place  (or  an  object)  that  is  different  from  the 
old  one. 

Integers,  Strings,  Characters,  and  many  other  types  of  data  may  be 
coerced  into  serving  as  pointers.  But  this  is  generally  unnecessary  in 
Pascal  (except  in  the  common  "special  case"  of  array  or  matrix  in- 

dexes), because  Pascal  provides  a  special  type  of  variable  that  serves  no 
purpose  other  than  to  point  at  useful  data.  The  proper  name  for  this  class 
of  object  is  pointer  variable.  When  a  Pascal  programmer  speaks  of  a 
"pointer,"  he/she  is  usually  talking  about  such  a  variable  and  not  about 
the  computer  scientist's  generalized  notion  of  a  "pointer." 

Welcome  to  My  Nightmare.  Let's  jump  right  into  a  tiny  program 
that  uses  Pascal  pointer  variables  to  simulate  our  postal  nightmare: 





(*$S+  *)  (*  Apple  III  Doesn't  need  this  *) 















(*  Simulate  the  postal  patron's  nightmare, 





as  described  in  the  May  1984  installment 





of  Softalk  Magazine's  Pascal  Path. 



















WindowList  = 














Window  = 















:(Closed,  Open); 















END  (*  Window  *); 







































:  Integer; 









BEGIN  (*  Nightmare  *) 





(*  Set  up  the  list  of  windows:  *) 





LHead     :=  NIL; 





LTail        :=  NIL; 





LMid       :=  NIL; 





FOR  I       :  =  1  TO  10  DO 










(*  Allocate  space  for  new  list 
node  *) 










IF  (I  =  10) 










LMidA. Status  :  =  Open 










LMidA. Status  :  =  Closed; 


mm]  v 

MAY  1984 


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of  string  handling  functions 

•  Full  support  of  operating 
system  facilities 

•  Random  access  data  files 

•  Program  chaining  with 
common  variables 

•  Compiler  and  editor  resident 
in  memory  when  compiling 

•  Build-in  transcendental 

•  Automatic  Overlays  —  no 
addresses  or  memory  space 
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Here's  what  the  reviewers 
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It  is  simply  put  the  best 
software  deal  to  come  along  in 
a  long  time.  If  you  have  the 
slightest  interest  in  Pascal . . . 
buy  it! 

Bruce  Webster 
Softalk  IBM 

March  1984 

The  Perfect  Pascal. 

Alan  R.  Miller 
Interface  Age 
January  1984 

Turbo  Pascal  is  a  giant  step 
in  the  right  direction. 

Jerry  Pournelle 
Byte,  April  1984 

TURBO  PASCAL  includes  a 
250  page  bound  manual  with 
extensive  explanations  and 
many  illustrative  examples. 

Turbo  Pascal  $49.95  +  $5.00 
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California  residents  add  6%  sales  tax  Outside  U  S  A 
add  $15  00  (If  outside  of  USA  payment  must  be  by 
bank  draft  payable  in  the  U.S.  and  in  U  S  dollars  ) 
Sorry,  no  C  O  D  or  Purchase  Orders  * 





(*  This  will  become  new  last 

node.  *) 





LMidA.Next :  =  NIL; 









IF  (LHeari  -  Nil  1 

II     ^Ll  1  CuU    —    1  N  1  1—  j 





THFN  (*  thi<5  nnHp  i<5  thp  firQt 

II  IL.IN  ^      LI  Mo  1  IUUC  i  o  11  IC  1 1 1  OL 

/hpari^  nnrlp  *\ 

\\  ICQU|  1  IUUC  ) 





1  Hpari  ■  -  I  Mid 

I— I  ICOU  .  —  LIVIIU 



1 :3 


PI  QF  (*  fnrr^P  r\IH  tail  nnHo 

LLOL  \      IUI  UC  UIU  laM  1  IUUC 



1 :3 


to  point  to  new  tail.  *) 





1  TflilA  Npvt  •  —  1  MiH- 





(*  nnnfirm  npw  *\ 

\       UUI  1 1 1 1  1  1  1  1  IOW  LCUI .  1 





LTail  :  =  LMid; 





END  (*  FOR  1  *); 









(*  M C\\ki  va/p  arp  roaHu  tr»  cimi  ilato 
^    inuw,  wc  die  icauy  iu  oiiiiuicuc 

the  nightmare.  *) 





\A/ritcal  n/OiitmitV    (*  \\  ict  tr*  ho  nrottw  *\ 
vviucLi  ^uui[juij,  ^   jubi  iu  uc  pi  City  ) 



1 :1 


IF  (L Hpad  =  NIM 

II      \L- 1   1 UQU    —     1  N  1  L  j 










Writel_n(Output,  'No  windows.  ) 


.  1 













\A/ritpl  nfOi  itni  it  'VA/inHruA/ 

V V  1  I1CLI  I\WUIL)UI,     VV II  IUUW 




1 :3 


Writpl  n(C)\  itni  itV 





1  Mid  •  -  1  Hpad' 

LIVIIU  .  —    LI  ICaU, 










IF  (LMidA. Status  =  Open) 



1 :4 


THPM  (*  va/p'tp  r\c\r\&  *\ 

II  1  l_  1  i   ^       WC  IC  UUI  IC  j 










Writpl  iVOi  itni  it 

V  V  1  IICLI  1^ UUl|JU  L , 

'Mqu  |  hpln  v/nii?'V 





1  MiH  ■  —  Nil  ■ 










Fl  ^F  I*  no  nn  tn  npyt 

LLOL  ^      y \J  KJl  1  IKJ  1  1CAI 

\A/inHn\A/  *\ 

Wl  1  IUUW  ...  1 



1 :5 







Writpl  n(Ci\  itnt  it 

V  V  1  IICI—I  l^vUlfJUL, 






Plpacp   *^  'V 

r  icqoc  y, 





LMid  :  = 











UNTIL  (LMid  =  NIL); 










END    (*  Nightmare  *). 

Remember,  the  shaded  portion  of  the  listing  is  not  part  of  the  source 
text  and  should  not  be  included  in  your  copy  of  the  Nightmare  program. 
We  will  use  the  line  numbers  in  the  far  left-hand  column,  however,  in  or- 
der to  locate  crucial  sections  of  Nightmare  as  they  become  germane  to 
our  discussion. 

In  lines  10  and  1 1 ,  we  define  a  data  type,  WindowList,  as  a  pointer  to 
values  of  another  data  type,  Window.  Figure  1  repeats  March's  syntax 
diagram  for  a  data  type  descriptor;  the  path  that  describes  a  "pointer 
type"  is  shaded  to  make  it  more  conspicuous.  Just  so  there  is  no  misun- 
derstanding, you  should  take  a  moment  to  convince  yourself  that  the 
definition  of  WindowList  agrees  with  the  syntax  described  by  figure  1 . 

The  caret  in  the  type  descriptor  associated  with  WindowList  indicates 
that  any  variable  of  type  WindowList  will  be  a  pointer.  Following  the 
caret  is  an  identifier,  Window,  which  indicates  the  object  type— that  is, 
the  type  of  data  to  which  a  WindowList  variable  may  point.  When  read- 
ing program  listings  aloud  (or  even  to  yourself),  the  caret  symbol  that 
precedes  an  object-type  identifier  should  be  pronounced  as  "pointer  to." 
Thus,  A  Window  should  be  read  as  "pointer  to  Window." 

You  Got  Me  Going  in  Circles.  At  this  point  (sorry),  the  careful 
reader  will  begin  to  smell  a  rat.  "We  haven't  defined  Window  yet,"  you 
will  shout,  in  tones  of  righteous  indignation.  Quite  so.  Indeed,  Window 
is  defined  immediately  after  WindowList  (in  lines  13  through  19).  The 
compiler  accepts  these  declarations  in  the  order  given,  in  clear  violation 
of  one  of  Pascal's  fundamental  tenets  (shout  it  out  loud!):  "No  identifier 
shall  be  used  before  it  has  been  declared."  It  so  happens  that  the  com- 
piler's design  permits  it  to  ignore  this  rule  in  the  special  case  of  pointer 
definitions.  That  is,  object-type  identifiers  may  be  used  in  pointer-type 
definitions  before  being  declared.  To  see  why  this  situation  is  desirable 
(and  usually  necessary),  we  must  examine  the  declaration  of  Window. 

SoftCaixl  g 
squeezes  the  most  juice 


Microsoft*  Premium  SoftCard  He 
is  the  high-performance  CP/M® 
board  that  really  juices  the  Apple  "  lie. 
Hard  facts  on  SoftCarcL 

It  has  a  high  speed  (6MHz)  Z-80 
that  runs  CP/M  up  to  three  times 
faster  than  lesser  boards.  Plus  64K 
memory  and  80-column  display  that 
fits  the  lie  auxiliary  slot  and  acts  like 
Apple  s  own  Extended  80-column 
Card.  So  it  works  with  CP/M,  Apple 
DOS  and  ProDOS  programs,  too. 

Microsoft  BASIC  is  built-in,  so  its 
compatible  with  more  Apple  CP/M 
software  than  any  other  board  on 
the  market:  Thousands  of  the  juiciest 
business  programs  including 
dBase  II®  WordStar®  and  sophis- 
ticated Microsoft  languages  like 

Microsoft  is  a  registered  trademark  of  Microsoft  Corporation  Apple  is  a  registered  trademark  of 
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— «-(record>- 



3-0— C 

Figure  1 .  Type  specification. 

A  Window  variable  is  a  RECORD  of  two  fields:  Status,  which  tells 
whether  or  not  the  simulated  Window  is  Open  or  Closed;  and  Next, 
which  points  to  the  next  Window  in  line  (if  any).  Because  it  is  a  pointer 
to  a  Window,  the  Next  field  is  rightly  declared  as  being  of  type  Win- 

Since  WindowList  and  Window  are  defined  in  terms  of  each  other, 
and  one  of  them  must  be  defined  before  the  other,  it  is  clear  that  the  Pas- 
cal compiler  must  take  the  existence  of  the  second  object  "on  faith," 
temporarily,  in  order  to  process  the  declaration  of  the  first.  The  compiler 
is  able  to  do  this,  so  long  as  the  definition  of  the  pointer  type  precedes 
that  of  the  object  type.  In  other  words,  we  may  define  WindowList  be- 
fore Window,  but  not  the  other  way  around. 

What's  Going  On?  When  you  define  a  data  type  in  Pascal,  the  com- 
piler automatically  determines  the  proper  amount  of  RAM  storage  space 
for  a  variable  of  that  type.  If  a  variable  is  defined  in  terms  of  an  unknown 
(undeclared)  data  type,  the  compiler  has  no  way  of  knowing  how  big  the 
variable  should  be.  Without  that  information,  it  cannot  generate  proper 
object  code.  Suppose  we  tried  to  define  Window  before  WindowList. 
The  compiler  would  have  no  inkling  whatsoever  of  the  nature  of  the  Next 
field,  and  would  therefore  complain  of  error  number  104  ("Undeclared 

We  may  define  WindowList  before  Window  because  it  happens  that 
all  pointer  variables  have  the  exact  same  size  and  structure  at  the  level  of 
the  p-machine.  There  is  no  structural  difference  between,  say,  a  pointer 
to  an  Integer  and  a  pointer  to  a  Window,  even  though  the  structure  of  a 
Window  itself  is  decidedly  different  from  that  of  an  Integer.  (Even  so, 
the  compiler  prohibits  you  from  swapping  values  between  pointer 
variables  of  different  types.  Thus,  if  IP  has  been  declared  as  Alnteger, 
and  LHead  has  been  declared  as  WindowList,  the  assignment  "LHead 
:  =IP"  would  be  rejected  by  the  compiler,  because  the  two  pointers  are 
not  of  the  "same  type.") 

All  Apple  Pascal  pointer  variables  occupy  the  same  amount  of  space. 
Therefore,  the  mere  fact  that  a  variable  is  a  pointer  allows  the  compiler 
to  decide  its  size.  The  caret  in  the  pointer  type  descriptor  provides  the 
compiler  with  this  crucial  information.  From  a  practical  standpoint,  the 
identifier  that  follows  the  caret  is  of  no  importance  whatsoever  in  deter- 
mining the  size  and  structure  of  a  pointer  variable. 

The  Pointers,  Performing  in  Concert.  Suppose  that  you  compile 
and  execute  Nightmare.  Figure  2a  shows  the  state  of  the  program's  three 
WindowList  variables,  just  as  control  passes  to  the  FOR  loop  that  begins 
at  line  34. 

The  keyword  NIL  stands  for  a  special  value  that  may  be  assigned  to 
any  pointer  variable.  If  a  pointer  contains  the  NIL  value,  it  is  assumed  to 
"point  at"  nothing.  You  might  say  that  NIL  is  to  pointers  what  0  is  to  In- 
tegers, 0.0  is  to  Reals,  and  the  null  string  is  to  Strings.  It  happens  to  be  a 
convenient  initial  value  for  our  three  WindowList  variables,  hence  the 
assignments  in  lines  31  through  33.  So,  just  before  execution  of  the  FOR 
loop,  all  the  WindowList  variables  contain  NIL. 

The  FOR  loop  builds  the  list  of  Windows,  such  that  all  but  the  last  are 

Closed.  The  first  statement  in  the  loop  body  (at  line  37)  is  a  call  to  the 
standard  procedure  New.  Here,  New  reserves  within  vacant  RAM  the 
space  necessary  to  hold  a  single  Window,  then  deposits  a  pointer  to  that 
space  into  LMid.  In  general,  New  creates  a  new  variable  of  the  object 
type  implied  by  its  argument,  then  fills  the  argument  with  a  pointer  to  the 
region  of  memory  occupied  by  the  new  variable. 

After  the  execution  of  the  statement  in  line  37,  LMid  points  to  a  new- 
ly created  Window  variable.  That  is,  LMid  is  the  value  of  a  pointer  to  the 
new  Window.  The  Window  value  itself  is  denoted  by  LMid  A. 

In  lines  38  through  44,  we  initialize  the  fields  of  the  new  variable. 
LMid  A.  Status  is  set  Open  (in  Line  40)  only  if  we  are  dealing  with  the  last 
window  in  the  chain  of  ten.  Otherwise,  this  field  is  set  Closed  (in  line 
42).  LMidA.Next  is  always  set  NIL,  since  the  most  recently  created 
Window  is  always  placed  at  the  end  of  the  line,  and  therefore  has  no  suc- 
cessor at  which  to  point! 

If  LHead  is  NIL  by  the  time  control  passes  to  the  IF  clause  in  line  46, 
then  the  list  is  empty,  which  means  that  we  have  just  created  the  very 
first  Window.  Consequentiy,  we  create  a  duplicate  pointer  to  this  par- 
ticular Window  and  place  it  in  LHead.  (This  occurs  at  line  48.)  Hence- 
forth, LHead  will  always  point  to  the  very  first  Window  in  the  list. 

For  each  new  Window  after  the  first,  we  force  the  Next  field  of  the 
last  Window  in  the  chain  to  point  to  the  new  Window.  That  is,  we  over- 
write the  NIL  value  that  was  previously  in  the  Next  field  with  a  value  that 
points  to  the  new  Window.  As  LTail  is  always  supposed  to  point  to  the 
very  last  Window  in  line,  we  must  update  the  pointer  value  in  LTail 
whenever  we  add  a  new  Window  to  the  end.  This  is  accomplished  by  the 
assignment  statement  in  source  line  52. 

For  graphic  summaries  of  the  results  produced  by  the  process  we 
have  just  examined,  you  should  refer  to  figures  2b  and  2c.  The  former 
shows  the  values  contained  by  Nightmare's  pointer  variables,  just  prior 
to  the  second  iteration  of  the  FOR  loop,  while  the  latter  illustrates  the 
content  of  the  same  variables  immediately  before  the  sixth  iteration. 

Just  a  Case  of  Mistaken  Identity.  Before  we  proceed,  you  should  be 
sure  that  you  understand  the  difference  between  the  values  LMid  (with- 
out caret)  and  LMid  A  (with  caret).  LMid  holds  a  pointer  to  a  variable  of 
type  Window,  but  it  is  not  itself  a  Window  variable.  Thus,  the  compiler 
rejects  expressions  such  as  LMid. Status  and  LMid. Next  (without  the 
caret);  a  WindowList  variable  such  as  LMid  is  a  pointer,  not  a  REC- 
ORD. In  contrast,  LMidA  refers  to  the  Window  variable  pointed  to  by 
LMid.  The  expression  LMidA. Status  names  an  actual  RECORD  field 

2a  Prior  lo  creation  of  first  window 

2b  Prior  to  creation  of  second  window 

2c  Prior  to  creation  of  sixth  window 

2d  Final  list  of  windows 
LHEAD   f  •  





^  fc|  CLOSED 

Figure  2.  Evolution  of  linked  list  during  execution  of  Nightmare  program. 

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that  can  contain  either  the  value  Open  or  the  value  Closed.  LMidA.Next 
names  a  pointer  to  another  Window  variable.  Note  that  whenever  the 
pointer  LMid  contains  the  value  NIL,  the  object  LMidA  does  not  exist, 
and  the  expression  LMidA  is  therefore  meaningless. 

All  for  One  and  One  for  All.  Frequently,  two  different  pointer  vari- 
ables will  point  at  the  same  object  in  memory.  For  instance,  immediately 
after  the  first  Window  has  been  created,  both  LMid  and  LHead  point  to 
that  variable.  The  assignment  "LHead  :  =  LMid"  in  line  48  only  puts  a 
duplicate  of  the  pointer  value  LMid  into  LHead!  The  Window  at  which 
LMid  points — that  is,  LMidA— remains  undisturbed.  An  example  from 
everyday  life  may  serve  to  clarify  this  somewhat  confusing  situation. 

Suppose  that  you  open  a  bank  account  and  receive  a  magnetic  card 
that  permits  you  to  deposit  funds  into  or  withdraw  them  from  the  account 
through  an  automated  teller  machine.  Now  suppose  you  marry  (or 
already  are  married).  You  decide  that  your  spouse  should  have  access  to 
the  account,  too,  and  so  you  apply  to  the  bank  for  a  duplicate  magnetic 
card.  When  the  bank  issues  the  duplicate  card,  it  does  not  establish  a  new 
account  for  your  spouse,  nor  does  it  alter  the  balance  in  the  joint  account. 
The  existence  of  two  automated  teller  cards  simply  means  that  two  dif- 
ferent people  may  access  the  same  account,  independently  of  one  an- 
other. Each  card  is  a  "pointer,"  if  you  will,  to  the  single  joint  account. 
By  the  same  token,  at  the  end  of  the  first  FOR  loop  iteration  in  Night- 
mare, the  variables  LMid  and  LHead  both  point  to  the  same  area  in 
memory.  Thus,  if  we  placed  the  assignment  "LMidA. Status  :=Open" 
at  the  end  of  the  loop  body  (between  line  53  and  54,  say),  then  both  the 
relations  "(LHead A. Status  =  Open)"  and  " (LMid A. Status  =  Open)" 
would  be  True,  immediately  prior  to  the  second  iteration.  This  would  be 
because  LMidA  and  LHeadA  would  name  the  exact  same  object  (not 
merely  the  same  value).  At  the  risk  of  confusing  matters  even  further,  we 
should  note  that,  at  the  end  of  the  first  iteration  of  Nightmare's  FOR 
loop,  the  three  pointer  variables  (namely,  LHead,  LTail,  and  LMid)  all 
contain  the  same  pointer  value,  and  so  point  at  the  same  object  in  mem- 
ory. This  situation  changes  with  the  second  iteration,  of  course,  and 
never  occurs  again.  (Do  you  understand  why?  If  not,  careful  study  of  the 
Nightmare  listing  should  help  you  to  grasp  the  concept.) 

Workin'  on  the  Chain  Gang.  Figure  2d  shows  the  final  state  of  the 
pointer  variables  and  the  list  of  Windows,  just  before  the  execution  of  the 
WriteLn  statement  in  line  57.  By  this  time,  LMid  and  LTail  both  point  to 
the  final  Window  in  the  chain,  while  LHead  still  points  to  the  first. 

Lines  56  through  80  of  the  Nightmare  program  are  concerned  with 
displaying  the  chain  of  Windows  established  by  the  preceding  FOR  loop. 
Obviously,  if  LHead  contains  NIL  (which  it  certainly  should  not,  if  the 
FOR  loop  functioned  correctly),  then  there  is  no  first  Window.  In  other 
words,  if  LHead  contains  NIL,  the  list  of  windows  pointed  to  by  LHead 
must  be  empty.  Should  this  be  the  case,  Nightmare  produces  an  appropri- 
ate message  on  the  screen,  and  then  terminates.  Otherwise,  the  status  of 
each  Window  in  the  chain  is  displayed,  in  proper  order. 

A  computer  scientist  would  call  our  chain  of  Windows  a  linked  list.  In 
the  jargon  of  computer  science,  the  REPEAT  loop  of  lines  65  through  79 
traverses  the  linked  list.  The  loop  begins  at  the  first  Window  in  the  list 
and  follows  the  Next  pointers  from  Window  to  Window,  reporting  the 
Status  for  each,  until  an  Open  window  is  found. 

For  the  display  loop,  LMid  is  employed  as  a  pointer  to  the  Window  of 
interest  at  any  instant  in  time.  It  is  set  initially  to  the  value  in  LHead  (line 
65).  So  long  as  LMidA. Status  is  Closed,  LMid  (the  pointer)  acquires  a 
value  that  points  to  the  next  window  in  line,  by  virtue  of  the  assignment 
"LMid  :  =  LMidA.Next"  in  source  line  77.  This  assignment  statement 
is  the  key  to  list  traversal,  so  go  over  it  in  your  mind  until  it  makes  sense 
to  you.  You  will  be  seeing  many  more  similar  statements  in  programs 
that  we  will  develop  soon. 

Notice  that  the  formal  termination  condition  for  the  REPEAT  loop- 
as  stated  by  the  UNTIL  clause— is  "(LMid=  NIL)."  However,  the 
logical  termination  condition  is  " (LMid A. Status  =  Open)."  That  is,  we 
would  really  rather  stop  traversing  the  list  as  soon  as  we  find  an  Open 
window,  rather  than  continue  on  to  the  end  of  the  list  (which  is  indicated 
by  a  NIL  value  of  LMidA.Next). 

In  the  contrived  world  of  our  Nightmare,  we  could  just  as  easily  have 
put  the  logical  termination  condition  into  the  UNTIL  clause,  either  in  ad- 
dition to,  or  as  replacement  for  the  one  we  actually  used.  Since  the  last 
Window  in  the  list  is  guaranteed  by  the  FOR  loop  to  have  both  a  NIL 
value  for  Next  and  a  Status  of  Open,  we  could  have  used  either  or  both  of 
the  termination  conditions,  with  equal  success.  But  what  if  we  had  de- 

cided the  value  of  each  Window's  Status  on  a  random  basis?  Then,  it 
would  have  been  possible  for  any  and  all  of  the  Windows  to  be  Open  (or 
Closed!).  Suppose  that  we  had  chosen  Status  values  at  random,  and  that 
they  all  happened  to  be  Closed.  Had  our  termination  condition  been 
"(LMidA. Status=  Open),"  it  would  have  been  impossible,  under  these 
circumstances,  for  the  loop  to  terminate  at  all!  Eventually,  LMid  would 
have  acquired  the  value  NIL,  thereby  invalidating  the  expression 
LMid  A.  Status  altogether. 

The  expression  "(LMid=  NIL)"  is  valid  for  all  values  of  LMid  and 
so  makes  for  a  "bulletproof"  loop  termination  condition.  The  IF-THEN 
code  of  lines  67  through  72— especially  the  assignment  statement  in  line 
71— insures  that  the  actual  termination  condition  will  also  become  True 
whenever  the  logical  one  does. 

You  might  wonder  why  we  didn't  just  state  the  loop  termination  con- 
dition as  "((LMid=  NIL)  OR  (LMid A. Status  =  Open))."  Such  an  ex- 
pression would  certainly  cover  all  the  bases,  but  it  is  unsuitable  as  a 
termination  condition,  because  in  Pascal  all  Boolean  expressions  are 
evaluated  completely.  For  this  particular  example,  Pascal  would  always 
evaluate  both  subexpressions,  "(LMid=  NIL)"  and  "(LMidA. Status  = 
Open),"  before  combining  their  values  with  the  OR  operation.  Unfortu- 
nately, whenever  LMid  contains  NIL,  there  is  no  such  thing  as 
LMidA. Status!  The  hypothetical  "all-inclusive"  termination  condition 
contains  a  built-in  paradox  that  is  avoided  by  the  somewhat  more  ob- 
scure, but  definitely  more  reliable  code  that  is  actually  used  in 

On  and  On.  ...  As  you  can  well  imagine,  the  Nightmare  program  is 
only  a  small  tidbit,  intended  to  whet  your  appetite  to  learn  more  about 
pointers.  By  now,  you  should  be  asking  many  questions,  including:  (1) 
Where  does  Pascal's  New  procedure  get  the  memory  that  it  allocates?; 
(2)  Why  bother  to  use  pointers  at  all? 

While  it  is  impossible  to  cover  this  rich  topic  thoroughly  in  just  a  few 
magazine  pages,  we'll  nevertheless  try  to  do  just  that  in  next  month's 
Softalk.  Be  here  in  thirty  days,  when  we'll  learn  that  pointing  at  someone 
first  may  help  you  to  more  efficiently  reach  out  and  touch  him/her!  1M 



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Why  Chickens,  Pigs,  Cows,  and  Fish 
are  Tferrified  of  our  Software. 

Because  our  new  Micro  Cookbook  makes  it  easier 

than  ever  for  you  to  bake, 
broil,  roast,  fry  and  fric- 
assee 'em. 
Not  just  by  giving  you 
over  150  recipes— which  it 
does,  but  by  simplifying  the 
whole  art  of  cooking. 
You  see,  with  Micro  Cookbook, 
you  no  longer  have  to  battle  an  over- 
crowded, confused  box  of  worn  index  cards 
before  you  can  make  a  meal.  (A  battle  which  can  ruin 
anyone's  appetite.) 

Instead,  simply  insert  Micro  Cookbook  into  your 
computer  and  call  up  the  recipe  your  heart  and  stom- 
ach desire.  Just  ask  for  a  recipe  by  name,  ingredients, 
or  category.  And  because  the  program  works  on  a 
simple  ''nll-in-the-blank''  method,  you  don't  have  to 
be  a  computer  whiz  to  do  it,  either. 

The  recipe  you  select  can  be  one  of  the  mouth- 
watering dishes  we  include,  or  you  can  create  a  disk- 
ette of  your  own  favorites.  And  you  can  constantly 
modify  your  selections,  adding  new  triumphs  and 
removing  recipes  that,  ah,  bomb. 

But  Micro  Cookbook  is  much  more  than  mod- 
ern technology's  version  of  the  file  box.  With  it, 
you  can  also  get  a  clear,  organized  print-out  of 
your  shopping  list,  quickly  adjust  the  serving 
size,  even  index  the  favorite  recipes  of  your 
most  finicky  eater. 

And  it  includes  a  complete  glossary  and  calorie 
and  nutrition  guides. 

What  it  all  boils  down  to,  is  that  Micro  Cook- 
book will  make  life  in  the  kitchen  a  breeze. 

With  this  in  mind,  is  it  any  wonder  Micro 
Cookbook  makes  these  guys  so  nervous? 


P.O.  Box  755,  Rockport,  MA  01966  (617)  546-6553 

Versions  available  for  Apple  II  +  ,  He  (80  col)  and  IBM  PC(64K,  PC  DOS).  The  cost  $40. 
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DOS)  and  Apple  11  +  ,  Ile(64K,  80  col).  The  cost  $30.  Soups  &  Salads, 
Appetizers,  or  Dessert  options,  $12  each  Check  your  dealer  first. 
MC/VISA  check,  phone  or  mail  order  accepted.  Please  specify 
omputer  and  add  $2  handling. 




Since  this  is  the  last  class  meeting,  and  since 
we're  all  anxious  to  start  our  summer  vacations 
early,  we'll  keep  things  nice  and  short. 

But  before  we  go  tramping  off  to  our  respec- 
tive summer  resorts,  let's  take  a  look  at  an  area 
that's  often  neglected— computers  in  education. 

Kids  Are  People,  Too.  Microcomputers  are 
usually  referred  to  as  personal  computers  and 
home  computers.  Images  of  someone  taking 
care  of  home  finances  or  office  work  come  to 
mind  when  we  hear  such  terms. 

Computers  fall  naturally  into  number-related 
functions  such  as  statistics,  accounting,  and 

While  education  is  an  area  of  computing  that 
is  often  considered  secondary,  computers  can 
also  function  as  teachers  and  teachers'  aides, 
both  at  home  and  at  school. 

Before  the  introduction  of  microcomputers, 
very  few  schools  had  computers;  and  the  com- 
puters they  did  have  were  rickety  old  machines 
that  printed  everything  on  paper  instead  of  to  a 
video  screen.  Computers  in  schools  were  used 
for  teaching  about  computers.  Older  kids  would 
learn  Basic,  write  simple  programs,  and  feel 
like  geniuses.  But  when  microcomputers  en- 
tered the  scene,  they  made  computing  faster  and 
easier.  It  wasn't  too  long  before  someone  got  a 
bright  idea.  It's  said  to  have  happened  like  this : 

Idea  person:  Know  what  I  think? 

Other  person:  No,  what? 

Idea  person:  I  think  it  would  be  great  to  have 
microcomputers  in  elementary  and  junior  high 

Other  person:  Why?  Kids  can  learn  com- 
puting when  they  get  to  high  school. 

Idea  person:  Yeah,  but  I'll  bet  teachers 
could  use  computers  to  help  teach  kids  all  kinds 
of  stuff. 

Other  person:  To  teach  what? 

Idea  person:  All  kinds  of  stuff! 

Other  person:  Oh. 

Well,  maybe  not  just  like  that.  The  idea  of 
using  computers  as  educational  tools  is  based  on 
other  ideas  such  as  computers  can  be  fun,  learn- 
ing should  be  fun,  and  computers  are  patient. 

Graduation  Day 

Add  up  those  ideas  and  the  sum  is  that  com- 
puters are  patient  "teachers"  that  can  make 
learning  fun. 

Of  course,  the  computer  doesn't  know  it's 
patient;  it  just  doesn't  know  how  to  be  frus- 
trated. Also,  computers  demand  interaction. 
They  respond  to  people,  but  only  if  they  receive 
input.  Response  gives  students  the  feeling 
they're  receiving  attention. 

If  young  people  become  comfortable  with 
computers  at  an  early  age,  they  may  have  better 
success  in  jobs  later  in  life.  As  idealistic  as  that 
sounds,  consider  this:  How  many  of  us  were 
given  the  opportunity  to  use  typewriters,  adding 
machines,  industrial  machinery,  dental  drills, 
columnar  pads,  and  other  work-related  tools  so 
early  in  life? 

There's  educational  software  to  teach  almost 
any  subject  from  shape  and  color  recognition  to 
organic  chemistry.  And  not  all  software  is  for 
school  use;  many  programs  are  designed  for 
preschoolers  to  use  in  the  home.  One  popular 
program  that  used  to  be  included  with  the  pur- 
chase of  an  Apple  was  Lemonade  Stand  (now  a 
cult  classic).  It's  fun  to  play,  and  it  has  the  latent 
function  of  teaching  players  some  elementary 
business  economics. 

Teachers  Are  People,  Too.  Not  everyone 
agrees  that  the  computer  is  the  best  teaching 
aide.  Though  there  can  be  little  doubt  that  ex- 
posure to  computers  helps  kids -learn  about  the 
machines,  some  educators  feel  there  is  no 
substitution  for  human  interaction.  A  computer 
can  present  material  but  it  can't  offer  vocal  rein- 
forcement, a  pat  on  the  back,  or  even  a  smile. 
And  then  there's  software. 

Few  programmers  are  good  teachers,  and 
few  teachers  are  good  programmers.  One  of  the 
problems  with  introducing  computers  into 
schools  is  that  sometimes  teachers  know  as  little 
about  computers  as  their  students.  Much  educa- 
tional software  is  available,  but  its  quality  is 
questionable.  There's  bad  software  in  all  areas 
of  computing,  noticeably  in  education.  Also, 
prices  are  often  comparable  to  other  kinds  of 
software,  and  schools  don't  have  the  money. 

Another  problem  is  that  most  microcom- 
puters have  64K  or  less  in  RAM,  which  puts  a 
limit  on  what  software  programmers  can 
develop.  Just  how  many  chapters  can  be 
crammed  onto  one  disk? 

Computers  as  part  of  education  in  the  class- 
room and  at  home  are  becoming  more  common; 
to  kids,  the  computer  is  another  new  tool,  just 
like  books,  pencils,  crayons,  and  chalk  and 
chalkboards.  As  they  learn  the  subjects  that 
computer  programs  teach,  they  learn  to  accept 
computers  as  part  of  life. 

Look  How  Far  We've  Come.  Not  long  ago 
computers  were  things  of  science  fiction  mov- 
ies. Then  they  became  bureaucratic  monsters 
that  made  life  miserable  for  us  at  bill-paying 
time.  And  then  they  were  machines  that  other 
people  had  and  we  were  scared  to  touch. 

Computers  put  everyone  on  the  same  level 
as  little  kids;  when  you're  a  kid,  everything  is 
new.  The  environment  is  for  exploring.  It  was 
fun  to  watch  people  at  computer  shows  and 
stores  walk  up  to  an  unattended  machine  and 
think  about  whether  they  should  touch  it  or 
not,  and  if  they  touched  it,  what  it  would  do. 
Wonder  and  discovery  were  part  of  the  fun  and 
the  magic. 

Then  computers  became  available  to  con- 
sumers; first  it  was  consumers  with  lots  of 
money,  then  it  was  consumers  with  almost  lots 
of  money,  and  now  it's  consumers  who  wish 
they  had  lots  of  money  but  don't— nonetheless, 
they  have  enough  for  a  home  computer. 

Computers  entered  the  home,  and  we  dis- 
covered that  there  was  little  to  fear.  We  control 
them,  not  the  other  way  around.  They  have 
switches  telling  them  whether  they're  on  or  off, 
which  only  we  humans  can  control.  Computers 
are  tools  like  the  calculator,  clothes  iron, 
blender,  food  processor,  and  automobile; 
they're  not  uncontrollable  machines  like  robots 
on  The  Twilight  Zone. 

About  the  same  time  we  discovered  com- 
puters we  found  out  what  software  is  and  how  it 
makes  our  interaction  with  computers  easier. 
The  computer  follows  instructions  given  to  it  by 


people.  If  we  can't  speak  the  computer's  lan- 
guage in  order  to  communicate  with  it,  there  are 
creatures  called  programmers  who  can.  Pro- 
grammers create  software  that  makes  it  easy  for 
us  to  use  the  computer.  This  computer  craze 
just  keeps  getting  better  all  the  time,  doesn't  it? 

In  this  section  of  Softalk  we've  covered  how 
to  run  commercial  software.  We've  learned 
what  to  do  if  things  go  wrong  and  how  to  reduce 
the  chances  of  similar  disasters  in  the  future. 
We've  taken  the  lid  off  the  Apple  and  found  out 
what  most  of  those  chips  are  for,  and  we've 
looked  at  how  things  are  structured  inside  the 
chips.  Just  as  important,  we  took  all  those 
words  computer  people  like  to  use  (and  misuse) 
and  found  out  what  they  mean. 

With  this  foundation  of  computer  knowl- 
edge, we  can  either  use  it  to  help  us  work  more 
at  ease  with  computers  or  we  can  build  upon  it. 
For  those  who  wish  to  go  on  and  learn  program- 
ming, more  power  to  you.  For  everyone,  even 
those  who  are  comfortable  booting  and  using 
software  and  will  never  even  think  about  writ- 
ing a  line  of  Basic,  there's  still  more  to  con- 
sider. Fortunately,  it's  nontechnical. 

You  Say  You  Want  a  Revolution?  A  few 
years  ago,  people  started  talking  about  a  com- 
puter revolution.  "Dig  in;  it's  coming,"  they 
said.  Actually,  it  was  already  happening,  and 
it's  still  happening.  Almost  everything  we  read 
in  the  news  about  computers  mentions  how  rap- 
idly prices  are  dropping,  how  computers  are  be- 
coming more  common  in  schools  and  in  homes, 
and  how  they  will  affect  our  lives. 

Books  like  Megatrends,  The  Third  Wave, 
and  Future  Shock  are  fascinating  works  that  ex- 
amine the  future.  They're  fascinating  because 
they  examine  a  future  most  of  us  won't  be 
around  to  see.  Let's  concern  ourselves  with  the 
immediate  future. 

Home  computers  have  already  affected  our 
lives;  besides  having  reduced  the  size  of  our 
bank  accounts,  they've  changed  the  way  we 
think.  While  some  people  at  the  office  reach 
for  a  spreadsheet  program  or  word  processor 
when  work  needs  to  be  done,  others  come 
home  from  work  or  school  and  boot  up  their  fa- 
vorite games.  Both  groups  of  people  are  likely 
to  wonder,  "How  did  I  ever  get  along  without 
my  Apple?" 

As  we  said  many  months  ago,  computers 
don't  let  us  do  things  that  weren't  possible 
before;  they  just  let  us  do  them  faster  and 
easier.  Before  VisiCalc  and  Multiplan  there 
were  the  green  worksheets;  before  Wizardry 
there  was  the  board  version  of  Dungeons  & 
Dragons;  before  Apple  Writer  there  were  pen- 
cils, pens,  and  typewriters.  That's  how  we  got 
along  without  our  Apples. 

So  now  we  have  computers,  and  we're  using 
them.  And  because  they  help  us  do  so  many 
things  more  efficiently,  it's  easy  to  forget  the 
first  thing  we  learned  about  computing — we  are 
the  ones  in  charge.  The  way  people  in  southern 
California  have  become  slaves  to  their  cars, 
some  computer  owners  have  likewise  become 
dependent  on  their  machines.  You  know  the 
type;  no  matter  how  easy  it  is  to  pick  up  a  per- 
sonal phone  directory  and  find  Uncle  Stephen's 
number,  they'll  spend  several  minutes  booting  a 
phone  list  database,  looking  for  the  right  data 
disk,  and  searching  for  the  number. 


There's  also  the  infamous  computerized 
Christmas  card  list.  All  you  have  to  do  to  print 
mailing  labels  for  your  holiday  greeting  cards  is 
press  a  key.  Presto!  In  minutes,  everybody's 
name  and  address  is  on  a  label  in  beautiful  dot- 
matrix  (or  even  letter-quality!)  computer  print. 
Just  imagine  how  touched  the  recipient  will  be 
to  receive  such  a  personalized  card. 

Rehumanize  Ourselves.  The  point  is  that 
some  things  are  done  better  the  old  way  :  Thank- 
you  notes  to  Mom  and  Dad  are  more  effective  if 
they  don't  look  like  computerized  junk  mail; 
balancing  the  checkbook  is  often  easier  by  pen- 
cil and  paper  if  you  don't  write  a  lot  of  checks; 
sometimes  even  business  letters  look  better 
when  they're  typed  on  a  good-quality  typewriter 
than  if  they're  computer-generated;  it's  more 
fun  to  play  checkers  against  a  person  than 
against  the  Apple— computers  don't  "take 
back"  moves,  which  makes  it  harder  to  provoke 
an  argument.  Apples  are  powerful  tools,  but 
just  because  they're  there  doesn't  mean  we  have 
to  use  them  all  the  time. 

Ask  this:  "Why  did  I  get  a  computer  in  the 
first  place?"  Certainly  the  answer  can't  be  "So 
I  could  sit  in  front  of  a  keyboard  and  screen 
looking  like  a  confused  fool."  Nope.  It  prob- 
ably had  something  to  do  with  any  of  three 
things:  to  make  some  tasks  easier,  to  use  as  an 
educational  tool  for  the  kids,  to  give  you  the 
power  of  a  computer  in  the  home  or  office.  For 
whatever  reason,  it  was  an  expensive  invest- 
ment, which  makes  us  feel  obligated  to  use  the 
machine  as  often  as  possible. 

Try  to  think  of  the  computer  in  a  different 
way;  think  of  it  as  we've  often  referred  to  it— as 
a  tool  or  a  convenience.  It's  less  troublesome  to 
pull  the  occasional  weed  or  two  instead  of  hir- 
ing a  gardener  for  the  job.  It's  easier  to  scram- 
ble a  few  eggs  with  a  fork  than  to  haul  out  the 
Mixmaster.  It's  faster  to  walk  next  door  for  that 
cup  of  sugar  than  to  start  up  the  car  and  drive. 
(By  the  way,  has  anybody  ever  really  borrowed 
a  cup  of  sugar  from  next  door?) 

As  versatile  as  the  computer  is,  it  isn't  for 
everything.  But  it  could  be. 

Sure,  it's  easier  to  write  "lunch  with  the 
boss  on  Wednesday"  on  a  scrap  of  paper  than  it 
is  to  boot  Micro  Paper  Scraps  and  make  a  com- 
puter entry;  however,  scraps  of  paper  can 
become  lost  and  are  sometimes  forgotten.  But 
just  because  it's  a  hassle  to  use  the  computer  for 
certain  tasks  doesn't  mean  it  will  always  be 
that  way. 

If  we  think  of  the  computer  as  a  tool,  it 
becomes  obvious  that,  like  other  tools,  the  com- 
puter will  go  through  refinement  over  and  over 
again,  possibly  forever.  Look  at  televisions; 
every  year  they  get  fancier,  providing  more 
conveniences  than  before.  (There's  an  anecdote 
about  a  man  who  remarked  that  when  televi- 
sions first  came  out  they  had  screens  that  were 
only  a  few  inches  wide.  Referring  to  today's 
pocket-size  televisions,  he  said,  "It  amazes  me 
how  it  took  us  thirty  years  to  get  them  that 
small  again.") 

Computers  and  Rolled-Up  Newspapers. 
Refining  the  computer  is  like  training  pets  to  do 
tricks.  Just  as  the  Apple  II  hasn't  the  faintest 
idea  what  you  mean  when  you  type,  "Hello, 
what's  your  name?",  a  month-old  puppy 
doesn't  know  what  you  mean  when  you  give  the 

MAY  1984 

command,  "Sit!"  To  teach  the  puppy  to  sit,  we 
usually  give  the  command  while  trying  to  push 
its  rear  end  to  the  ground.  Heaven  knows  what 
the  puppy  is  thinking  when  some  big  two-legged 
animal  is  playing  games  with  the  puppy's  rear 
end,  but  it  eventually  learns  to  associate  the 
word  sit  with  planting  its  bottom  to  the  ground. 
Likewise,  the  computer  was  "taught"  by  pro- 
grammers to  display  a  disk's  contents  when 
someone  types  catalog. 

As  the  puppy  grows  up  and  becomes  a  dog, 
we  can  teach  it  more  sophisticated  tricks  like 
shaking  hands,  rolling  over,  jumping  up  and 
down  like  an  idiot,  and  fetching  Frisbees.  Not 
all  dogs  have  what  it  takes  to  learn  and  perform 
complicated  tricks,  and  not  all  computers  are 
equally  intelligent;  they  depend  on  their 
creators  and  the  software's  programmer  to 
"teach"  them  to  do  sophisticated  tricks. 

Computers  are  getting  more  intelligent  all 
the  time,  but  they're  still  far  from  being  power- 
ful enough  to  dominate  us.  It  would  be  nice  to 
be  able  to  type  Give  me  the  current  value  of  the 
English  pound  and  have  the  computer  under- 
stand you,  dial  up  an  information  service,  find 
out  the  value  of  the  pound,  and  report  back  to 
you.  It  would  be  even  nicer  to  be  able  to  just  say 
the  words  and  have  the  computer  understand 
your  voice  and  carry  out  the  command.  Some- 
day it  might. 

In  Beginners'  Corner,  we  learned  only  the 
basics  about  a  lot  of  things.  For  those  who  wish 
to  learn  more  about  programming  and  tinker- 
ing, there  are  many  other  magazines  and  books 
that  cover  such  areas.  There  are  even  how-to 
books  that  cover  specific  programs  like  dBase 
II,  VisiCalc,  WordStar,  and  Apple  Writer.  It's 
ironic  that  we  buy  computers  to  make  our  work 
easier,  only  to  find  that  we  need  books  and 
tutorials  to  make  using  the  computer  and  its  pro-  I 
grams  easier. 

It's  Okay  To  Be  Human,  Too.  Don't  feel 
bad  if  the  urge  to  learn  the  sophisticated  art  of 
programming  doesn't  hit  you;  it's  a  hobby  and  J 
occupation  to  some,  but  it's  not  necessary  for  < 
everyone  who  wants  to  use  a  computer.  Years  I 
ago,  you  had  to  have  at  least  a  moderately 
technical  background  to  work  with  a  computer. 
Later,  all  you  had  to  know  were  a  few  computer 
commands  and  how  to  type.  With  Apple's  Lisa  ! 
and  Macintosh  all  you  have  to  know  how  to  do  ! 
is  point  and  click;  with  Hewlett-Packard's  HP 
150  microcomputer,  issuing  commands  has 
been  replaced  by  touching  the  screen. 

Computer  engineers  make  their  living  by 
making  machines  easier  for  people  to  use.  A  lot  j 
of  us  used  to  feel  uneasy  around  computers  I 
because  we  didn't  understand  them;  some  still 
don't.  The  way  computers  are  developing,  soon  1 
there  may  not  be  a  lot  to  understand  in  order  to 
get  our  work  done. 

Technically  oriented  people  will  always  be 
around.  For  the  rest  of  us,  the  day  will  come  ; 
when  the  computer  evolves  as  the  radio  and 
automobile  did.  Just  switch  it  on  and  go.  Con- 
fusing and  complicated  as  they  can  be,  com- 
puters are  providing  us  with  a  wealth  of  stories 
to  tell  the  grandchildren  ("Why,  in  those  days 
we  had  to  actually  memorize  DOS  com- 

In  the  meantime,  have  fun.  These  are  the 
good  of  days.  !■ 

You  don't  have 
to  take  it 
anymore.  •  • 

There's  got  to  be 
a  better  way.  .  . 
And  there  is! 


For  Apple +,  Apple  lie,  III  emulation  and  lookalikes$15000 

•  Postage  Saver  Ila  is  just  plain  EASY 




•  Postage  Saver  Ila  SAVES  YOU  TIME 

•  Postage  Saver  Ila  SAVES  MONEY 


(when  purchased  direct  from  us) 


Everyone  has  a  Christmas  card  list,  a  list  of  birthdays  and 
anniversaries.  Many  have  information  lists  of  video  films,  stamp 
and  other  collections  and  hobbies.  Sure  Postage  Saver  Ila  has  much 
more  power  than  needed  for  any  of  these,  but  that's  okay  ...  it's  so 
easy  to  use,  no  complicated  set  ups,  and  maybe  later  you'll  become 
secretary  to  a  club  or  organization... 

CLUBS  AND  ORGANIZATIONS  can  use  the  mailing  list  features 
(and  possibly  save  some  postage)  and  other  information  storage 
such  as  membership  dues,  committee  members,  etc. 

SMALL  BUSINESSES  will  find  Postage  Saver  Ila  invaluable. 
From  the  obvious  mailing  and  information  storage  features  to 
simple  invoices,  general  record  keeping,  automatic  alphabetizing, 
and  letter  merge  capabilities  are  a  few  of  the  many  uses.  (We  hear  of 
new  uses  every  day  —  it's  surprising  even  us).  But  the  big  PLUS  is  the 
fast  and  easy  information  retrieval  ...  sorting  by  name,  letter  or 

Compare  Postage  Saver  Has  features  with  ANY  program  for 
Apples... you'll  find  we're  in  a  category  by  ourselves. 

See  your  nearest  friendly  dealer,  or  to  order  or  for 




•  1  to  19  lines  of  information  per 
entry  •  30  to  570  characters  per  entry 

•  4624  to  238  entries  per  data  disk  • 
30  characters  per  line  of  information 

•  Upper  and  lowercase  capability  for 
those  without  it  •  Define  your  own 
line  headings  •  Automatically  saves 
data  to  help  prevent  loss  of  data  due 
to  power  failure  •  Defineable  left  and 
right  margins  •  You  can  default  any 
line  of  information  to  save  typing  • 
Enter  names  as  quickly  as  you  can 
type  •  Use  "ctrl  p"  for  a  screen  dump 

•  Scroll  thru  your  entries,  forward 
and  backward 


•  Search  for  an  entry  by  entry 
number  in  less  than  5  seconds  • 
Search  for  an  entry  by  name,  address, 
city,  state,  zip  code  special  code,  any 
character  on  any  data  line  within  30 
seconds  •  Once  an  entry  is  found, 
you  may  edit  it  then  and  there  •  Only 
the  first  character  of  an  entry  is 
deleted  for  easy  viewing  • 
Automatically  deletes  duplicates  on  1 
or  2  data  disks 


•  Send  your  data  to  your  printer, 
another  disk  or  to  your  screen  •  Sort 
by  name,  zip  code  or  any  special  code 
or  group  of  characters  on  any  data  line 

•  Up  to  5  different  sorts  may  be 
performed  at  once  •  Sort  up  to  99 
data  disks  together  into  one  list  • 
Every  printout  is  dated  and  the  total 
number  printed  given  •  Print  1,  2,  3 
or  4  wide  labels  •  Label  size  is 
definable  •  Uses  up  to  6  disk  drives 

•  80  or  136  column  printer  capability 

•  Allows  for  a  test  print  for  easy 
paper  setup  •  Can  print  each  entry  up 
to  99  times  •  Print  first  name  first  or 
last  name  first  *  Merge  addresses 
with  any  letter  text  file  •  Print  return 
address  labels  •  Print  entries  in  line 
format  •  Print  a  single  address  block 
on  any  individual  piece  of  paper  • 
Print  1,  all  or  any  combination  of  data 
lines  you  want  •  You  can  create 
hundreds  of  different  printouts 


•  Can  print  a  separate  label  with  the 
state,  3  digit  prefix  and  entire  zip  code 
totals  for  easy  bulk  mailing 


•  Plain  English  error  messages  • 
Tells  you  your  drive  door  is  open  • 
Checks  to  see  if  the  correct  disk  is  in 
the  correct  drive  •  Allows  you  to 
make  quick  data  disk  backup  copies 

•  Access  to  any  screen  or  menu  is  a 
snap  •  Written  entirely  in  assembly 
language  for  speed  that  can't  be  beat 


©  1984  Bullseye  Software 

All  Rights  Reserved 
POSTAGE  SAVER  Ila  is  a 
Trade  Mark  ot  Bullseye  Software 
Apple  is  a  Registered  Trade  Mark 
of  Apple  Computer,  Inc. 

P.O.  Drawer  7900.  Incline  Village,  NV  89450 
or  Phone  (702)  83 1-2523  -  24  hours 

I  I  I  1  J  1  I  M  *V' 


^M^mnm  cold  on  apple  ii 

It's  1-2-3  for  I-B-M  and  Catalyst  for  III;  Archon,  Star  Raiders  Take  Atari 

Top  left:  Accepting  St. Game's  1983  Atari  award  for  Archon 
are  authors  Jon  Freeman,  Anne  Westfall,  and  Paul  Reiche  III, 
along  with  producer  Joe  Ybarra.  Center:  Jim  Willis,  district 
manager  of  Lotus  Development,  accepts  Softalk  for  the  IBM 
Personal  Computer's  1983  award  for  1-2-3  by  Mitch  Kapor. 
Right:  Two  guys  named  Doug— publisher  Carlston,  left,  and 
programmer  Smith— admire  St.Game  and  Softalk  awards  for 
Broderbund's  Lode  Runner. 

□  At  this  year's  Ninth  West  Coast  Computer 
Faire,  held  March  22-25  in  San  Francisco, 
there  were  an  awful  lot  of  booksellers,  some 
very  mediocre  food,  and  little  technical  razzle- 
dazzle.  And  those  are  about  the  only  conclu- 
sions everyone  agreed  on  after  this  year's  four- 
day  extravaganza  in  Baghdad  by  the  Bay. 

This  year,  fair  ownership  and  management 
passed  from  founder  Jim  Warren  (engineer, 
editor,  and  all-around  New  Age  spirit)  to  Com- 
puter Faire  Inc.,  a  wholly  owned  subsidiary  of 
publishing  giant  Prentice-Hall— which  may  par- 
tially explain  the  preponderance  of  printed  mat- 

ter at  the  event.  The  big  corporation  association 
may  also  have  had  something  to  do  with  fewer 
mom-and-pop  operations  and  a  fading  of  family 
feeling  as  compared  to  past  years. 

Many  veteran  fair-watchers  at  least  feigned 
disillusionment.  They  shook  their  heads,  saying 
that  it  just  wasn't  the  same  homegrown  hobbyist 
haven  that  it  used  to  be— last  year,  two  years 
ago,  or  eight  years  ago.  Too  few  software  pub- 
lishers, they  said;  too  many  retailers;  too  many 
computer  illiterates  crowding  the  aisles;  and 
enough  cash  registers  clinking  to  make  the 
whole  place  seem  like  one  giant  electronic  flea 

market.  But  somewhere  among  the  hucksterism 
and  PR,  the  cables  and  the  floppy  disks,  the 
pioneering  spirit  (due  primarily  to  MacMania) 
remained.  Even  those  who  affected  a  world- 
weary  attitude  were  there  to  talk  about  it. 

There  was,  after  all,  something  for  every- 
body. Conferences  for  independent  sales  or- 
ganizations, educational  forums,  technical 
seminars,  user  groups,  lectures  by  industry 
heavyweights,  hands-on  lessons  in  Macintosh 
and  PCjr  usage,  Softalk  Publishing's  software 
awards  ceremony  (more  on  that  later),  and  even 
an  organization  called  Computer  Scientists  for 

MAY  1984 



Top:  Left  to  right,  Robert  Woodhead  and  Andrew 
Greenberg,  who  conjured  up  the  multiple-award-winning 
Wizardry  for  Sir-tech,  and  Fred  Sirotek,  president.  Below  left: 
Fred  Simon,  senior  vice  president  of  computer  marketing, 
picks  up  St.Game  plaque  for  Atari  all-time  fave  rave  Sfar 
Raiders.  Below  right:  Quark  Engineering  outside  sales  man- 
ager Keith  Wood  takes  the  Softalk  Apple  III  1983  award  for 
Catalyst,  written  by  Tim  Gill.  Bottom:  It  was  standing  room 
only  at  the  Softalk  Publishing  awards  ceremony  at  the  West 
Coast  Computer  Faire  in  San,  Francisco's  Civic  Auditorium. 

Social  Responsibility  (an  antinuke  group). 
Hardware  for  sale,  software  for  sale,  balloons, 
buttons,  posters,  and  little  Apple  mouse  pins. 

Some  people  were  having  a  fine  old  time. 
Mac  magicians  Andy  Hertzfeld  and  Burrell 
Smith,  enjoying  well-deserved  accolades  from 
the  Macfaithful,  thought  the  grassroots  spirit  of 
the  fair  was  reborn  in  Mac  and  the  upcoming 
products  for  it.  Apple  itself,  with  its  eleven- 
foot-high  scale  model  of  Macintosh  at  the  front 
of  Brooks  Hall,  was  easily  the  show's  biggest 
attention-getter.  This  could  not  have  gone  un- 
noticed by  IBM,  whose  neighboring  booth  had 

a  similar  number  of  workstations  (about  twenty) 
and  respectable  attendance.  For  next  year,  Big 
Blue  has  reserved  a  spot  in  the  next-floor  Civic 

It  was  true  that  several  major  talents  were 
conspicuous  by  their  absence.  Sierra  On-Line, 
Infocom,  and  Adventure  International  were 
nowhere  to  be  found.  On  the  other  hand,  Pen- 
guins were  there  in  flocks  and  garnering  good 
notices  for  the  Mac  version  of  their  adventure 
Transylvania.  And  Sir-tech  previewed  the  work- 
in-progress  Macintosh  version  of  Wizardry. 

Some  companies  evidently  felt  that  the  (con- 

siderable) cost  of  a  booth  was  worth  it  in  order 
to  connect  one  on  one  with  the  end  user.  Others, 
such  as  Origin  Systems,  chose  to  attend  as  in- 
dividuals, adopting  a  low  profile  to  keep  up 
with  industry  trends,  check  out  the  competition, 
make  contacts,  and  visit  with  friends  not  seen 
since  the  last  show. 

Finding  a  middle  path  was  Broderbund 
Software,  which  took  a  hospitality  suite  close 
to  the  show  site  to  demonstrate  its  just-about- 
ready  Print  Shop,  a  super-looking  Apple 
package  for  designing  greeting  cards,  fliers, 
and  banners  using  a  wide  range  of  choices  of 

74  @|  S  O  P  T  A  L  K  MAY 1984 

graphics  and  text. 

Debuting  on  the  Apple  II  front  was  SunDog, 
an  animated  graphic  adventure  from  Faster 
Than  Light  Games,  part  of  Oasis  Systems  of 
San  Diego.  The  space-traveling  players  visit 
fifty-seven  cities  on  eighteen  worlds  in  this 
joystick-controlled  trading  game.  The  cover  art 
alone  is  so  impressive  that  it  had  the  publishers 
wondering  aloud  why  they  hadn't  printed  it  up 
as  a  poster. 

Equally  as  pretty  for  Apple  III  fans  was 
Draw  On  III,  from  On  Three  of  Ventura, 
California,  a  graphics  tool  that— at  first  glance, 
at  least— looks  to  do  as  much  as  MousePaint  or 
MacPaint  on  the  Ill's  siblings. 

Other  products  notable  and  noted:  a  soon-to- 
be-out  hardware-software  combination  tele- 

phone and  program  from  Artsci;  a  program 
from  Pterodactyl  that  compiles  IBM  PC  Basic 
to  run  on  the  Lisa;  a  Lisa  desktop  calendar  from 
Videx,  out  in  the  fall;  MacForth,  by  Creative 
Solutions,  precisely  what  its  name  implies; 
Rails  West!,  a  nineteenth-century  business 
strategy  game  from  Strategic  Simulations; 
Rana  Systems 's  dual  drive  that  can  run  IBM 
software  on  an  Apple;  TNW  Corporation's  in- 
telligent modem;  and  Apple's  gift  booth,  which 
sold  something  like  $1,500  worth  of  T-shirts 
and  other  goodies  the  first  day  alone. 

Spotted  in  the  crowd:  Bill  Budge  (Pinball 
Construction  Set),  who  at  six-foot-plus  is  hard 
to  miss;  exactly  one  mime,  perhaps  a  holdover 
from  nearby  Marin  County's  autumn  Renais- 
sance Faire;  and  Robin  Williams,  in  one  of  his 

lesser-known  roles  as  an  Apple  He  owner. 

As  usual,  the  after-hours  revelry  was  the 
best  atmosphere  in  which  to  win  friends,  in- 
fluence people,  and  seek  a  consensus  of  percep- 
tion on  the  microcomputer  industry's  future.  As 
last  year,  Microsoft  threw  an  almost  too  self- 
consciously upper-crust  party  in  the  1920s 
baroque-style  Flood  Mansion.  There,  high-tech 
shoptalk  clashed  with  old-world  elegance; 
longhairs  in  flannel-and-denim  hackers'  stan- 
dard issue  sipped  white  wine  and  scarfed  down 
oysters  alongside  executives  in  three-piece 
pinstripes  while  listening  to  a  jazz  trio. 

Softalk  Publishing  put  on  its  Fourth  Most 
Popular  Software  Poll  Awards  ceremony  Satur- 
day evening  to  present  plaques  to  overall  first- 
place  winners  in  the  1983  and  all-time  catego- 
ries. St.  Game  editor  Andrew  Christie  presented 
awards  for  Atari  programs.  Winning  for  1983 
was  Electronic  Arts's  strategy  game  Archon, 
accepted  by  authors  Jon  Freeman,  Anne 
Westfall,  and  Paul  Reiche  ITJ.  Said  Freeman 
in  his  acceptance  speech,  "Those  of  you  who 
like  Archon  should  probably  find  something  in- 
teresting coming  out  in  about  two  months." 
Star  Raiders  took  all-time  honors,  as  it  did  last 
year.  The  award  was  accepted  by  Atari's  Fred 
Simon,  who  said,  "After  what  we've  been 
through  in  1983,  this  is  a  pleasant  surprise." 

St.  Game  associate  editor  Matthew  Yuen 
handed  out  the  equivalent  Apple  awards.  Bro- 
derbund's  Lode  Runner  was  1983's  champ;  the 
plaques  were  accepted  by  programmer  Doug 
Smith  and  publisher  Doug  Carlston.  Smith 
said  later  that  he's  been  home  in  Seattle  working 
on  another  game  that  will  soon  be  released — 
"I've  got  lots  of  wall  space  for  plaques."  The 
all-time  choice  was  Sir-tech's  Wizardry,  penned 
by  Robert  Woodhead  and  Andrew  Green- 
berg.  Again.  Joshed  Woodhead:  "In  the  inter- 
est of  being  brief,  I  think  we  deserved  it  total- 
ly." Greenberg's  two  bits:  "I  never  thought  I'd 
stand  up  here  again  before  you,  with  Robert, 
and  still  be  smiling."  Briefly  serious,  Sir-tech 
president  Fred  Sirotek  noted  that  Wizardry  is 
being  translated  into  foreign  languages  and  has 
been  used  to  talk  kids  out  of  suicide,  to  evaluate 
prisoners,  and  to  aid  college  students  with  their 
coursework.  "Time  will  tell  whether  it  will  be 
a  classic,"  he  said.  "Anyhow,  it  already  has 
one  up  on  the  Mona  Lisa— it  has  been  copied 
more  often." 

Craig  Stinson,  editor  of  Softalk  for  the  IBM 
Personal  Computer,  presented  a  single  award 
for  1983  to  the  landslide  winner— Mitch 
Kapor's  1-2-3.  It  was  accepted  by  district 
manager  Jim  Willis  of  Lotus  Development. 
Softalk's  publisher  Al  Tommervik,  an  in- 
veterate Apple  III  fan,  gave  the  Apple  IU  award 
to  Quark  Engineering's  Tim  Gill  for  his  Cata- 
lyst, which  lets  the  user  put  applications  on  hard 
disk.  Softalk  president  and  editor-in-chief  Mar- 
got  Comstock  Tommervik  presented  the  Softalk 
Apple  awards.  Lode  Runner  snatched  the  year's 
prize,  while— what  else?— Wizardry  came  away 
with  the  overall  honors. 

By  the  fair's  end,  44,850  people  (official- 
ly— a  larger  number  of  programs  and  badges 
distributed  suggests  that  an  extra  five  thousand 
may  have  entered  by  unkosher  means;  two  peo- 
ple have  been  arrested  on  suspicion  of  ticket 


Ed-Venture™  stories, 
the  next  generation 
of  educational  software. 

Now  you  and  your  family 
can  take  a  learning  adventure 

The  first  in  the  ED- 
VENTURE  series  of 
educational  computer 
stories  from  Blue 
Ridge  Software, 
BACK  IN  TIME  will 
take  you  on  an  ex- 
citing journey  to  an 
era  when  the  earth 
was  young,  smoke 
billowed  from 
volcanoes,  and 
dinosaurs  reigned 
as  kings  of  the 
tropical  jungles. 

Along  the  way, 
you  will  meet  and 
learn  about  the  in- 
credible  creatures  ^jg£ 
of  the  prehistoric  <gj 
age.  Exciting, 
high  quality 

graphics  will  bring  to  life 
the  Brontosaurus,  the  Stegosaurus,  the  Diplodocus 
and  more.  Upper  and  lower  case  text  smoothly  scrolls  for  easy  reading. 

BACK  IN  TIME  is  one  in  a  series  of  ED-VENTURE  computer  stories  written  in  the 
familiar  adventure  format  that  can  make  learning  an  exciting  experience.  BACK  IN 
TIME  is  designed  for  ages  9  and  up. 

Ask  for  ED-VENTURE  stories  at  your  local  software  dealer  or  order  direct  from  Blue 
Ridge  Software  at  703-448-8080  (call  collect).  VISA  and  MASTERCARD  accepted. 
Available  for  Apple  II,  II+,  lie.  Soon  to  be  on  IBM  PCjr.™  and  Commodore  64™ 




P.O.  Box  461 
Merrifield,  Virginia 

©  Copyright  1984, 
Blue  Ridge  Software  Co. 

ED- VENTURE  is  a  trademark  of 
Blue  Ridge  Software  Co. 
Apple  II,  II  + ,  lie  are  trademarks  of 
Apple  Computer,  Inc. 
IBM  PCjr.  Is  a  trademark  of 
International  Business  Machines. 
Commodore  64  is  a  trademark  of 
Commodore  Electronics,  Ltd. 


Thar s  Why  We're  So  Good  At  It! 

«  ,  ;  riH.-r-M'.'.jH 

Automatically  date 
stamps  tiles  with 

NEW  1984 
An  official 
PRO-DOS  Clock 

Just  plug  it  in  and  your  programs  can  read  the  year,  month,  date,  day, 
and  time  to  1  millisecond!  The  only  clock  with  both  year  and  ms. 
A  rechargeable  NiCad  battery  will  keep  the  TIMEMASTER  II  running 
for  over  ten  years. 

Powerful  2K  ROM  driver  —  No  clock  could  be  easier  to  use. 

Full  emulation  of  most  other  clocks,  including  Thunderclock  and 

Appleclock  (but  you'll  like  the  TIMEMASTER  II  mode  better). 

We  emulate  other  clocks  by  merely  dropping  off  features.  We  can 

emulate  them  but  they  can't  emulate  us. 

Basic,  Machine  Code,  CP/M  and  Pascal  software  on  2  disks! 

Eight  software  controlled  interrupts  so  you  can  execute  two  programs 

at  the  same  time  (many  examples  are  included). 

On- board  timer  lets  you  time  any  interval  up  to  48  days  long  down  to 

the  nearest  millisecond. 

The  TIMEMASTER  II  includes  2  disks  with  some  really  fantastic  time 
oriented  programs  (over  40)  including  appointment  book  so  you'll 
never  forget  to  do  anything  again.  Enter  your  appointments  up  to  a 
year  in  advance  then  forget  them.  Appointment  book  will  remind  you 
in  plenty  of  time.  Plus  DOS  dater  so  it  will  automatically  add  the  date 
when  disk  files  are  created  or  modified.  The  disk  is  over  a  $200.00 
value  along— we  give  the  software  others  sell.  All  software  packages 
for  business,  data  base  management  and  communications  are  made 
to  read  the  TIMEMASTER  II.  If  you  want  the  most  powerful  and  the 
easiest  to  use  clock  for  your  Apple,  you  want  a  TIMEMASTER  II. 

PRICE  $129.00 

Super  Music  Synthesizer 
Improved  Hardware  and  Software 

Complete  1  6  voice  music  synthesizer  on  one  card.  Just  plug  it  into 
your  Apple,  connect  the  audio  cable  (supplied)  to  your  stereo,  boot 
the  disk  supplied  and  you  are  ready  to  input  and  play  songs. 
It's  easy  to  program  music  with  our  compose  software.  You  will  start 
right  away  at  inputting  your  favorite  songs.  The  Hi- Res  screen  shows 
what  you  have  entered  in  standard  sheet  music  format. 
Now  with  new  improved  software  for  the  easiest  and  the  fastest 
music  input  system  available  anywhere. 

We  give  you  lots  of  software.  In  addition  to  Compose  and  Play 
programs,  2  disks  are  filled  with  over  30  songs  ready  to  play. 
Easy  to  program  in  Basic  to  generate  complex  sound  effects.  Now 
your  games  can  have  explosions,  phaser  zaps,  train  whistles,  death 
cries.  You  name  it,  this  card  can  do  it. 

Four  white  noise  generators  which  are  great  for  sound  effects. 
Plays  music  in  true  stereo  as  well  as  true  discrete  quadraphonic. 
Full  control  of  attack,  volume,  decay,  sustain  and  release. 
Will  play  songs  written  for  ALT  synthesizer  (ALF  software  will  not  take 
advantage  of  all  our  card's  features.  Their  software  sounds  the  same 
in  our  synthesizer.) 

Our  card  will  play  notes  from  30HZ  to  beyond  human  hearing. 

Automatic  shutoff  on  power-up  or  if  reset  is  pushed. 

Many  many  more  features.  PRICE  $159.00 

Z-80  PLUS! 

•  TOTALLY  compatible  with  ALL  CP/M  software. 

•  The  only  Z-80  card  with  a  special  2K  "CP/M  detector"  chip. 

•  Fully  compatible  with  microsoft  disks  (no  pre-boot  required). 

•  Specifically  designed  for  high  speed  operation  in  the  Apple  Me  (runs 
just  as  fast  in  the  II+  and  Franklin). 

•  Runs  WORD  STAR,  dBASE  II,  COBOL-80,  FORTRAN-80, 
PEACHTREE  and  ALL  other  CP/M  software  with  no  pre-boot. 

•  A  semi-custom  I.C.  and  a  low  parts  count  allows  the  Z-80  Plus  to  fly 
thru  CP/M  programs  at  a  very  low  power  level.  (We  use  the  Z-80A  at 

•  Does  EVERYTHING  the  other  Z-80  boards  do,  plus  Z-80  interrupts. 

Don't  confuse  the  Z-80  Plus  with  crude  copies  of  the  microsoft  card.  The 
Z-80  Plus  employs  a  much  more  sophisticated  and  reliable  design.  With 
the  Z-80  Plus  you  can  access  the  largest  body  of  software  in  existence. 
Two  computers  in  one  and  the  advantages  of  both,  all  at  an  unbelievably 

Viewmaster  80 

There  used  to  be  about  a  dozen  80  column  cards  for  the  Apple,  now 
there's  only  ONE. 

•  TOTALLY  Videx  Compatible. 

•  80  characters  by  24  lines,  with  a  sharp  7x9  dot  matrix. 

•  On-board  40/80  soft  video  switch  with  manual  40  column  override 

•  Fully  compatible  with  ALL  Apple  languages  and  software— there  are 
NO  exceptions. 

•  Low  power  consumption  through  the  use  of  CMOS  devices. 

•  All  connections  are  made  with  standard  video  connectors. 

•  Both  upper  and  lower  case  characters  are  standard. 

•  All  new  design  (using  a  new  Microprocessor  based  CRT.  controller) 
for  a  beautiful  razor  sharp  display. 

•  The  VIEWMASTER  incorporates  all  the  features  of  all  other  80  column 
cards,  plus  many  new  improvements. 

















































































low  price. 

PRICE  $139.00 

The  VIEWMASTER  80  works  with  all  80  column  applications  including  CP/M, 
Pascal,  WordStar,  Format  II,  Easywriter,  Apple  Writer  II,  VisiCalc,  and  all 
others.  The  VIEWMASTER  80  is  THE  MOST  compatible  80  column  card  you 
can  buy  at  ANY  price!  PRICE  $179.00 

Expands  your  Apple  Me  to  192K  memory.  MemoryMaster 

Provides  an  80  column  text  display. 

Compatible  with  all  Apple  Me  80  column  and  extended  80  column 
card  software  (same  physical  size  as  Apple's  64 K  card). 
Can  be  used  as  a  solid  state  disk  drive  to  make  your  programs  run  up 
to  20  times  FASTER  (the  64K  configuration  will  act  as  half  a  drive). 
Permits  your  Me  to  use  the  new  double  high  resolution  graphics. 
Automatically  expands  Visicalc  to  95  K  storage  in  80  columns!  The 
64 K  config.  is  all  that's  needed,  128K  can  take  you  even  higher. 
PRO-DOS  will  use  the  MemoryMaster  I  leas  a  high  speed  disk  drive. 

Me  128K  RAM  Card 

•  Precision  software  disk  emulation  for  Basic,  Pascal  and  CP/M  is 
available  at  a  very  low  cost.  NOT  copy  protected. 

•  Documentation  included,  we  show  you  how  to  use  all  192K. 

If  you  already  have  Apple's  64  K  card,  just  order  the  MEMORYMASTER  Me  with  64  K  and  use 
the  64K  from  your  old  board  to  give  you  a  full  128K.  (The  board  is  fully  socketed  so  you 
simply  plug  in  more  chips.) 

MemoryMaster  lie  with  128K  $249 
Upgradeable  MemoryMaster  lie  with  64K  $169 
Non-Upgradeable  MemoryMaster  Me  with  64K  $149 

Our  boards  are  far  superior  to  most  of  the  consumer  electronics  made  today.  All  I.C.'s  are  in  high  quality  sockets  with  mil-spec,  components  used  throughout.  P.C.  boards  are  glass- 
epoxy  with  gold  contacts.  Made  in  America  to  be  the  best  in  the  world.  All  products  work  in  theAPPLE  HE,  II,  11+ and  Franklin.  The  MemoryMaster  Me  is  lie  only.  Applied  Engineering 
also  manufactures  a  full  line  of  data  acquisition  and  control  products  for  the  Apple;  A/D  converters  and  digital  I/O  cards,  etc.  Please  call  for  more  information.  All  our  products  are  fully 
tested  with  complete  documentation  and  available  for  immediate  delivery.  All  products  are  guaranteed  with  a  no  hassle  THREE  YEAR  WARRANTY. 

Texas  Residents  Add  5%  Sales  Tax 
Add  $10.00  If  Outside  U.S.A. 
Dealer  Inquiries  Welcome 

Send  Check  or  Money  Order  to: 
P.O.  Box  798 
Carrollton,  TX  75006 

Call  (214)  492-2027 

8  am.  to  1 1  p.m.  7  days  a  week 
MasterCard,  Visa  &  C.O.D.  Welcome 
No  extra  charge  for  credit  cards 



S  O  C  T  A  I  1/ 

MAY  1984 

Fly  into 
Soft  Ware 

Send  for  free  catalog  today. 

Strictly  Soft  Ware  1-614-587-2938 

To  receive  your  free  catalog  right 
away,  send  this  coupon  to  the  address 
below.  Do  you  want  our  □  Apple  or 
□  IBM  Catalog? 





(  ) 

Strictly  Soft  Ware 
P.O.  Box  338 
Granville,  OH  43023 


counterfeiting)  got  to  check  out  312  companies 
exhibiting  in  674  booths.  This  was  just  under 
last  year's  figures  and  this  year's  projections. 
Computer  Faire  Inc.  prexy  David  Sudkin 
called  the  show  full  to  capacity  and  said  it  met 
his  expectations.  Ninety-five  percent  of  next 
year's  space  has  already  been  sold,  with  the  re- 
maining amount  made  up  of  the  smallest,  six- 
by-six-foot  booths  favored  by  startup  com- 
panies and  traditionally  not  taken  until  close  to 
exhibition  time.  The  Tenth  West  Coast  Com- 
puter Faire  will  be  March  21-24,  1985,  again  in 
Civic  Auditorium/Brooks  Hall  in  downtown 
San  Francisco.  JP 

□  Penguin  Software  (Geneva,  IL)  has  raised 
the  price  of  its  single-sided  games  to  $29.95. 
Citing  changes  in  development,  production,  and 
advertising  costs,  the  company  is  returning  to 
its  pre-March  1983  prices.  It  was  on  that  date 
that  the  company  embarked  on  a  six-month  pric- 
ing experiment  in  which  each  recreational  soft- 
ware package  was  priced  at  $19.95,  in  the  hope 
that  volume  would  make  up  for  the  difference  in 
revenue.  The  experiment  was  a  success.  "If  we 
could  support  ourselves  and  grow  on  volume 
alone,  we'd  be  fine,"  says  Penguin  president 
Mark  Pelczarski.  "But  costs  like  advertising 
and  development  haven't  remained  proportional 
with  the  market."  Most  of  Penguin's  future 
software  will  take  more  than  a  year  of  develop- 
ment time,  he  explains.  This  is  because  most  of 
the  Apple  software  will  be  written  for  128K, 
double-hi-res  machines,  a  more  time-consum- 
ing format  in  which  to  work. 

□  Adventure  International  (Long wood,  FL) 
has  announced  a  reduction  in  prices  for  its 
newest  adventures,  including  the  Marvel 
Comics  tie-in  line  (which  starts  with  The  Hulk, 
to  be  released  this  month).  The  new  price  is 
$24.95,  down  ten  dollars  from  the  standard 
$34.95.  Prices  on  adventures  already  released 
will  stay  at  $34.95  for  the  time  being,  but  may 
drop  to  the  new  level.  Citing  reasons  for  the 
price  reduction,  a  marketing  spokesperson  for 
the  company  said,  "There's  a  lot  of  competition 
out  there."  Also,  the  company  announced  that 
the  AI  line  of  arcade  games,  previously  $34.95, 
will  now  retail  for  $19.95. 

□  Publishers  interested  in  registering  their 
programs  to  be  nominated  for  the  Annual  Soft- 
ware Gold  Disk  Awards  can  contact  Kapri  In- 
ternational Distributors  (Sun  Valley,  CA). 
Categories  open  for  nomination  include  busi- 
ness, recreation,  education,  utility,  home,  word 
processing,  and  database.  For  1984's  awards, 
graphics,  screen  display,  music,  utility 
originality,  character  originality,  and  best  pro- 
grammer of  the  year  have  been  added.  The  pro- 
grams will  be  judged  for  nomination  by  a 
twelve-member  panel  of  retailers  and  users,  and 
then  sent  to  a  select  group  of  twenty  thousand 
retailers  and  users.  The  winners  will  be  an- 
nounced and  presented  a  gold  plaque  at  the 
Winter  CES  in  January,  1985. 

□  Microsoft  (Bellevue,  WA)  has  announced 
the  appointment  of  Jerry  Ruttenbur  to  the  post 
of  vice  president  of  the  retail  sales  division. 
Ruttenbur  comes  to  the  company  from  Koala 
Technologies,  where  he  was  vice  president  of 
sales,  after  serving  with  Atari  Personal  Com- 
puters and  Warner.  Previously  responsible  for 
Microsoft  public  relations,  Pam  Edstrom  will 

be  joining  the  Waggener  Group  (Portland, 
OR).  Her  position  of  director  of  public  relations 
at  Microsoft  will  be  taken  by  Marty  Taucher. 

□  International  Grandmaster  and  U.S.  Chess 
Champion  Larry  Christiansen  has  concluded 
an  endorsement  agreement  with  Cyber  Enter- 
prises (Cerritos,  CA).  Christiansen  will  en- 
dorse the  company's  Cyber  chess  and  all  related 
items,  according  to  Norbert  Mikum,  company 
president.  Christiansen  achieved  Chess  Master 
status  at  age  fourteen  and  was  an  International 
Grandmaster  at  twenty.  He  currently  holds  a  na- 
tional rating  of  more  than  2,650  and  an  interna- 
tional rating  of  above  2,550. 

□  Clifford  Emerick  has  joined  Rhino  Robots 
(Champaign,  IL)  as  marketing  director  to 
launch  a  new  dealer  program.  He  will  be  ex- 
pected to  place  the  company's  fully  program- 
mable, mobile  Scorpion  robot  with  twelve  hun- 
dred dealers  during  1984.  Emerick  comes  to 
Rhino  from  a  stint  with  software  publisher 

□  Sherwin  A.  Steffin,  cofounder  and  vice 
president,  research  and  development,  for 
EduWare  (Agoura  Hills,  CA)  has  been  ap- 
pointed to  the  Mayor's  Education  Advisory 
Committee  by  Los  Angeles  Mayor  Tom  Brad- 
ley. Steffin  is  an  educational  technologist  ex- 
perienced in  application  of  technology  to  cur- 
riculum development.  The  committee  will  ad- 
vise Mayor  Bradley  on  important  educational 
issues  upon  which  his  administration  may  have 
some  impact. 

□  Broderbund  (San  Rafael,  CA)  has  named 
Nick  Ragouzis  to  the  post  of  vice  president  and 
general  manager  of  the  company's  business  soft- 
ware division.  He  will  be  in  charge  of  taking  the 
necessary  steps  to  develop  a  more  comprehen- 
sive line  of  business  and  professional  software 
for  Broderbund,  known  primarily  for  their 
games.  First  steps  will  be  an  upgrading  of  the 
packaging  and  documentation  for  the  current 
business  line  and  extensive  promotion  of  that 
line.  Ragouzis  brings  twelve  years  of  computer- 
related  experience  to  his  new  job.  Six  of  those 
years  were  spent  with  Amdahl. 

□  Camilo  Wilson,  creator  of  the  Volkswriter 
word  processor  and  president  of  Lifetree  Soft- 
ware (Monterey,  CA),  has  been  appointed  to 
the  Association  of  Data  Processing  Society 
(ADAPSO)  and  Microcomputer  Software  As- 
sociation Section  (MCSA)  board  of  directors. 
He  will  serve  a  term  of  one  year.  Established  in 
1982,  the  software  section  is  composed  of  com- 
panies that  develop  and  market  microcomputer 
software.  As  one  of  the  six  sections  of 
ADAPSO,  MCSA  establishes  industry  guide- 
lines that  deal  with  software  protection 
schemes,  international  business  practices,  copy- 
right laws,  and  other  essential  software  topics. 

□  In  a  campaign  to  attain  a  new  level  of  visi- 
bility for  software  manufacturers  and  their  prod- 
ucts, Softeam  Distributors  (Culver  City,  CA) 
will  embark  on  a  cooperative  advertising  ven- 
ture with  the  placement  of  full-page  ads  in  ma- 
jor metropolitan  newspapers.  Each  ad  will 
feature  nonconflicting  software  products  from 
four  or  more  manufacturers,  as  well  as  listing 
two  dozen  or  more  retailers  in  the  city  that  carry 
these  products.  Retailers  will  qualify  for  the  ads 
by  purchasing  a  specified  quantity  of  the  adver- 
tised wares.  Hi 



Reference  Management  System 

BOOKENDS  is  a  revolutionary  system  designed  to  manage 
your  references  electronically.  BOOKENDS  takes  the  guess 
work  out  of  hunting  for  lost  articles  or  information.  Think  of  it 
as  a  personalized,  state-of-the-art  catalog  system. 

BOOKENDS  saves  you  time. 

BOOKENDS  tracks  down  articles,  magazines,  journals  and 
books  quickly  and  effortlessly.  It  even  prepares  professional 
bibliographies.  If  you've  ever  spent  too  much  time  looking 
for  important  information,  then  BOOKENDS  is  for  you. 

BOOKENDS  remembers  for  you. 

BOOKENDS  keeps  track  of  information  from  articles  and 
books  so  you  don't  have  to.  BOOKENDS  works  with  your 
Apple  computer  and  is  menu-driven  for  ease  of  use.  It  has  a 
word  processor  quality  editor  which  supports  upper  and 
lower-case  entry  and  display,  and  also  allows  you  to  correct 
just  typos  —  not  the  entire  entry. 
BOOKENDS  allows  you  to  store  the  author,  title,  journal, 
volume,  page  number,  date,  publisher,  keywords  and  an 
abstract  (each  up  to  720  characters). 
BOOKENDS  also  permits  chaining  your  reference  files 
together  to  contain  any  number  of  references. 

BOOKENDS  eliminates  the  guesswork. 

BOOKENDS  eliminates  most  of  the  guesswork  from  your 
data  search.  You  can  search  for  keywords,  authors,  titles  or 
phrases  anywhere  in  a  reference.  BOOKENDS  finds  them 
easily.  And  if  you  forget  the  keywords  or  authors,  don't 
despair.  BOOKENDS  provides  a  complete,  alphabetized  list 
of  the  keywords  and  authors  in  the  data  base. 

BOOKENDS  is  your  state-of-the-art 
card  catalog  system. 

BOOKENDS  also  produces  professional  bibliographies  that 
can  be  printed  or  used  directly  with  your  word  processor. 
You  have  complete  control  of  printouts,  from  simple  lists 
including  an  abstract  to  professionally-formatted,  formal 
bibliographies  suitable  for  inclusion  in  your  word  processing. 
When  retrieving  references,  the  bibliography  can  be  sorted 
by  author,  title  or  keywords. 

Streamline  the  search. 
Put  your  library  in  BOOKENDS.  $124.95 

BOOKENDS™  Translators  are  now  available  to 
convert  MEDLINE  and  DIALOG  Medline  dial-up  sessions 
into  BOOKENDS.  $49.95 

>  Software,  Inc. 

24011  Seneca 
Oak  Park,  Ml  48237 
(313)  399-8877 

Visa/MC/Checks  welcome 

Apple  is  a  trademark  of  Apple  Computer,  Inc 

Copyright  1984  Sensible  Software.  Inc 




The  most  popular  new  word- 
processing  product  introduced  for  the 
Apple  computer  in  1982  was  not  a  word 
processor— it  was  the  SENSIBLE 
SPELLER  IV  proofreading  program? 
A  perfect  complement  to  your  current 
Apple  word-processing  program,  the 
SENSIBLE  SPELLER  IV  is  fast,  friendly, 
and  gives  you  the  features  you  need  in  a 
spelling  checker. 

First  in  features** 

It  only  takes  a  minute  or  two  for  the 
SENSIBLE  SPELLER  to  scan  through  a 
ten-page  document  and  compare  each 
word  against  its  80,000-word  dictionary. 
Each  misspelled  word  is  shown  to  you  in 
the  middle  of  a  small  excerpt  from  your 
document,  so  you  won't  waste  time  try- 
ing to  remember  how  you  used  the  word. 

You  can  immediately  correct  the 
misspelled  word  by  replacing  it  with  the 
proper  spelling.  The  SENSIBLE 
SPELLER  even  suggests  the  correct 
spelling  for  your  misspelled  words! 

First  in  dictionaries 

The  SENSIBLE  SPELLER  includes  the 
largest,  most  authoritative  dictionary 
available  for  the  Apple  computer.  Over 
80,000  words  are  supplied,  direct  from 
the  official  Random  House  Dictionary. 
And  there  is  unlimited  room  to  add  your 
own  special  words.  The  official  Black's 
Law  Dictionary  is  available  separately. 

First  in  word-processor  compatibility 

The  SENSIBLE  SPELLER  works  with 
more  Apple  word  processors  than  any 
other  spelling  program,  including:  DOS 
3.2,  DOS  3.3  (Apple  Writer— all  versions, 
Bank  Street  Writer,  Magic  Window, 
Screen  Writer,  etc.),  SuperText,  Word 
Handler,  CP/M  (Wordstar,  etc.),  and  PFS: 
WRITE  word  processors. 

The  SENSIBLE  SPELLER  is  available 
for  $125  and  runs  on  all  Apple  He,  II  +  , 
and  Apple-compatible  computers  with 
one  or  two  disk  drives. 

(Software,  Inc. 

24011  Seneca 
Oak  Park,  Ml  48237 
(313)  399-8877 

Please  add  $1.25  for  shipping. 
Visa/Mastercard/Check/COD  welcome! 

'April  1983,  Softalk  magazine  reader  survey. 
"Not  all  features  are  available  with  CP/M,  PFS' 

WRITE  and  Word  Handler 
PFS:  WRITE  is  a  trademark  of  Software  Publishing  Inc. 
Apple,  and  Apple  Writer  are  trademarks 
of  Apple  Computer,  Inc.;  Bank  Street  Writer  - 
Brodebund;  Black's  Law  Dictionary  — 
West  Publishing;  CP/M  —  Digital  Research 
Corp^  Screen  Writer  —  Sierra  On-Line. 
Inc.;  SuperText- Muse  Software;  ^SS^ 
Word  Handler  —  Silicon  ^  ' 

Valley  Systems;  WordStar 
—  Micropro 

Hitch  your  Apple  to  a  Star 

WORTH  $375 

With  McroPro9  WordStars  InfoStar" 

Apple.  CIVM  «  IBM  PC  are  registered  trademarks  of  Apple  Computer  Inc..  Digital  Research  Inc.  &  IBM  Corp.  respectively 

Now  when  you  buy  our  best  selling  WordStar  word  processing 
software  or  InfoStar  data  base  management  system  for  your  Apple  II,  11+ 
or  He  computer,  well  throw  in  a  FREE  StarCard*  the  CP/M  board  that 
gives  you  full  implementation  ofWordStar  in  one  board  instead  of  three. 

With  StarCard,  you '11  be  able  to  take  full  advantage  of  the 
advanced  features  that  already  made  WordStar  No.  1  on  the  IBM  PC 
And  you  can  use  InfoStar  data  base  management  system  to  enter,  sort 
and  report  information  without  learning  a  programming  language 

To  take  us  up  on  our  offer,  hurry  down  to  your  local 
computer  store  and  pick  up  WordStar  or  InfoStar. 

Either  one  will  make  your  Apple  shine. 

'Free  StarCard  package  includes: 

B  MHz  Z-80  microprocessor. 64Kof  RAM, CP  M  Operating  System.  Version  2.2. 


The  Flo-Thru  On-Goto 

The  hardest  part  of  any  monthly  column  is 
always  the  first  paragraph.  Add  to  that  the  fact 
that  it's  the  first  paragraph  of  the  first  column  of 
a  series  and  it's  enough  to  cause  a  permanent 
catatonic  state.  .  .  . 

Whew!  Now  that  we've  got  that  out  of  the 
way,  let's  talk  about  what  direction  The  Basic 
Solution  is  going  to  take  over  the  next  year. 

This  column  has  a  number  of  general  goals 
and  principles  behind  it.  The  main  one  is  to  help 
you  expand  your  abilities  to  put  Applesoft  Basic 
to  work  for  you  in  solving  the  problems  you 
have.  To  accomplish  this,  we'll  try  to  show  di- 
rect and  efficient  solutions  to  specific  problems 
and  in  the  process  explore  the  general  topic  of 
problem-solving  as  a  skill. 

The  one  hundred  or  so  commands  that  com- 
prise Basic  can  be  considered  sort  of  an  "ulti- 
mate Erector  set"  that  can  be  manipulated  by 
the  user  to  create  an  almost  infinite  variety  of 
applications.  It  is  interesting  to  note  how  often  a 
user  of  an  application  like  a  spreadsheet  pro- 
gram says,  "No,  I'm  not  a  programmer.  I  just 
use  applications  software  like  Spiffy-Calc ." 

With  a  little  thought,  however,  one  realizes 
that  in  setting  up  a  simple  template  to  use  Spiffy- 
Calc,  an  entire  orderly  structure  and  sequence 
of  instructions  must  be  set  up  to  properly  yield 
the  correct  results  when  the  data  is  entered. 
Sounds  like  programming!  Henceforth,  let  no 
readers  of  this  column  think  themselves  incapa- 
ble or  unworthy  of  dabbling  in  that  arena  some- 
times referred  to  as  "programming."  Program- 
ming is  just  the  process  of  telling  the  computer 
what  you  want  it  to  do  on  a  time-delayed  basis. 

Furthermore,  it's  important  to  realize  that 
the  power  of  the  computer  lies  implicitly  in  the 
fact  that  it  is  programmable.  When  you  run  only 
one  or  two  prewritten  programs  on  a  computer, 
you  have  reduced  its  significance  to  that  of  a 
toaster.  Toasters  do  specific  tasks.  Computers 
are  chameleons  of  function. 

By  learning  how  to  properly  instruct  your 
computer,  you  can  tap  into  the  infinite  potential 
of  your  investment  and  discover  a  channel  for 
your  creative  efforts  that  is  unequaled. 

This  column  will  not  attempt  to  teach  you 
Basic.  There  are  many  fine  books  on  the  sub- 

ject and  a  column  within  the  pages  of  Softalk 
(Follow  the  Floating  Point)  that  will  help  you 
with  that. 

Instead,  it  will  be  assumed  that  you  are  al- 
ready more  or  less  familiar  with  the  overall 
structure  of  a  Basic  program  and  with  the  com- 
mands available.  Our  purpose  here  will  be  to  in- 
struct you  in  the  focused  application  of  those 
commands  to  help  you  cross  that  bridge  to  being 
able  to  program  what  you  want.  A  toolbox  does 
not  a  carpenter  make.  The  command  list  of  Ba- 
sic is  your  toolbox.  Here  you  will  learn  how  to 
put  it  to  use. 

The  Magic  of  On-Goto.  One  of  the  more 
neglected  commands  in  Applesoft  is  the  on  X 
goto  command.  Its  most  common  use  is  in  the 
construction  of  menus  within  a  program.  If  you 
haven't  heard  or  thought  about  the  on  X  goto 
syntax  before,  your  menus  may  look  something 
like  this: 


20  PRINT  "1)  PRINT  A  RECORD" 




55  IF  X<  1  OR  X>3  THEN  10 
60  IFX  =  1  GOTO  100 
70  IF  X  =  2  GOTO  200 
80  IF  X  =  3  GOTO  300 
110  GOTO  10 

210  GOTO  10 

310  END 

You'll  notice  that  this  program  requires 
three  individual  lines  to  process  the  menu  selec- 
tion (not  counting  the  range  check  on  line  55). 
Now,  as  a  clever  programmer  you  might  have 
saved  a  line  in  your  program  by  realizing  that 
the  test  for  X  =  1  can  be  omitted  by  letting  the 
program  flow  "fall  through"  to  the  first  routine 
section  like  this: 


55  IF  X<  1  OR  X>3  THEN  10 
70  IF  X  =  2  GOTO  200 
80  IF  X  =  3  GOTO  300 
110  GOTO  10 

With  on  X  goto,  however,  even  greater 
economy  is  possible.  A  typical  part  of  a  pro- 
gram with  its  usual  use  might  look  like  this: 


20  PRINT  "1)  PRINT  A  RECORD" 




55  IF  X<  1  OR  X>3  THEN  10 
60  ON  X  GOTO  100,200,300 
110  GOTO  10 

210  GOTO  10 

310  END 

Now  we  have  just  one  line  doing  the  work  of 
three.  The  logic  here  is  that  after  printing  the 
menu  and  requesting  a  menu  number  from  the 
user,  line  60  will  execute  a  goto  statement  to 
one  of  three  lines,  depending  on  the  value  of  X. 
The  on  X  goto  function  works  by  evaluating  X 
and  then  selecting  the  line  to  jump  to  based  on 
the  value  of  X.  If  X  is  1 ,  then  the  first  line  value 
(100)  will  be  used.  If  X  is  2,  then  the  second 
(200),  and  if  X  is  3,  then  the  third  (300). 

Easy  enough,  and  certainly  better  than  all 
those  if-thens. 

But  now  for  some  fun.  One  of  the  things  to 
remember,  if  you  want  to  discover  all  that  your 
computer  can  do,  is  to  not  be  afraid  of  asking 
what  happens  when  you  don't  follow  the  rules. 
As  long  as  the  result  is  predictable  (even  if 
unorthodox),  it  can  become  another  ingredient 
in  your  programmer's  bag  of  tricks. 

In  this  case,  what  happens  if  X  is  less  than  1 
or  greater  than  3?  The  answer  is  that  none  of  the 
gotos  are  executed,  and  program  flow  goes  to 
the  next  statement  on  the  line.  (Program  flow  is 
a  term  that  will  be  used  throughout  this  series, 
and  refers  to  the  path  through  your  program  that 

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Applesoft  follows  as  the  program  runs.) 

The  position  occupied  by  X  in  the  on  X  goto 
statement  can  also  be  a  calculated  quantity.  We 
can  put  all  this  together  for  an  even  snorter 


55  IF  X<1  OR  X>3  THEN  10 
60  ON  X-1  GOTO  200,300 
110  GOTO  10 

Now,  if  X  =  1 ,  the  expression  X  —  1  will  give 
a  result  of  0,  and  the  program  flow  will  go  di- 
rectly to  line  100.  If  X=2,  X-1  will  be  1,  and 
a  goto  200  will  be  performed.  A  value  of  3  for 
X  will  make  X-1  equal  to  2,  so  the  goto  300 
will  be  taken. 

For  curiosity's  sake,  you  may  be  interested 
to  know  that  this  last  program  has  saved  a  total 
of  twenty-two  bytes  over  the  original  multiple 
if-then  version.  Not  enough  for  another  hi-res 
screen  perhaps,  but  not  bad  for  a  simple  trick 

On  X  Goto  as  a  Multiple  If-Then.  In  the 

venerable  Integer  Basic,  multiple  if-then  state- 
ments can  be  put  on  a  single  line.  This  is  be- 
cause— contrary  to  the  way  Applesoft  handles 
things— if  an  if-then  test  fails  in  Integer  Basic, 
program  flow  continues  with  the  next  statement 
on  the  line.  In  Applesoft,  when  an  if-then  test 
fails,  the  program  flow  jumps  to  the  next  pro- 
gram line. 

This  can  be  useful  on  occasion,  because  the 
if-then  test  can  be  used  to  "shield"  the  other 
statements  on  the  line  until  they  are  needed.  For 



10  INPUT  "YES  OR  NO:";l$ 
20  IF  l$  =  "YES"  THEN  PRINT 

30  IF  l$  =  "NO"  THEN  PRINT  ' 



In  this  program,  if  a  particular  test  succeeds, 
then  a  phrase  is  printed,  and  in  the  case  of  lines 
20  and  30,  program  flow  goes  back  to  line  10. 
This  is  possible  because  in  Applesoft,  when  the 
test  fails,  the  remainder  of  that  particular  line  is 
ignored,  and  program  flow  goes  to  the  next  ac- 
tual line  number.  Here,  this  is  an  advantage. 
But  what  about  the  next  program? 

10  INPUT"ENTER  YES  OR  NO:";l$ 
20  ON  LEFT$(l$,1)o"Y"  GOTO  70 
40  IF  MID$(I$,2)<>"E"  GOTO  10 

50  IF  l$o"YES"  GOTO  10 
55  PRINT  "AND  S  MAKES  Y-E-SI":  GOTO  10 
70  IF  l$  =  "NO"  THEN  PRINT"ARE  YOU 

80  IFI$  =  "N"THEN  PRINT  "DON'T  BE 


This  program  tests  all  inputs  that  begin  with 
a  Y  and  prints  certain  responses  depending  on 
the  input.  Line  20  checks  to  see  if  the  first 
character  is  a  Y.  If  it  is,  line  30  prints  the  first 
response  phrase.  Lines  40  and  45  check  for  and 

respond  to  an  E  as  the  second  character,  and 
lines  50  and  55  complete  the  process.  If  the  sec- 
ond or  third  tests  fail  along  the  way,  program 
flow  returns  to  line  10  to  reask  the  question. 

It  is  a  shame,  though,  that  line  20  and  each 
successive  if-then  must  be  used  all  by  them- 
selves for  each  test.  By  using  the  "flow- 
through"  nature  of  on  X  goto,  though,  we  can 
combine  everything  onto  a  single  line: 

10  INPUT'ENTER  YES  OR  NO:";l$ 
20  ON  LEFT$(l$,1)o"Y"  GOTO  70: 
ON  MID$(I$,2)<  A"E"  GOTO  10: 
ON  l$o"YES"  GOTO  10: 
GOTO  10 

70  IF  l$  =  "NO"  THEN  PRINT'ARE  YOU 

80  IF  l$  =  "N"  THEN  PRINT  "DON'T  BE 


For  purposes  of  readability,  line  20  has  been 
listed  with  one  statement  per  line  on  the  page, 
even  though  it  would  not  normally  be  entered 
this  way. 

The  first  new  concept  here  is  substituting  the 
usual  arithmetic  calculation  of  X  to  a  logical 
operation.  Logical  operations  test  the  true  or 
false  nature  of  a  comparison  (for  equality  or 
greater-than/less-than)  and  return  a  result  equal 
to  0  or  1 .  A  0  indicates  that  the  comparison 
failed;  a  1  indicates  that  it  succeeded. 

At  the  beginning  of  line  20,  if  the  first  char- 
acter of  the  response  string  (1$)  is  not  a  Y,  pro- 
gram flow  will  jump  to  line  70  in  the  bottom 
half  of  the  program.  If  the  first  character  is  a  Y, 
program  flow  will  continue  with  the  next  state- 
ment on  the  line.  Again,  a  logical  operation 
comparison  is  done  on  the  input  string,  an  on- 
goto  is  used  to  branch  out  of  the  line  if  the 
test  fails. 

This  sort  of  sequence  can  be  repeated  as  of- 
ten as  you  wish  within  the  usual  limits  on  line 
length,  and  you  may  use  any  logical  comparison 
or  arithmetic  expression  to  produce  the  result 
for  the  on-goto  that  you  desire. 

Study  the  first  listing  thoroughly  until  you 
are  comfortable  with  the  ideas  behind  each 
statement.  If  a  particular  item  like  the  MID$ 
function  is  still  a  little  fuzzy,  don't  hesitate  to  go 
back  and  check  your  Applesoft  Basic  Program- 
ming Reference  Manual.  The  manual  is  meant 
to  be  used  like  a  dictionary,  not  read  like  a 
novel.  The  more  prolific  the  programmer,  the 
more  his  manuals  look  as  if  they've  doubled  for 
phone  booth  yellow  pages! 

Next  month,  there  will  be  another  Basic 
Solution.  Ideally,  we  would  like  to  respond  to 
your  problems  and  suggestions,  so  why  not  set  a 
pad  by  your  computer  now  and  start  keeping  a 
list  of  all  those  little  annoyances  you'd  like  to 
send  to  somebody  else?  We're  not  looking  for 
(and  probably  will  politely  ignore)  questions 
like,  "How  do  I  write  a  database?"  We  hope  to 
get  questions  like,  "How  do  I  find  the  third  let- 
ter in  a  string?"  or  tips  like,  "Here's  a  neat  way 
to  use  one  if-then  where  you  used  to  need  two!" 

Thanks  to  Craig  Peterson  for  the  on  X  goto 
tip  for  this  month.  Until  next  month— Happy 
Appling!  31 


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MAY  1984 

e  ochoonouse 


by  Carol  Ray 

Telelearning,  Traveling  Computers,  and  More 

The  Personal  Connection.  For  anyone 
who's  been  through  the  correspondence  school 
experience,  or  who  has  attempted  to  juggle  a 
busy  schedule  around  night  school  one  or  two 
evenings  a  week,  or  who  is  housebound  due  to 
physical  incapacity  or  some  other  reason, 
Telelearning  Systems  of  San  Francisco  just 
might  be  the  answer.  On  March  8,  at  a  press 
conference  in  New  York  attended  by  Donald 
Senese,  the  U.S.  Assistant  Secretary  of  Educa- 
tion, and  a  number  of  college  and  university 
presidents  and  deans,  a  student  was  enrolled  in 
an  accredited  college  course  to  be  taught 
through  a  home  computer — the  first  of  its  kind 

The  student's  name  is  Bobby  Cugini.  The 
victim  of  an  automobile  accident  that  left  him 
without  the  use  of  his  legs,  Cugini  is  going  to  be 
working  for  his  B.  A.  at  Edison  State  College  in 
Trenton,  New  Jersey.  Edison  is  one  of  the  more 
than  two  hundred  colleges  and  universities  cur- 
rently evaluating  and  developing  courses  to  be 
offered  over  Telelearning 's  Electronic  Univer- 
sity network.  Others  include  Ohio  University, 
the  University  of  Wisconsin,  the  New  York  In- 
stitute of  Technology,  and  San  Diego  State 

The  classes  available  through  the  Electronic 
University  system  prepare  students  to  take  sub- 
ject exams  offered  by  the  College  Level  Ex- 
amination Program.  All  such  tests  are  given  by 
the  College  Board.  There  are  one  thousand 
CLEP  test  centers;  students  can  choose  the  one 
most  convenient  for  them.  Test  scores  are  then 
sent  to  any  of  the  seventeen  hundred  colleges 
and  universities  that  offer  appropriate  college 
credits  based  on  their  ratings  of  CLEP  scores. 

The  course  listings  for  the  Electronic 
University  include  classes  in  the  areas  of  pro- 
fessional and  career  development,  home  educa- 
tion, and  self-improvement/hobbies.  These 
range  from  "Starting  and  Managing  Your  Own 
Business"  to  "The  California  Wine  Connois- 
seur." In  addition,  students  can  prepare  for 
proficiency  exams  or  college  credit  exams  by 
enrolling  in  basic-level  classes  in  either  the  hu- 
manities or  business.  Test-taking  strategies  are 
the  focus  of  a  series  of  courses  designed  for 
those  planning  to  take  such  professional  exams 
as  the  MCAT,  the  LSAT,  or  the  CPA  examina- 

tion. Finally,  several  courses  are  offered  that 
provide  a  practical  introduction  to  personal 
computers  and  their  applications. 

How  Is  It  All  Possible?  By  now  you're  prob- 
ably thinking  that  in  order  to  get  involved  in  the 
Electronic  University,  you've  either  got  to  be  a 
telecommunications  whiz,  an  oil  magnate,  or 
both.  Wrong!  In  fact,  all  you  really  need  is 
about  ninety  dollars  for  the  Electronic  Univer- 
sity software  and  Telelearning  Knowledge 
Module,  which  work  with  your  telephone  and 
an  Apple  II,  IBM  PC,  or  Commodore  64. 
Classes  cost  anywhere  from  $35  to  $100,  with 
all  communications  costs  included  in  the  course 

So  far,  so  good.  But  what  about  all  the  pro- 
tocols, user  codes,  and  log-in  sequences  (not  to 
mention  lost  messages  and  network  shutdowns) 
that  you've  heard  so  much  about?  Well,  thanks 
to  the  three  public  networks  in  the  Telelearning 
system— Tymnet,  Telenet,  and  Uninet— any 
problems  with  a  network  connection  will  cause 
the  system  to  switch  to  the  secondary  network, 
and  to  the  third  if  another  problem  is  found.  To 
counteract  errors  in  transmission,  a  high-level 
protocol  verifies  all  data  sent  (both  to  and  from 
the  home  computer)  and  automatically  causes  a 
retransmission  whenever  an  error  is  detected. 

Unlike  other  telecommunications  products, 
the  Telelearning  system  incorporates  into  soft- 
ware all  the  protocols  needed  to  turn  a  personal 
computer  into  a  host  computer.  File  transfer, 
message  storage,  and  transmission  of  digitized 
photographs  or  graphics  are  all  done  automati- 
cally and  at  reduced  cost  to  the  user,  since  auto 
dialing  is  accomplished  without  a  "smart" 

Once  you  become  a  student  at  the  Electronic 
University,  you  and  your  instructor  are 
assigned  an  electronic  memory  mailbox  number 
on  the  Telelearning  central  computer.  Messages 
can  be  sent  or  received  by  either  of  you  twenty- 
four  hours  a  day  from  more  than  three  hundred 
fifty  cities  in  the  United  States  and  more  than 
forty  countries  overseas.  Whenever  it  is  mutual- 
ly convenient  for  you  and  your  teacher  to 
"talk,"  a  single  keystroke  is  all  that  is  needed 
to  initiate  interaction  between  the  two  com- 
puters. Messages,  questions,  and  answers  can 
be  sent  and  received  with  virtually  no  delay. 

For  the  most  part,  the  effects  of  the  Elec- 
tronic University  have  yet  to  be  felt,  but  they 
are  expected  to  be  powerful  and  far-reaching. 
The  combination  of  customized,  individualized 
instruction,  inexpensive  hardware,  and  flexi- 
bility as  to  when  and  where  learning  takes  place 
is  one  that  holds  vast  potential  to  improve  the 
quality  and  availability  of  higher  education 

Telelearning  Systems,  505  Beach  Street,  San 
Francisco,  CA  94133;  (415)  928-2800. 

On  the  Road  Again.  "Chips  and  Changes" 
is  the  name  of  a  traveling  exhibition  organized 
by  the  Association  of  Science-Technology 
Centers  and  scheduled  to  tour  a  number  of 
American  cities  over  the  next  two  years. 
Cosponsored  by  the  National  Endowment  for 
the  Humanities  and  the  Intel  Corporation,  the 
exhibition  uses  interactive  computer  displays, 
robotics,  audiovisual  presentations,  and  live 
demonstrations  of  microelectronic  products  and 
services  to  show  how  microchips  are  changing 
the  way  Americans  work,  play,  learn,  and 

In  an  effort  to  demonstrate  the  educational 
potential  of  personal  computers  in  the  home  and 
classroom,  Scholastic  Inc.  will  be  showing  two 
of  its  Wizware  products,  Spelldiver  and  Agent 
USA,  as  part  of  the  event.  Spelldiver  is  designed 
to  increase  word  recognition  and  retention, 
build  vocabulary,  and  strengthen  spelling  skills, 
as  players  dive  underwater  to  uncover  giant 
words  hidden  by  "lettermoss. "  Agent  USA 
challenges  the  player's  planning  and  problem- 
solving  abilities  in  an  action-adventure  game. 
Scholastic's  two  computing  magazines,  Family 
Computing  and  K-Power,  will  also  be  displayed 
throughout  the  exhibition  with  the  aid  of  a 
mobile  robot. 

"Chips  and  Changes"  is  currently 
scheduled  to  open  at  the  Oregon  Museum  of 
Science  and  Industry  in  Portland  on  June  9  and 
run  through  August  5.  Beginning  on  January 
26,  1985,  and  continuing  through  March  24,  the 
Museum  of  Science  and  Industry  in  Chicago 
will  be  the  exhibition's  host.  Other  show  dates 
in  1985  are  as  follows:  April  13- June  9,  the  Sci- 
ence Museum  of  Virginia  in  Richmond;  June 
29- August  25,  the  Museum  of  Science  in  Bos- 
ton; September  14-November  10,  the  Franklin 



MAY  1984 

Institute  in  Philadelphia;  and  November 
30-January  26,  1986,  the  North  Carolina  Mu- 
seum of  Life  and  Science  in  Durham.  Dates  and 
locations  for  the  remainder  of  1984  have  yet  to 
be  announced. 

For  more  information,  contact  Avery  Hunt 
at  Scholastic,  (212)  505-3410. 

Teaching  Pascal.  Craig  Nansen,  a  teacher 
at  Minot  High  School  in  Minot,  North  Dakota, 
has  developed  an  eighteen-week  course  in  Pas- 
cal programming.  A  description  of  the  course 
was  published  in  a  two-part  article  in  Electronic 
Learning,  copies  of  which  are  available  from 
the  author  (address  follows).  The  course  is 
designed  for  high  school  students  who  are  get- 
ting their  first  exposure  to  a  programming 

Topics  for  the  first  nine  weeks  of  the  course 
include  "Introduction  to  the  Editor  and  Filer," 
"Introduction  to  Pascal,"  "Working  with 
Loops,"  and  "Introduction  to  Functions." 
During  the  ninth  week  a  three-day  test  is  given, 
in  which  students  are  required  to  write  and  cor- 
rect short  programs  and  to  solve  problems  while 
at  the  computer.  The  second  half  of  the  course 
introduces  students  to  strings,  arrays,  the  binary 
number  system,  and  record  keeping.  Weeks  17 
and  18  are  spent  reviewing  course  material,  fin- 
ishing up  term  projects,  and  taking  a  three-day 
final  exam. 

Sample  programs,  tests,  quizzes,  and  other 
handouts  are  contained  on  a  series  of  twenty 
disks,  copies  of  which  can  be  obtained  by 
writing  to  Craig  Nansen,  1112  Glacial  Drive, 

APPLE  to  Burroughs 

IBM-PC  to  Burroughs 

•  TD830/MT983  Terminal  Emulation 

•  File  Transfer  Software 

•  Mark-Sense  reader  interfacing  to  Burroughs 
for  automated  test  grading,  etc.  (Apple  only) 

•  Addressable  Printer  Option 

•  Complete  Selection  of  Burroughs-to-Micro 

-  Asynchronous  modem  connect 

-  Synchronous  modem  connect 

-  TDI  Direct  Connect 

-  Concatenation  (Daisy  Chain)  port 

-  Printer  port 

•  Easily  Installed 


•  1010  NIMITZ  ROAD.  CINCINNATI ,  OHIO  45230  513-231-2023 

•  33  HARBOR  LAKE  CR    SAFETY  HARBOR.  FL  33572  813-726-3320 

Minot,  ND  58701.  There  is  a  five-dollar  charge 
for  each  disk. 

Conference  News.  The  sixth  annual  Na- 
tional Educational  Computing  Conference  will 
be  held  June  13-15  in  Dayton,  Ohio.  Confer- 
ence organizers,  which  include  thirteen  sci- 
entific and  professional  groups  interested  in 
educational  computing,  have  announced  four 
major  objectives:  to  present  in  one  forum  major 
advances  regarding  the  use  of  computers  in  in- 
struction; to  promote  interaction  among  individ- 
uals at  all  levels  who  are  involved  in  using  com- 
puters for  instruction;  to  coordinate  the  various 
professional  groups  devoted  to  educational  com- 
puting; and  to  produce  a  proceedings  report  giv- 
ing the  status  of  computers  in  education. 

For  more  information,  contact  Lawrence  A. 
Jehn,  Computer  Science  Department,  Universi- 
ty of  Dayton,  Dayton,  OH  45469;  (513) 

The  Association  for  Small  Computer  Users 
in  Education  will  hold  its  annual  conference 
June  17-20  at  Western  Kentucky  University  in 
Bowling  Green.  Special  emphasis  will  be  given 
to  such  topics  as  academic  computing,  robotics, 
computer  applications  in  libraries,  and  effective 
use  and  control  of  institutional  word  processing. 
For  more  information,  contact  Dudley  Bryant, 
Western  Kentucky  University,  Bowling  Green, 
KY  42101;  (502)  745-0111. 

Summer  Session.  The  third  annual  Stanford 
Institute  on  Microcomputers  in  Education  will 
sponsor  two  five-week  sessions  this  summer, 
the  first  from  June  25  through  July  27,  and  the 
second  from  July  30  through  August  3 1 .  Both 
sessions  will  offer  hands-on  instruction  in  pro- 
gramming, word  processing,  and  administrative 
computing,  as  well  as  guest  speakers,  field 
trips,  and  equipment  demonstrations.  Educa- 
tors, administrators,  and  researchers  interested 
in  staying  abreast  of  the  latest  applications  of 
microcomputer  technology  in  education  are  en- 
couraged to  apply  early,  as  enrollment  in  the  in- 
stitute is  limited.  No  prior  experience  or  special 
skills  are  needed.  As  part  of  their  instruction, 
participants  will  have  the  opportunity  to  observe 
youngsters  at  the  Stanford  University  Computer 
Tutors  camp. 

For  further  information  about  the  institute, 
on-campus  housing,  financial  aid,  and  the 
camp,  contact  the  Stanford  Institute  on  Micro- 
computers in  Education,  Box  K,  Stanford,  CA 
94305;  (415)  322-4640. 

Lesley  College  in  Cambridge,  Massachu- 
setts, is  offering  an  intensive,  week-long  sum- 
mer course  for  professionals  entitled  "Micro- 
computers in  Special  Education:  Today's  Chal- 
lenge." Participants  will  hear  a  combination  of 
presentations  by  leading  researchers  and  practi- 
tioners in  both  special  education  and  microcom- 
puter technology.  They  will  also  have  the  op- 
portunity to  participate  in  panel  discussions  and 
hands-on  sessions  at  the  Lesley  College  Micro- 
computer Laboratory.  Little  or  no  experience 
with  microcomputers  is  assumed. 

Some  of  the  topics  to  be  covered  are  Logo 
and  its  applications  in  teaching  students  with 
learning  disabilities,  language  disorders,  and 
physical  handicaps;  computer-assisted  instruc- 
tion in  areas  such  as  language  arts,  math,  and 
science;  the  evaluation  of  software  for  use  with 
special-needs  students;  and  model  programs 

currently  in  use  in  New  England  combining  spe- 
cial education  and  microcomputers.  Partici- 
pants will  be  encouraged  to  develop  individual 
projects  for  classroom  use  in  their  own  school 

The  session  will  run  from  Monday,  July  16, 
through  Friday,  July  20,  from  9:00  to  4:00 
daily.  Brochures  and  registration  information 
can  be  obtained  by  contacting  the  Lesley  Col- 
lege Graduate  School,  Division  of  Education, 
29  Everett  Street,  Cambridge,  MA  02238; 
(617)  868-9600,  ext.  367.  Hi 


A  Schoolhouse  Apple 
Tu  t  o  r  i  a  I 




What  do  the  following  designs  have  in  com- 

If  you  said  they're  all  interesting,  we'll  ac- 
cept that.  If  you  said  they  all  seem  to  include 
some  sort  of  spiral,  you're  on  the  right  track. 
The  designs  were  all  made  with  variations  of  the 
same  spirolateral  procedure. 

Spirolaterals  are  made  following  a  certain 
kind  of  mathematical  pattern.  Mathematical  pat- 
terns show  up  everywhere — in  the  shapes  of 
leaves,  the  placement  of  sunflower  seeds,  the 
numbers  of  petals  on  flowers,  the  construction 
of  seashells.  Spirolaterals,  believe  it  or  not, 
came  from  studying  the  feeding  patterns  of  pre- 
historic worms.  There's  probably  another  arti- 
cle or  two  here,  but  for  now,  we'll  concentrate 
on  the  patterns  and  the  Logo  experience. 

A  spirolateral  is  a  series  of  lines  and  turns, 
repeated  over  and  over.  To  construct  a  spirolat- 
eral, select  a  series  of  numbers.  To  keep  it  sim- 


43%  price 

reduction  says 
a  lot  about 

Terrapin  Logo. 

About  a  year  ago,  Terrapin 
Logo,  the  Unofficial  Apple®  Logo, 
became  a  big,  big  seller.  That's 
because  people  like  you  realized 
that  for  performance  and  price 
you  really  couldn't  do  any  better. 

Recently,  the  Official  Apple 
Logo  lowered  its  price  by  43%. 
That  should  tell  you  something 
about  their  product.  And  it  should 
tell  you  something  about  ours. 

Terrapin  Logo 

Official  Logo 


Pictures  on  Disk 



Word  &  List 



Word  &  List 



Error  Handling 



Program  Tracing 






Suggested  Retail 



Now,  Terrapin  Logo  and  the  Offi- 
cial Apple  Logo  cost  the  same. 
But  the  similarity  ends  there. 

Check  the  chart  for  yourself. 
When  all  is  said  and  done,  it's 
easy  to  see  why  Terrapin  Logo, 
the  Unofficial  Apple  Logo,  is  still 
better  than  the  official  one. 

Ask  for  Terrapin  Logo  at  soft- 
ware dealers  everywhere.  Or  call 
us  directly  for  further  information. 

1BW  m  TM 


Terrapin,  Inc.,  222  Third  Street, 
Cambridge,  MA  02142  (617)  492-8816 

Terrapin  Logo  runs  on  the  Apple  II,  II  +  ,  lie  and  Franklin  computers,  and  requires  64K  RAM. 
Franklin  is  a  trademark  of  Franklin  Computer  Corporation.  Apple  is  a  registered  trademark  of  Apple  Computer,  Inc. 


pie,  make  them  multiples  of  ten.  Let's  start  with 
three  numbers,  30,  10,  and  40,  and  a  90-degree 
turn.  SPIRO  can  be  defined  as: 

FD  30  LT  90 
FD  10  LT  90 
FD  40  LT  90 

How  many  times  would  you  have  to  repeat 
SPIRO  to  draw  a  closed  figure?  Suppose  we 
change  the  left  turn  to  120.  Can  we  draw  a 
closed  figure?  And  if  we  change  the  turn  to  60? 

MAY  1984 



Each  question  you  ask  about  a  spirolateral 
suggests  another  exploration.  Let's  add  another 
number  (side  and  turn)  to  the  series  and  see 
what  happens.  We'll  also  define  the  procedure 
using  a  variable  for  the  angle  to  make  it  easier  to 
try  different  figures. 


FD  30  LT  :A 

FD  10  LT  :A 

FD  40  LT  :A 

FD  20  LT  :A 


Now  when  we  try  the  procedure  with  a 
90-degree  mm,  the  figure  does  not  close.  With 
a  120-degree  turn,  it  closes  with  three  repeti- 
tions, and  with  a  60-degree  turn  it  closes  with 
three  repetitions. 

Verbatim  Diskettes 

We're  SJB.  One  of  the  fastest 
growing  distributors  in  the 
country.  And  the  reasons  are 
simple.  Our  prices  are 
competitive  and  we  deliver  fast. 


Blank'n  Bulk  Available 

Call  today  about  our  quantity  pricing 

Dealer  inquiries  invited 

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Garland.  Texas  75042 

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Take  some  time  to  explore.  Try  varying 
your  series  of  numbers,  as  well  as  varying  the 
number  of  numbers  in  your  series.  In  all  likeli- 
hood, your  curiosity  will  be  aroused,  for  there 
seems  to  be  a  pattern  to  the  pattern.  Let's  set  up 
a  logical  series  of  steps  to  search  out  the  mathe- 
matical pattern  of  closing  and  nonclosing 

Varying  the  series  itself  doesn't  affect 
whether  a  figure  closes  or  doesn't  close.  In 
other  words,  if  we  have  five  numbers  in  the  se- 
ries, 10,  20,  30,  40,  and  50,  it  doesn't  matter  in 
what  order  we  arrange  them.  SPIRO  with  a 
90-degree  turn  will  close  with  four  repetitions; 
with  120,  it  will  close  with  three  repetitions; 
and  with  60,  it  will  close  with  six  repetitions. 
Each  of  the  numbers  in  the  series  represents  a 
forward  movement  or  a  side.  It  is  the  number  of 
sides  that  determines  whether  a  figure  closes. 

With  that  in  mind,  let's  set  up  a  chart  with  a 
number  of  sides  and  turning  angles.  We'll  fill  in 
the  chart  with  the  number  of  times  the 
spirolateral  procedure  must  be  repeated  to  close 
the  figure.  If  it  doesn't  close,  we'll  indicate  it 
with  DC.  We'll  work  with  the  angles  that  pro- 
duce triangles,  squares,  pentagons,  hexagons, 
octagons,  and,  just  for  fun,  stars.  The  first  two 
rows  are  filled  in  for  you. 




























If  you've  been  editing  your  spirolateral  pro- 
cedure over  and  over  to  add  another  FD  and  LT 
command,  you've  probably  figured  out  that 
there's  an  easier  way  to  work  with  it.  Define  the 
SPIRO  procedure  with  three  variables,  one  for 
the  side,  one  for  the  angle,  and  one  for  a  counter 
so  that  you  can  vary  the  number  of  sides  each 
time  without  redefining  the  procedure.  Since 
the  order  of  the  numbers  in  the  series  doesn't 
matter  for  what  we're  doing,  we'll  set  up  a  pro- 
cedure that  draws  sides  in  increments  of  ten. 

TO  SPIROA  :S  :A  :C 
IF  :C  =  0  [STOP] 
FD  :S  LT  :A 

SPIRO.A  :S  +  10  :A:C  -  1 

By  using  a  counter,  we  can  indicate  how 
many  sides  we  want.  SPIRO.A  10  90  13  will 
draw  a  SPIRO  with  thirteen  sides,  each  side  ten 
turtle  steps  longer  than  the  previous  one. 

Now  it  will  be  easier  to  continue  to  explore. 
Try  figures  with  thirteen  to  twenty-one  sides.  If 
you  have  filled  in  the  chart  and  continued  with 
your  own  chart,  you  should  be  able  to  predict 

which  figures  will  close  and  which  will  not  for 
any  number  of  sides.  You  also  should  see  some 
important  patterns  of  related  geometric  shapes, 
triangles  and  hexagons,  squares  and  octagons, 
stars  and  pentagons. 

When  the  number  of  sides  becomes  very 
big,  some  figures  will  not  fit  on  the  screen.  Re- 
define SPIRO  to  draw  sides  in  increments  of 
five,  or  even  two  or  one.  And  explore  some 
more— you'll  discover  some  beautiful  designs. 
Here  are  two  variations  of  the  SPIRO  procedure . 

TO  SPIRO.C  :S  :A  :C 
IF  :C  =  0  [STOP] 
FD  :S  LT  :A 

SPIRO.C  :S  +  2  :A  :C  -  1 

TO  SPIROD  :S  :A  :C 
IF  :C  =  0  [STOP] 
FD  :S  LT  :A 

SPIROD  :S  +  1  :A:C  -  1 

SPIRO.C  2  60  31 

SPIROD  1  60  31 

There  are  many  other  ways  we  can  explore 
with  spirolaterals.  We  could  alternate  left  and 
right  turns,  for  example,  or  use  one  right  turn  in 
a  series  of  left  turns.  Will  that  have  any  effect 
on  whether  a  figure  closes?  Try  it  and  find  out. 

Here  are  two  figures,  each  with  seventeen 
sides.  The  procedure  includes  left  and  right 
turns  and  the  following  series  of  numbers:  5, 
15,  10,  20,  15,  25,  20,  30,  25,  35,  30,  40,  35, 
45,  40,  50,  45. 

And  if  any  of  you  get  so  excited  about  spiro- 
laterals, here  is  a  phone  number  you  can  call  at 
any  time  of  the  day  or  night.  (Oops,  it's  in  a 
spirolateral  and  I've  lost  the  procedure,  so 
you'll  have  to  figure  it  out  from  the  design.) 


of  Reading. 

N  E  A 

Compatible  with 
Apple,  IBM,  PC  Jr. 
and  Commodore  64, 


Educational  Software  that  Works. 

6069  Groveoak  Place,  #12 
Rancho  Palos  Verdes, 
CA  90274  (213)  373-9473 


your  Apple 

leave  - 

We've  got  speed,  performance  and  3,000  new  applications 
to  satisfy  that  appetite. 

Introducing  the  Digital  Research  CP/M  Gold  Card™  The 
pick  of  the  hardware  crop  for  your  Apple®  Computer. 

Just  plug  it  into  any  slot  in  your  Apple  II,  11+  or  He,  and  you 
get  a  new  generation  machine  that  runs  CP/M  Plus™  and 
all  those  programs  it  could  never  handle  before. 

Impressive,  but  not  surprising.  After  all,  who  better 
than  the  creators  of  CP/M®to  perfect  it  for  your  Apple? 

And  if  you  thought  your  Apple  was  a  bit  slow,  chew  on  this. 

We  combined  CP/M  Plus,  the  Z80B  microprocessor 
and  optional  Disk  Cache  to  push  your  Apple  to  perform 
up  to  three  times  faster  than  any  of  the  competition. 

With  the  speed  to  handle  programs  like  dBase  IT 
in  half  the  time.  And  we've  included  CBASIC®so  you  can  write 
customized  programs. 

It  even  boosts  your  monitor's  CP/M  output  to  full  80  column 
video.  And  those  are  just  the  basics. 

For  serious  programmers  we 
also  included  a  macro-assembler 
and  symbolic  debugger.  Explaining 
it  all  in  two  complete  manuals. 

It  all  comes  down  to  this.  Soon 

there  will  be  two  kinds  of  Apple  users. 
s  ^V*      Those  with  the  CP/M  Gold  Card.  And 

f  t  S 


We  make  computers  work.5 

those  who  are  still  hungry  for  one. 

The  products  and  corporate  logos  referred  to  herein  may  be  trademarks  or  registered  trademarks  of  the  companies  indicated. 
The  Digital  Research  logo  and  products  are  either  trademarks  or  registered  trademarks  of  Digital  Research  Inc 
©1984  Digital  Research  Inc  All  rights  reserved. 



Sams  SPUD  is  the  2  player  game  that's  so  fast,  so  challenging, 
one  bite  and  you're  hooked.  From  your  fort,  you  fire  three 
!     kinds  of  ammunition  to  moveltie  bouncing  SPUD,  destroy  your 
competitor,  intercept  shots,  gain  bonus  points,  and  more.  Also 
included  is  a  bonus  game  MUG  SHOT,  in  which  1  to  4  players  test 
their  shooting  skill&at  one  of  eleven  different  playing  speeds. 
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Introducing  Sams  APE  ESCAPE,  the  fast-action 
game  that  will  have  you  scaling  tall  buildings,  riding 
balloons,  avoiding  hazards  and  evading  capture  at 
heights  that  would  scare  even  King  Kong. 
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end  to  the  buildings,  there's  no  end  to  the  fun!  Play  APE 
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r  Offer  good  in  USA  only  Prices  subject  to  change  without  notice  In 
Conaao,  contact  Lenbrook  Electronics,  Markham,  Ontario  L3R  1 H2- 
Apple  is  a  registered  trademark  of  Apple  Computer,  Inc. 

MAY  1984 



Unless  otherwise  noted,  all  products  can  be  assumed  to  run  on  either  Ap- 
ple II,  with  48K,  ROM  Applesoft,  and  one  disk  drive.  The  requirement 
for  ROM  Applesoft  can  be  met  by  RAM  Applesoft  in  a  language  card. 
Many  Apple  II  programs  will  run  on  the  Apple  III  in  the  emulator  mode. 

□  Apple  Computer  (20525  Mariani  Avenue,  Cupertino,  CA  95014; 
800-538-9696)  has  released  a  peripheral  called  AppleLine,  which  allows 
Lisas,  Macs,  and  Apple  Ills  to  communicate  with  IBM  mainframes  as 
terminals  and  workstations.  The  unit  works  with  existing  coaxial  cables 
and  3270  cluster  controllers  that  may  already  be  in  place.  $1,295. 

□  Three  new  strategy  games  are  available  from  Microcomputer 
Games/Avalon  Hill  (4517  Harford  Road,  Baltimore,  MD  21214; 
301-254-5300).  Dreadnoughts  simulates  action  in  the  North  Atlantic 
during  the  years  1939-1941 .  Virtually  every  warship  in  the  Axis  and  Al- 
lied navies  is  featured  in  this  World  War  II  battle  re-creation.  $30.  Free 
Trader  takes  you  to  a  far  galaxy  where  you  take  an  option  on  a  com- 
modities deal,  ensuring  that  your  products  achieve  their  market  share- 
all  the  while  guarding  your  resources  from  the  raiders  of  the  Thoth  Em- 
pire. $30.  Under  Southern  Skies  pits  H.M.S.  Exeter,  Ajax,  and  Achilles 
against  the  K.M.  Graf  Spee  once  again  in  a  tactical  simulation  of  their 
historic  1939  encounter.  $25. 

□  A  database  management  system  for  home  and  business  record-keep- 
ing has  been  introduced  by  Softsmith  (1431  Doolittle  Drive,  San  Lean- 
dro,  CA  94577;  415-430-241 1).  Four  in  One  combines  major  data  proc- 
essing operations  in  a  single  program.  It  can  perform  calculations  on  a 
defined  field,  for  example,  and  then  merge  the  field  and  calculation  re- 
sults into  forms  or  letters  with  a  word  processor.  Menu  options, 
prompts,  and  system  messages  are  displayed  on  the  screen  while  work- 
ing. $129.95.  LogoMotion  is  an  educational  tool  that  can  be  used  to  cre- 
ate an  interactive  environment  in  which  students  can  set  their  own  pace, 
problems,  and  goals.  Drawing  pictures,  making  music,  and  creating  pro- 
grams can  be  used  to  explore  the  potential  of  the  turtle  graphics  lan- 
guage. $149.95.  Beginning  with  the  "find  a  city"  option,  Supermap 
guides  learners  aged  ten  to  fifteen  through  a  self-paced  educational  jour- 
ney of  more  than  three  hundred  cities.  Testing  is  done  using  a  "capital 
quiz"  option.  $39.95.  Couples  can  find  out  if  they  share  similar  opinions 
on  love,  romance,  values,  sex,  and  spirituality  when  they  play  Friends  or 
Lovers,  a  set  of  "provocative  and  sometimes  daring"  questions  written 
by  two  psychologists.  Compatibility  ratings  and  answers  can  be  printed. 

□  A  mail-order  computer  accessories  firm,  Gadgeteer  (1524  Pine 
Street,  Philadelphia,  PA  19102;  215-732-0965),  is  offering  its  LG20 
Surge  Supressor  Multi-Outlet  Strip  for  protecting  small  computers 
against  voltage  surges.  With  four  outlets  and  a  six-foot  cord,  the  unit  will 
absorb  up  to  6,000  volts  or  6,500  amperes  in  less  than  ten  nanoseconds, 
limiting  voltage  to  a  safe  205  volts.  $34.95. 

□  The  fundamentals  of  football  can  be  taught  using  the  first  of  a  five- 
part  series  of  football  learning  software  from  Sterling  Swift  Publishing 
(7901  South  IH-35,  Austin,  TX  78744;  512-282-6840).  Fifty  Defense 
Versus  Run  combines  tutorials  and  testing  of  concepts  and  principles 
with  reinforcement  feedback  and  graphics,  including  an  automated 
chalkboard.  Includes  coaches'  manual.  $99.95.  Preview  disk,  $9.95. 

□  The  1984  Intel  Yellow  Pages  is  a  two-hundred-page  directory  of  more 
than  two  thousand  CP/M  software  products.  From  Intel  (3065  Bowers 
Avenue,  Santa  Clara,  CA  95051;  408-987-5320),  the  publication  is  mod- 
eled after  a  telephone  directory,  with  the  first  half  listing  suppliers  and 
the  second  half  listing  products  and  service  details.  Free. 

□  Getex,  a  division  of  Lockheed-Georgia  (1100  Circle  71  Parkway 
N.W.,  Atlanta,  GA  30339;  404-951-0878),  has  introduced  the  Data  Sen- 
try intelligent  modem,  which  can  prevent  theft  and  other  security 
breaches  without  requiring  encryption  or  changes  in  programming.  The 

modem  uses  a  call-up,  call-back,  and  password  sequence  to  thwart  data 
thieves  and,  at  the  same  time,  offers  all  the  standard  features  of  conven- 
tional modems.  A  lower  security  mode  allows  users  to  program  the 
modem  to  call  back  any  number  from  which  it  gets  a  correct  password. 
$895.  Remote-ON  is  a  unit  for  turning  a  computer's  power  on  or  off 
from  long  distance.  $145. 

□  A  reformatted  version  of  the  U.  S.  Constitution  Tutor  from  Micro 
Lab  (2699  Skokie  Valley  Road,  Highland  Park,  IL  60035; 
312-433-7550)  features  a  tutorial  mode  with  extra  help  screens  and  prac- 
tice questions.  In  the  test  mode,  any  missed  questions  are  given  again  in 
the  tutorial  mode  when  the  test  is  completed.  $30. 

□  Score  your  sexual  IQ  by  answering  more  than  two  hundred  multiple- 
choice  questions  in  Sexware.  Designed  to  educate,  provoke,  and  sur- 
prise, the  program  is  available  from  Challenge  Software  (134  West 
Thirty-Second  Street,  Suite  602,  New  York,  NY  10001).  $29.95. 

□  Two  new  games  have  been  published  by  Howard  W.  Sams  (4300 
West  Sixty-Second  Street,  Indianapolis,  IN  46268;  317-298-5400).  In 
the  arcade  game  Spud,  two  players  try  to  penetrate  each  other's  shields 
with  an  exploding  spud,  eventually  destroying  the  opposition's  fort  and 
winning  the  game.  Time  clock  and  scoreboard  provided.  $29.95.  In  Mug 
Shot,  an  arcade  game  for  one  to  four  players,  each  player  has  a  fort  and 
a  field  of  five  mugs  inside  a  trap.  These  mugs  are  released  against  the  op- 
position and  must  be  destroyed  to  win.  Eleven  levels.  $29.95. 

□  Travel  from  the  City  of  Darkness  to  Eco-Paradise  without  falling  into 
the  toxic  waste  dump  or  going  off  on  long  detours;  this  educational  quiz 
game  asks  questions  about  air  and  water  pollution,  acid  rain,  and  other 
key  environmental  issues.  The  Road  to  Eco-Paradise,  from  Center  for 
Science  in  the  Public  Interest  (1755  S  Street  N.W.,  Washington,  D.C. 
20009;  202-332-91 10),  focuses  on  environmental  issues  and  tests  a  play- 
er's personal  impact  on  the  environment.  Test  disk  and  supplementary 
educational  material  included.  $39.95. 

□  Designed  by  an  ex-Apple  engineer,  the  McMill  68000  coprocessor 
card  allows  programs  developed  for  the  68000  to  run  on  the  Apple  II  se- 
ries, and  vice  versa,  both  in  source  and/or  object  code.  From  Stellation 
Two  (Box  2342,  Santa  Barbara,  CA  93120;  805-966-1140),  the  com- 
plete package  includes  hardware  documentation,  schemata,  and  Fig 
Forth  software.  A  68000  cross  assembler  is  also  available.  $299. 

□  Fully  supporting  all  the  operating  modes  of  the  He,  Print-It!  Model  2 
is  a  self-contained  card  that  can  handle  both  serial  and  parallel  interface, 
forty-  or  eighty-column  text,  standard  or  alternate  font,  hi-  and  lo-res 
graphics,  and  more.  Complete  with  handbook  and  cable  (parallel  or 
serial).  No  software  required.  From  Texprint  (8  Blanchard  Road,  Burl- 
ington, MA  01803;  617-273-3384).  $149.  Educational  discounts 

□  The  Apple  User 's  Encyclopedia  covers  all  aspects  of  the  Apple— ap- 
plications, operation,  Basic  programming— as  well  as  hundreds  of  soft- 
ware packages  and  accessories.  From  The  Book  Company  (11223 
South  Hindry  Avenue,  Los  Angeles,  CA  90045;  213-410-9466),  the 
book  also  includes  information  on  related  books,  magazines,  and  user 
groups.  Alphabetized  and  cross-referenced.  $19.95. 

□  Sequential  Circuits  (3051  North  First  Street,  San  Jose,  CA  95134; 
408-946-5240)  has  introduced  a  single-board  polyphonic  synthesizer,  the 
SCI  Six  Voice  Board  (6VB).  The  serial  board  drives  the  Six-Track  syn- 
thesizer, a  unit  designed  to  be  integrated  into  systems  containing  a  drum 
box,  sequencers,  and  a  computer.  The  board  allows  individual  program- 
ming for  each  voice  and  has  computer-corrected  analog  electronics. 
Each  voice  can  represent  a  different  timbre,  with  independent  control 
over  the  tone,  loudness,  and  character  of  the  sound.  Mixing  inputs  can  be 
used  to  create  whole  bands,  synthesizing  instruments  such  as  the  trom- 
bone, organ,  banjo,  drum,  bass,  and  so  on.  $1,095. 

□  Datasoft  (9421  Winnetka  Avenue,  Chatsworth,  CA  91311; 



MAY  1984 

818-701-5161)  has  released  an  arcade  game  called  O  'Riley's  Mine, 
wherein  a  dynamite-toting  Irishman  seeks  mineral  wealth  while  battling 
underground  river  monsters  on  the  rickety  levels  of  his  claim.  $29.95. 

□  Speech  Systems  for  Your  Microcomputer,  by  Gary  A.  Shade,  dis- 
cusses applications  of  voice  input  and  output  for  home,  industry,  school, 
and  the  handicapped.  The  book  also  examines  existing  systems  ranging 
in  price  from  twelve  dollars  to  thousands  of  dollars.  One  hundred  pages 
of  reprints  from  manufacturer's  data  sheets  and  a  buyer's  guide  are  in- 
cluded. Published  by  WGBooks  (Elm  Street  and  Route  101,  Peterbor- 
ough, NH  03458;  603-924-9471).  Spiral-bound.  $14.95. 

□  MAP  is  a  database  management  system  that  searches  free-text  and 
structured  data  files,  eliminates  manual  coding  or  indexing,  and  auto- 
matically indexes  every  item  in  a  file.  From  Softshell  (Box  18522,  Balti- 
more, MD  21237;  301-686-1213),  the  program  allows  the  formation  of 
free-text  databases  for  schedules,  journal  abstracts,  and  catalogs  as  well 
as  references,  research  notes,  and  credit  reports.  Requires  Z-80  card. 

□  A  set  of  four  Basic  programs  that  make  scientific  graphs  on  any  80- 
or  132-column  printer  is  contained  in  PlotPro  Version  2.0,  from  BV  En- 
gineering (Box  3351,  Riverside,  CA  92519;  714-781-0252).  Linear, 
semilogarithmic,  and  full-logarithmic  plots  with  one  or  two  Y  axes  and 
multiple  functions  on  the  same  graph  can  be  printed.  Templates  are  pro- 
duced and  information  is  filled  in  for  each  graph  type.  Menu-driven. 
$49.95.  SPP  is  a  general-purpose  signal -processing  program  containing 
an  integrated  set  of  routines  that  analyze  linear  and  nonlinear  systems 
and  circuits,  as  well  as  their  effects  on  user-specified  time  domain  wave- 
forms. Results  may  be  plotted  with  PlotPro.  $59.95.  ACNAP  Version 
1.34  is  a  general-purpose  electronic  circuit  analysis  program  that 
analyzes  passive  and  active  circuits  consisting  of  resistors,  capacitors, 
inductors,  controlled  current  sources,  operational  amplifiers,  transistors, 
and  so  on.  Works  with  PlotPro  to  plot  gain/phase  information.  $49.95. 

□  TimberTech  Computer  Camp  has  found  a  new  home  at  the  University 
of  California  at  Santa  Cruz.  For  boys  and  girls  ages  ten  to  seventeen,  the 
computer  education  specialty  camp  emphasizes  computer  skills  develop- 
ment in  combination  with  traditional  camp  activities.  Contact  Scott 
Walker  at  TimberTech  (Box  546,  Larkspur,  CA  94939;  415^61-3787) 
for  information  on  camp  sessions  this  summer. 

□  Designed  for  high-tech  bargain  hunters,  Computer  Shopper  (407 
South  Washington,  Box  F,  Titusville,  FL  32781;  305-269-321 1)  is  a  new 
monthly  tabloid  aimed  at  the  professional  computer  user.  The  publica- 
tion features  articles,  hardware  and  software  reviews,  industry  news, 
and  a  preponderance  of  classified  ads  with  "flea  market-like  bargains" 
on  a  wide  range  of  computer- related  items.  Robotics,  data  communica- 
tions, and  modem  reviews  are  samples  of  recent  feature  material.  One 
year  (12  issues),  $15. 

□  Samson  and  Delilah  is  an  arcade  game  from  Davka  (845  North  Mich- 
igan Avenue,  Chicago,  IL  6061 1 ;  312-944-4070).  Race  through  the  tem- 
ple of  the  Philistines,  jump  over  guards,  mind  the  lion,  and  shake  those 
pillars.  Watch  out  for  Delilah's  fiery  scissors.  $24.95.  A  personalized 
study  course  on  preparing  for  a  bar  or  bat  mitzvah,  the  Bar  Mitzvah 
Compu-Tutor  plays  the  haphtarah  melodies.  A  bouncing  ball  helps  stu- 
dents follow  every  syllable— using  either  the  Hebrew  text,  with  vowels 
and  trope,  or  the  English  translation.  Customized  with  the  name  of  each 
student.  Designed  for  Orthodox,  Conservative,  Reform,  and  Recon- 
structionist  Jews.  $49.95. 

□  Who's  Who  is  now  on-line.  Derived  from  seventy-five  thousand  bio- 
graphical profiles  in  Who's  Who  in  America,  published  since  1899,  the 
Who's  Who  database  profiles  family  background,  education,  career  his- 
tory, creative  works,  and  so  on.  Demographic  inquiries,  socioeconomic 
questions,  and  other  inquiries  can  be  made.  Created  by  Marquis  Who's 
Who  (200  East  Ohio  Street,  Chicago,  IL  60611;  312-787-2008). 
Available  for  searching  on  Dialog  as  file  234. 

□  Artsci  (5547  Satsuma  Avenue,  North  Hollywood,  CA  91601; 
818-985-2922)  has  released  an  integrated  software  package  called  the 
Magic  Office  System.  Magic  Window  II  for  word  processing,  Magicalc 
for  spreadsheets,  and  Magic  Words  for  checking  spelling  are  integrated 
through  a  file  folder  and  file  cabinet  display.  Documents  or  parts  of 
documents  can  be  cut  and  pasted  into  other  documents.  Requires  eighty 
columns  and  two  disk  drives.  $295. 

□  Attorneys,  medical  specialists,  general  practitioners,  dentists,  and 
pharmacists  can  learn  how  to  improve  their  microcomputer  business 
skills  with  Data  Management  for  Professionals,  by  Bryan  Lewis.  The 

book,  published  by  Ashton-Tate  Publications  Group  (10150  West  Jef- 
ferson Boulevard,  Culver  City,  CA  90230;  213-204-5570),  contains  in- 
formation on  client  list  management,  accounting  functions,  cash  flow, 
record-keeping  security,  client  contact,  and  what  to  look  for  in  hardware 
and  software.  $15.95. 

□  Two  new  arcade-style  entertainments  have  been  released  by  Adven- 
ture International  (Box  3435,  Longwood,  FL  32750;  305-862-6917). 
In  C'est  La  Vie,  the  streets  are  lined  with  money  for  players  to  pick  up 
while  evading  thieves  and  the  dutiful  IRS.  A  loan  from  a  neighboring 
loan  shark  may  help,  but  players  must  be  sure  to  pay  it  off  in  time. 
$34.95.  Gnome  Valley  has  players  racing  through  a  mysterious  cave  try- 
ing to  defuse  a  hydrogen  bomb.  Alas,  the  resident  gnomes  are  pronuke. 

□  Interpret  accumulated  data  and  forecast  the  outcome  of  similar  or 
modified  undertakings  with  Monte  Carlo  Simulations,  from  Actuarial 
Micro  Software  (3915-A  Valley  Court,  Winston-Salem,  NC  27106; 
919-765-5588).  The  statistical  analysis  part  of  the  program  employs  the 
chi-square  goodness-of-fit  test  to  match  a  set  of  raw  data  to  a  standard 
probability  distribution.  The  simulation  process  generates  random  num- 
bers based  on  an  assumed  probability  distribution  using  the  Monte  Carlo 
method.  Menu-driven  and  nontechnical  to  use.  Includes  hi-res  graphics, 
sound,  and  color.  $60.  With  source  code,  $90. 

□  The  Basics  of  Basic  is  a  four-disk  tutorial  for  the  beginning  program- 
mer from  Focus  Media  (839  Stewart  Avenue,  Garden  City,  NY  11530; 
5 16-794-8900).  An  introduction  to  the  keyboard  and  the  fundamentals  of 
the  language  are  presented  in  twelve  lessons.  Documentation  included. 

□  Three  educational  games,  two  help  programs,  and  two  explorations 
of  the  mathematical  questions  that  arise  in  the  games  are  contained  in 
Arith-Magic  II  Area  Games,  from  Quality  Educational  Designs  (Box 
12486,  Portland,  OR  97212;  503-287-8137).  Designed  for  children  in 
grades  four  and  up,  the  games  develop  and  use  concepts  of  area  and  pa- 
rameter, with  explorations  leading  to  the  graph  of  the  hyperbola  and  the 
parabola,  provoking  questions  about  measurement.  $35. 

□  A  twelve-page  catalog  of  health-related  software  is  available  from 
CTRL  Health  Software  (18653  Ventura  Boulevard,  Suite  348,  Encino, 
CA  91356;  818-788-0888).  Categories  of  software  that  can  be  ordered 
by  mail  include  diet  and  exercise,  smoking  and  alcohol,  sex  and 
reproduction,  psychology,  stress  and  memory,  and  more.  Catalog  is  up- 
dated regularly  and  includes  many  hard-to-find  programs.  Free. 

□  The  Early  Childhood  Readiness  Skills  Series  is  a  series  of  multidisk 
packages  covering  the  areas  of  classification,  ordering/sequence,  spatial 
relations,  counting  skills,  and  language  arts.  From  Aquarius  (Box  128, 
Indian  Rocks  Beach,  FL  33535;  813-595-7890),  the  series  is  recom- 
mended for  use  with  early  childhood  and  remediation  programs,  and  for 
use  by  learning-disabled,  hearing-impaired,  and  physically  disabled  chil- 
dren. $29.95  per  disk.  Series  price:  $102.  Catalog  is  free. 

□  Spell-It!  is  a  spelling  instruction  and  testing  system  from  MultiMedia 
Software  (Box  5909,  Bethesda,  MD  20814;  301-951-3646).  Equipped 
with  a  cassette  interface  for  hearing  the  correct  pronunciation  of  a  word, 
the  program  allows  teachers  to  create  their  own  spelling  lessons  with  ac- 
companying tapes.  Tests  can  also  be  created  with  the  package  and,  after 
administrating  the  tests,  results  can  be  summarized  using  the  report  pro- 
gram. Package  comes  complete  with  microphone  and  earphones,  sample 
lesson  cassette,  and  audio  enhancer  unit.  $179.  Storyboard  II  is  a  course- 
ware design  package  that  applies  pad  and  pencil  storyboarding  tech- 
niques to  the  planning,  testing,  and  authoring  of  interactive  instruction 
for  education  and  training.  All  elements  can  be  controlled  simultaneous- 
ly, from  text  and  branching  to  videodisc/tape  frame  numbers.  $185.  Ver- 
sions that  support  popular  videotape  and  videodisk  systems:  $325. 

□  New  from  Dynacomp  (1427  Monroe  Avenue,  Rochester,  NY  14618; 
716-442-8960):  Genesis,  The  Adventure  Creator,  an  authoring  tool  for 
the  creation  of  your  own  text  adventures  without  learning  to  program.  A 
moderate  game  of  about  thirty-five  locations  can  be  created  in  a  few 
hours.  Originally  published  by  Hexcraft.  $39.95.  Talking  Typewriter 
combines  graphics  and  sound  to  teach  the  alphabet,  numbers,  and  the 
keyboard  to  young  children  ages  three  to  eight.  Players  must  press  the 
correct  key  to  launch  a  missile  toward  a  moving  target.  No  hardware 
needed.  $19.95.  With  graphics  that  simulate  a  playing  table,  Domino  is  a 
computer  version  of  the  ancient  game,  pitting  you  against  the  computer 
on  three  levels  of  play,  from  novice  to  expert.  Twenty-eight-page  man- 
ual describing  the  game  and  strategies  is  included.  $29.95.  Operations 

Amazing  SuperSprite  now  has  software  galore! 

Eight  exciting  new  software  programs  for 
SuperSprite!  Colorful  and  animated  graphics. 
Dramatic  sound  effects.  Actual  speech.  The 
peripheral  card  that  revolutionized  Apple9graphics 
now  has  software  for  learning,  for  playing,  for 
fun  with  programming. 

"One  of  this  year's  most  impor- 
tant products  for  the  Apple" 
Creative  Computing 
February,  1984 

"This  peripheral  has  completely 
changed  the  Apple ...  to  an  in- 
credible machine  with  unlimited 
graphics  (and  sound)  potential!' 
In  Cider 

September,  1983 

LOGOSprite.  Sprites  and  sound 
join  Terrapin  LOGO  for  more  learning 

NumberSprites.  Colorful 
sprites  and  speech  teach 
numbers  and  quantities. 

AlphaSprites.  Children  learn  the 
alphabet  with  the  aid  of  sprite  ani- 
mation and  speech. 

KOBOR.  A  fast-action  maze  game 
against  deadly  androids  with 
dramatic  sound  effects  and  speech 

Assembly  Line  Madness.  A  race 
against  a  fast  moving  car  assembly 
line  to  get  the  proper  parts  in  place 

Synetix  Inc. 

10635  N.E.  38th  Place 
Kirkland,  WA  98033 

SpriteArt.  Paintbrushes  and  a 
palette  of  colors  to  create  sprites  and 
scenery  and  animate  the  whole 

MusicSprites.  Lively  sprites  add  to 
the  fun  for  visually  creating  colorful 

BaseballSprites.  Hear  the  roar  of 
the  crowd.  The  call  of  the  umpire. 
Play  baseball  inside  famous  stadiums 
for  real  life  thrills. 


In  Canada:  Exclusively  by  Chevco 
Computing,  Mississauga.  Ontario 

Each  program  S39  95.  Software  requires  48k  Apple  II  series  and  SuperSprite 

NumberSprites,  AlphaSprites  and  Assembly  Line  Madness  are  registered  trademarks  of  Avante-Garde  Creations,  Inc.  SuperSprite,  LOGOSprite,  KOBOR, 
SpriteArt,  MusicSprites,  BaseballSprites  are  registered  trademarks  of  Synetix.  Inc  Apple  is  a  registered  trademark  of  Apple  Computers,  Inc. 

94  ifSOPTALK  maT7984 

Research  Tutorial  is  a  collection  of  seventeen  menu-driven  programs  that 
provide  data  file  creation,  manipulation,  and  calculation  capabilities  in 
support  of  the  analysis  of  payoff  tables,  simplex  linear  programming, 
distribution/transportation  methods,  and  CPM/PERT  analysis.  Includes 
practice  examples,  making  it  useful  for  beginners  as  well  as  profession- 
als. $99.95.  Designed  for  scientists,  engineers,  students,  and 
photographers,  Digital  Imaging  Processing  allows  a  user  to  digitally  ma- 
nipulate images  to  remove  interference,  noise,  improve  contrast, 
sharpen,  and  generally  filter  images.  Fifteen  samples  included.  $59.95. 

□  The  Computer  Supermarket  is  a  two-day  personal  computer  show  to 
be  held  at  the  San  Mateo  County  Fairgrounds  June  9  and  10,  sponsored 
by  Microshows  (Box  4323,  Foster  City,  CA  94404;  415-571-8041).  A 
variety  of  hardware  and  software  for  business,  educational,  entertain- 
ment, and  home  use  will  be  available  for  purchase  on  the  spot.  Hours  are 
10  a.m.  to  5  p.m.  daily.  $6. 

□  A  complete  hardware  and  software  package  for  generating  interactive 
graphics,  The  Graphics  Tool  Kit,  from  Demco  Electronics  (10516  Gre- 
villea  Avenue,  Inglewood,  CA  90304;  213-677-0801),  has  a  viewing 
window  resolution  of  640  dots  by  384  lines.  The  main  menu-driven  pro- 
gram manipulates  vector  shapes,  displays  fonts,  draws  lines,  and  plots 
points.  Other  segments  include  a  vector  shape  table  maker  and  a  font 
maker.  Charts,  sheet  music,  floor  plans,  circuit  diagrams— anything  that 
will  fit  on  an  8  1/2-by-l  1  piece  of  paper— can  be  generated.  Utility  pro- 
grams included.  $495. 

□  Hartley  Courseware  (Box  431,  Dimondale,  MI  48821; 
517-646-6458)  has  announced  the  Medalists  series  of  programs  to  aid 
elementary  and  secondary  social  studies  teachers.  The  six  titles  are  Con- 
tinents, States,  Black  Americans,  Women  in  History,  Presidents,  and 
Create  (for  the  creation  of  custom  lessons).  Clues  or  facts  at  varying 
levels  of  difficulty  are  included  for  each  famous  person,  state,  or  conti- 
nent. Students  buy  clues— those  who  discover  the  answers  by  using  only 
the  most  difficult  clues  are  the  winners,  or  medalists.  Records  are  stored 
for  the  instructor,  and  students  may  compete  against  themselves  or 
against  the  top  three  students.  $39.95  each. 

□  Beginning  a  software  search?  A  software  locator  service  survey 
available  from  Associated  Technology  (Route  2,  Box  448,  Estill 
Springs,  TN  37330;  615-967-9159)  identifies  more  than  fifty  major  lo- 
cating services,  citing  more  than  three  hundred  thousand  software  pack- 
ages representing  more  than  eight  thousand  software  companies.  $8.50. 

□  An  electronic  weighing  platform  with  an  RS-232  output  has  been 
marketed  by  International  Computing  Scale  (2301 1  Moulton  Parkway, 
Laguna  Hills,  CA  92653;  714-951-9658).  The  SM232  scale  will  give  an 
accurate  digital  output  for  weight  applied  anywhere  on  the  surface  of  the 
platform  and  exceeds  all  National  Handbook  44  weighing  requirements. 
Comes  in  standard  weighing  capacities  of  20,  50,  100,  and  200  pounds 
or  their  metric  equivalents.  Other  capacities  up  to  2,000  pounds  avail- 
able. In  quantity:  $495  each. 

□  Microcom  (1400- A  Providence  Highway,  Norwood,  PA  02062; 
617-762-9310)  has  announced  a  1200-baud  error-correcting  modem. 
The  SX/1200  modem,  part  of  the  Era  2  family  of  communications  sys- 
tems, offers  communication  between  dissimilar  terminals,  minis,  main- 
frames, and  micros.  Will  communicate  with  any  product  or  service  sup- 
porting MNP.  Features  auto  dial/auto  answer  and  user-selectable  speeds. 
$599.  Eight-slot  card  chassis  (for  large  users):  $699. 

□  More  than  thirty  new  products,  ranging  from  portable  workstations  to 
disk  storage  cabinets,  are  featured  in  the  new  Altech  computer  furniture 
catalog  from  Luxor  (2245  Delany  Road,  Box  830,  Waukegan,  IL  60085; 
312-244-1800).  Free. 

□  Glossary  Disk  for  Apple  Writer  contains  separate  glossary  files  of 
print  commands  for  six  popular  brands  of  dot-matrix  printers.  Print  code 
can  be  accessed  with  a  single  keystroke.  From  MinuteWare  (Box  2392, 
Columbia,  MD  21045;  301-995-1166).  Also  contains  information  on 
how  to  use  your  printer's  foreign  characters.  $14.95.  Minute  Manual  for 
PFS:File/Report/Graph/Write,  by  Jeffery  Lesho  and  Jim  Pirisino,  is  a 
book  explaining  the  integrated  software  system.  A  quick  guide  section 
contains  more  than  fifty  step-by-step  procedures,  many  not  found  in  the 
PFS  manuals.  Two  business  and  education  tutorials  are  included. 

□  Connections,  by  Kathleen  Martin  and  Donna  Bearden,  is  a  Logo- 
based  series  of  booklets  designed  for  use  by  individuals,  small  groups,  or 
entire  classes.  Published  by  Martin-Bearden  (1908  Sandy  Lane,  Irving, 
TX  75060;  214-253-6579),  the  three  booklets— The  Rule  of 360,  Polyspi 

Inspi,  and  The  Turtle  Goes  to  Kindergarten — contain  a  variety  of  ac- 
tivities to  explore  mathematical  concepts.  Students  are  challenged  to  use 
these  concepts  abstractly  as  they  solve  puzzles  and  problems  on  the  com- 
puter. $7.95  each.  Logo-specific  disks  (please  specify  version):  $4.95. 

□  A  dot-matrix  printer  with  a  print  speed  of  one  hundred  characters  per 
second  across  136  columns  (at  ten  CPI)  has  been  introduced  by  Epson 
America  (3415  Kashiwa  Street,  Torrance,  CA  90505;  213-539-9140). 
Called  the  RX-100,  the  printer  is  designed  for  spreadsheets,  ledgers,  and 
other  wide  documents.  The  printer  also  offers  a  choice  of  128  user-se- 
lectable type  styles,  as  well  as  a  choice  of  international  character  sets. 

□  @*&!!%#  Computers  is  a  "newsletter  of  what's  wrong— and  goes 
wrong— with  computers,"  published  by  Expletive  Computers  (Box 
553,  Mount  Freedom,  NJ  07970;  201-895-7292).  Send  them  your  tale  of 
woe,  complete  with  all  the  anxiety-producing  details,  and  the  newsletter 
will  pay  you  $25  upon  publication,  if  they  find  your  story  interesting, 
heart-rending,  or  amusing.  One-year  subscription  (ten  issues):  $6. 

□  A  series  of  utility  routines  for  beginning  or  intermediate  Applesoft 
programmers  is  available  on  Disk  O'  Utilities,  from  Broadway  Soft- 
ware (642  Amsterdam  Avenue,  Suite  136,  New  York,  NY  10025; 
212-580-7508).  Thirteen  programs  are  contained  on  the  disk,  including  a 
file  deleter  routine  and  an  automatic  line  numbering  routine.  Not  copy- 
protected. $12.95.  The  Diskinvoice  System  is  a  software  package  for 
small  businesses  that  features  invoicing  and  accounts  receivable.  $55. 

□  Four  programmed  software  modules  for  the  RB5X  Intelligent  Robot 
have  been  released  by  RB  Robot  (18301  West  Tenth  Avenue,  Suite  310, 
Golden,  CO  80401;  303-279-5525).  The  modules,  which  allow  the  robot 
to  do  specific  tasks  as  soon  as  the  user  switches  it  on,  are  2K  or  4K 
EPROMS  that  plug  directly  into  the  RB5X.  Tides  are  Pattern  Program- 
mer, for  creating  movement  routines;  Bumper  Music,  allowing  simple 
tunes  to  be  played;  Spin-the-Robot,  a  game  routine;  and  Intruder  Alarm 
and  "Daisy,  Daisy",  for  sensing  movement.  $14.95  to  $24.95. 

□  The  third  edition  of  the  5.  Klein  Directory  of  Computer  Graphics 
Suppliers:  Hardware,  Software,  Systems,  and  Services  is  available  from 
Technology  and  Business  Communications  (730  Boston  Post  Road, 
Box  89,  Sudbury,  MA  01776;  617-443-4671).  This  latest  edition  con- 
tains 224  pages  and  identifies  more  than  five  hundred  supply  sources 
"essential  to  the  entire  computer  graphics  industry."  Basic  product  in- 
formation and  business  background  on  each  company  are  featured  and 
cross-indexed.  $60. 

□  The  home  version  of  Perplexity  contains  many  of  the  same  puzzles 
that  earned  the  school  version,  Comp-U-Solve ,  a  Learning  Periodicals 
award.  From  Daybreak  Software  (1951  Grand  Avenue,  Baldwin,  NY 
1 1510;  516-223-4666),  Perplexity  encourages  players  to  develop  and  use 
their  logic  and  problem-solving  skills,  which  are  considered  critical  for 
success  in  math  and  science.  The  three  puzzles  are  presented  in  two 
modes  of  play,  regular  and  contest.  $29.95. 

□  Educational  software  from  Oakleaf  Systems  (Box  472,  Decorah,  IA 
52101):  Evolution  is  a  simulation  that  lets  students  see  the  effects  of  mu- 
tation, gene  flow,  natural  selection,  and  genetic  drift.  Factors  can  be 
studied  separately  or  in  combination.  $29.95.  Algal  Growth  is  a  simula- 
tion that  presents  the  effects  of  nitrate-nitrogen,  phosphate,  turbidity, 
alkalinity,  pH,  temperature,  ammonia,  and  light  on  the  growth  of 
algae-simulated  experiments.  $29.95.  Ecological  Analysis  Programs 
enables  students  to  do  life  table  analyses,  community  similarity,  diver- 
sity indexes,  capture-recapture  population  estimation,  and  more.  Equa- 
tions and  symbols  follow  college  ecology  text  models.  $29.95.  Aquatic 
Ecology  Programs  assist  students  with  the  Hynes/Hamilton  estimates  of 
secondary  production,  calculation  of  stream  flow  and  hydraulic  radius, 
lake  morphometry,  and  more.  $29.95. 

□  A  new  version  of  DMP  Utilities  is  available  from  Vilberg  Brothers 
Computing  (Box  72,  Mount  Horeb,  WI  53572;  608-274-6433).  Version 
4.3  extends  support  to  the  Apple  Super  Serial  Interface,  the  Imagewriter 
printer,  and  the  Microtek  611  parallel  interface.  In  addition,  the  program 
now  remembers  fonts  in  setup  and  downloads  a  font  without  printing  the 
setup  message.  Update  free  with  returned  disk.  Without:  $4. 

□  The  legal  questions  software  publishers  face  when  buying,  develop- 
ing, or  selling  software  are  addressed  in  Legal  Care  for  Your  Software,  by 
attorney  Daniel  Remer,  published  by  Nolo  Press  (950  Parker  Street, 
Berkeley,  CA  94710;  415-549-1976).  Issues  dealt  with  include  con- 
tracts, ROM  copyrights,  lawsuits,  copywriting  manuals,  and  protecting 
trade  secrets.  $24.95. 

The  High  Gods  are  searching  for  a  replace- 
ment for  Randamn,  the  powerful  Demi-god  of 
random  events. 

Accept  the  challenge  and  you  enter  a  uni- 
verse of  randomness.  There  are  7  totally  differ- 
ent worlds  in  Hi-res  Graphictron  animation, 
including  the  eerie  Graveyard,  ancient  Stone- 
henge,  and  the  piratical  Undersea  land.  In  each, 
it  will  take  all  your  wits  and  skill  to  fight  and 
think  your  way  through  7  stages  of  ever- 
increasing  difficulty.  In  each,  7  different  kinds 
of  opponents  stand  guard.  But  which  ones 
you  face  depends  on  .... 

the  spin  of  the 

Sot  Machine! 

At  all  first-stages 
you  fight  a  single 
randomly  chosen 

enemy.  Survive,  and  the  Mystic  Slot  Machine 
spins  again,  to  turn  up  other  randomly  selected 
opponents ..  until  at  each  world's  7th  stage  you 
meet  7  at  once.  Which  ones?  The  ghost?  The 
cobra?  The  death  birds?  The  devil's  lightning? 
Ahhhh,  since  they  carry  the  curse  of  Random- 
ness they  may  all  be  different— all  the  same— 
or  a  terrifying  mixture. 


But  win  through,  and 
your  reward  is  great.  You 
become  a  new  Demi-god 
of  the  universe.  Dare  you  chance  it?  Can 
you  stand  the  agonizing  suspense  of  the 
Mystic  Slot  Machine?  Then  welcome  to 
Randamn  ....  where  only  you  stay  the  same- 
all  else  is  random! 


Apple  ll/II+/lle* 



Order  from  your  dealer  or: 

211 15  Devonshire  St,  Suite  337, 
Chatsworth,  Ca  91311. 
(213)  700-0510 

(VISA/MASTERCARD/CHECK  Ok.  Add  $1.00  shipping/handling.) 
'Apple  ll/ll+/lle  are  trademarks  of  Apple  Computer,  Inc. 



MAY  1984 


for  //c 

'  :  III,'"/'''''/ 

i  ui  m  - 


Word  processing  at 

its  finest.  PoWerful  and  ver 
satile.  yet  easy  to  use  and 
natural    Designed  for  the 
business  and  professional 
environment  (or  for  anyone  who  wants  the  best) 
Simple  control  commands    Typewriter-style  shift 
and  lock  Glossary  Form  letters  and  mailing  lists 
Menus  for  disk  access  and  printing  DOS  3.3  com 
patible    text   files    40   or   80   column  display 
Modifiable  drivers  for  most  interface  cards  and 
printers  $210. 


add-on  for  ZARDAX 
Turns  ZARDAX  into  a 
communicating  word  pro- 
cessor, to  send  and 
receive  text  files.  Talk  to  other  Apples,  mainframes, 
information  services,  typesetters.  Includes  termina1 
mode.  300  or  1,200  baud.  Works  with  serial, 
modem,  and  popular  80  column  cards  used  by 
ZARDAX.  Log-on  files  and  X-on  X-off  supported 

"Apple  Interactive  Data 
Analysis."  Statistical 
analysis  package  for 
production  research  work 
with  large  survey  data 
files.  Full  range  of  analysis  —  from  descriptive 
statistics  to  multiple  regression.  Complete  data 
manipulation,  transformation  and  case  selection. 
Fast  and  accurate  calculations.  Up  to  4,000  cases 
and  255  variables  per  file.  $235. 

Just  push  our  button .  .  . 

Action- Research  Northwest 

1 1442  Marine  View  Drive,  SW. 

Seattle,  WA  98146 

(206)  241- 1645    Source:  CL2542 

Apple  ][  is  a  trademark  of  Apple  Computer.  Inc 

ZARDAX  is  a  trademark  of  Computer  Solutions.  Pty  Australia 

Dealer  inquiries  invited. 

□  A  job-cost  accounting  system  for  manufacturers  that  includes  general 
ledger,  job  cost  subsidiaries,  payables  journal,  and  payroll  has  been  re- 
leased by  CMA  Micro  Computer  (55722  Santa  Fe  Trail,  Yucca  Valley, 
CA  92284;  619-365-9718).  The  Ledger  includes  five  hundred  accounts, 
and  the  system  prepares  a  posting  journal  of  all  detail,  a  trial  balance,  an 
income  statement,  a  balance  sheet,  and  more.  Payroll  includes  tables  for 
federal,  state,  and  local  taxes.  Requires  two  disk  drives  and  130-column 
printer.  $459.95. 

□  Three  "no-frills"  carrying  cases  for  shipping  and  carrying  software 
are  available  from  PRC  of  America  (475  Boulevard,  Elmwood  Park,  NJ 
07407;  201-796-6600).  The  Data  Vault  series  of  cases  are  constructed 
from  thick- walled  polyethylene  foam  with  a  rugged,  luggage-type  handle 
and  industrial-style  hardware.  Each  case  comes  with  a  hinged  lock  that 
accommodates  a  standard  padlock.  Three  sizes.  $62  each. 

□  A  thirty-two-page  catalog  of  computer  science  books  and  software  is 
available  from  Little,  Brown  and  Company's  College  Division  (34 
Beacon  Street,  Boston,  MA  02106;  617-227-0730).  More  than  fifty 
books  are  featured,  with  titles  ranging  from  handbooks  on  system  analy- 
sis to  language-specific  programming  references.  Several  selections  are 
designed  for  those  with  little  or  no  technical  expertise.  Free. 

□  For  psychologists,  counselors,  and  others  who  are  familiar  with  the 
Weschler  Intelligence  Scale  for  Children-Revised,  Bertamax  (3647 
Stoneway  North,  Seattle,  WA  98103;  206-547-4056)  has  introduced 
WISC-R  Report  Writer,  developed  to  help  diagnose  strengths  and  weak- 
nesses related  to  academic  subjects  and  to  prepare  reports  of  the  results 
for  clients.  The  program  includes  a  test  profile  to  illustrate  the  subtest 
scaled  scores  to  help  in  the  selection  of  appropriate  recommendations.  A 
listing  of  fifty  recommendations  in  five  general  areas  is  available.  $125. 

□  GoGames  is  an  electronic  go  board  and  game-filing  program  for  the 
Japanese  game  of  go.  From  Go  Software  (Box  2693,  Chicago,  IL 
60690),  the  program  displays  games  at  chosen  speeds,  using  commen- 
tary and  other  features  to  enhance  the  assimilation  of  information. 
Graphics  simulate  the  simplicity  of  placing  black-and-white  stones  on  a 
board.  Tournament  games  can  be  saved.  $39.95. 

□  A  handicapped-operable  replacement  keyboard  for  the  Apple  II  has 
been  created  by  Key  Tronic  (Box  14687,  Spokane,  WA  99214; 
509-928-8000).  Individuals  not  having  the  use  of  both  hands  can  now  op- 
erate the  Apple  keyboard  by  the  use  of  alternate-action  keys  that  over- 
come the  obstacle  of  having  to  depress  several  keys  at  once,  as  required 
in  most  applications.  Plug-compatible,  with  a  low-profile  design.  $298. 

□  Psychological  Psoftware  (4757  Sun  Valley  Road,  Del  Mar,  CA 
92014;  619-481-4182)  has  announced  Ne ver  Fat  Again,  a  behavior  modi- 
fication program  for  weight  loss.  The  program  teaches  a  user  to  change 
eating  habits  for  safe  weight  loss,  with  emphasis  on  how  food  is  eaten, 
not  what  kind  of  food.  $49.95. 

□  Write  dBase  II  code  with  a  new  utility  program  from  Gryphon  Mi- 
croproducts  (Box  6543,  Silver  Spring,  MD  20906;  301-946-2585). 
dHelper  Part  I  gives  a  formatted  output  listing  of  a  system  of  dBase  II 
programs  and  data  files.  The  software  allows  a  user  to  set  listing 
parameters  and  do  macro  substitution,  as  well  as  check  syntax.  $150. 

□  The  Uniprint  printer  card  provides  transfers  of  hi-res  graphics  pages 
one  and  two,  expands  and  shrinks  the  images,  or  rotates  the  images  in 
any  direction  by  ninety  degrees.  From  Videx  (1105  Northeast  Circle 
Boulevard,  Corvallis,  OR  97330;  503-758-0521),  the  board  also  makes 
color  transfers  on  the  Dataproducts  IDS  Prism  printer.  Installation  man- 
ual included  with  details  on  more  than  twenty-five  printers.  With  cable: 

□  Monkeynews  is  the  second  program,  following  Monkeymath,  in  the 
Monkey  Series  of  educational  software  from  Artwork  Software  (150 
North  Main  Street,  Fairport,  NY  14450;  800-828-6573).  The  program  is 
designed  to  help  increase  reading  and  comprehension  skills,  using  a  par- 
ticipation format  that  allows  students  control  of  story  direction  and 
speed,  as  well  as  the  action  of  the  main  character,  Marc  the  Monkey.  A 
branching  program  allows  the  creation  of  more  than  two  dozen  varia- 
tions on  the  original  story.  For  grades  one  through  six.  $29.95. 
Monkeybuilder  is  the  third  package  in  the  series.  This  time  Marc  the 
Monkey  is  out  to  net  pieces  of  words  that,  when  correctly  combined, 
form  the  building  blocks  for  his  home  in  the  high  trees.  Each  level  incor- 
porates dozens  of  different  vocabulary,  word  structure,  and  spelling 
devices  that  increase  in  difficulty.  Also  for  grades  one  through  six. 
$29.95.  "  Hi 

Create  Print  Masterpieces 
with  Text  and  Graphics. 

Upgrade  the  Apple  II,  11+ ,  He  or 
III  computer  and  any  parallel  printer 
to  a  complete  text  and  graphics  output 
system  with  the  newest  and  most  versa- 
tile interface,  PKASO/U.  (Pronounced 
"Picasso,"  the  "U"  is  for  Universal). 
And  make  use  of  every  capability 
available  from  the  printer.  And  gain 
additional  text  and  graphics  features  to 
turn  every  printout  into  a  masterpiece. 

Get  Greater  Visual  Range 
and  Instant  Screen  Printouts. 

Gain  every  state-of-the-art  printing 
capability,  including  exclusive  features 
not  offered  by  any  other  interface: 

•  Magic  Screen  Dumps  —  instant, 
single-command  snapshots  of  any 
image  on  the  Apple  screen,  graphics 
or  text.  What  you  see  is  what  you  get! 

•  Print  the  graphics  screen  any  size  — 
from  inches  to  feet  —  another 
PKASO/U  exclusive. 

•  Instantaneous,  single-command  Lo 
Resolution  Screen  Snapshots,  only 
from  PKASO/U. 

•  Super  Resolution  —  higher  resolu- 
tion graphics  from  your  dot  matrix 
printer  than  possible  on  the  screen, 
only  from  PKASO/U. 

•  4-way  Rotation  of  image  —  90°, 
180°,  270°,  360°  —  positioned 
anywhere  on  the  page. 

•  Direct  or  Reverse  Printing  —  black 
on  white  or  white  on  black. 

•  Full  color  for  printers  with  color 

•  16-level  gray  scale  for  black  and 
white  photographic  images,  only 
from  PKASO/U. 

•  Aspecting,  with  separate  width  and 
height  adjustments  for  any  size  and 
aspect  ratio. 

•  Windowing,  the  printout  of  any 
selected  portion  of  a  graphics  image 
in  any  size  —  equal,  enlarged  or  re- 
duced, another  PKASO/U  exclusive. 

•  Low-cost  clock/calendar  option  for 
time/date  stamping,  available  soon. 

Get  Universal  Compatibility 
with  Current/Future  Technology. 

Link  the  Apple  computer  with  any 
and  all  major  parallel  printers  of  today 
or  tomorrow.  Unlike  other  printing  in- 
terfaces which  are  limited  by  ROMs  or 
DIP  switches  with  pre-set  configura- 
tions, PKASO/U  is  completely  config- 
urable for  either  present  or  yet-to-come 
Centronics  parallel-interfaced  printers. 
Another  only-from-PKASO/U  feature. 

Add  ShuffleBuffer 

for  a  Complete  Upgrade. 

The  new  Buffer  with  a  Brain, 
ShuffleBuffer,  does  the  printer-feeding 
work  of  the  Apple  so  the  computer  is 
free  to  perform  other  tasks.  It's  the  only 
buffer  that  can  rearrange  stored  data, 
mix  and  merge,  repeat  and  reprint.  Ask 
your  dealer  for  a  demonstration. 

Pays  for  Itself 
with  Color  Ribbon  Savings. 

Exclusive  Mosaic  Mode  suspends 
color  dot  overprinting  operation,  uses 
color  dots  printed  next  to  each  other 
(not  on  top  of  each  other)  to  achieve 
the  desired  shade.  And  since  fewer  dots 
are  printed,  less  ink  is  used,  ribbon  life 
is  doubled  and  the  PKASO/U  pays  for 
itself  in  ribbons  saved. 

Do  it  with  PKASO/U. 

A  fully-documented  Demonstration 
Diskette  and  detailed  User  Manual 
make  it  easy;  just  plug  in  the  cables  (in- 
cluded) and  start  producing  master- 
pieces. Explore  the  amazing  capabil- 
ities of  PKASO/U  by  visiting  a  nearby 
computer  peripherals  dealer.  Or  call  us 
directly  at  (215)  667-1713  and  we'll 
send  you  the  details.  Unframed. 


Interactive  Structures,  Inc. 
146  Montgomery  Avenue 
Bala  Cynwyd,  PA  19004 
(215)  667-1713 

Era  one. 

Era  two 

le  personal  com- 
uter  increase  the 
roductivity  of  the 
usiness  executive 
ramatically.  Yet  for  all  their 
Dwer,  personal  computers 
ave  not  fulfilled  their  poten 
il.  Because  the  different 
akes  have  been  unable  to 
)mmunicate  reliably  with  one 
lother  and  with  the  various  public 
ita  networks. 

But  now,  Microcom  moves  the 
srsonal  computer  into  a  new  era  of  communi- 
itions  compatibility  with  Era  2-the  first  Personal 
omputer  Communications  System  with  the 
dustry-standard  communications  protocol 
INP.  Era  2  finally  enables  dissimilar  personal 
)mputers  to  communicate  with  one  another 
liably  and  cost  effectively.  It  also  allows  the 
Brsonal  computer  to  access  public  data 
itworks  easily  and  error-free, 
closer  look  at  Era  2. 

Era  2  with  MNP  is  a  1200  baud  Communi- 
itions  System  (software  and  inboard  modem) 
isigned  to  operate  with  the  Apple  I  le,  Apple  I  i  Plus 
id  Apple  II.  Its  features  include  IBM  3101,  Digital 
P100  and  VT-52  terminal  emulations.  Era  2  exe- 
Jtes  multiple  functions  with  a  single  keystroke, 
ores  a  virtually  unlimited  number  of  telephone 
jmbers  -  each  one  up  to  31  digits.  Era  2  is  Bell 
2A  compatible,  works  with  Pulse  or  Touch- 
ne™  dialing.  Its  speaker  alerts  you  to  busy 
gnals,  wrong  numbers,  etc.  Era  2  gives  your 
srsonal  computer  error-free  compatibility 
ith  other  personal  computers,  data  bases, 
ainframes,  almost  any  information  source 
latcan  be  reached  by  telephone  line. 

Era2's  electronics 
are  so  well  put 
we're  able 
to  offer 
a  four-year  warranty  - 
twice  the  term  of  pro- 
tection you  get  from 
yesterday's  products. 
On  top  of  that  our  product  support 
is  outstanding.  Our  800  number 
operates  9AM  to  8PM  (EST),  Mondays 
through  Fridays,  9AM  to  5PM  Saturdays  with 
experts  available  to  solve  any  problem  or  answer 
any  question. 

The  state  of  the  price  of  the  state  of  the  art. 

We're  able  to  offer  Era  2  for  an  amazing 
$429.  By  any  standard  the  price/value  ratio  of 
Era  2  is  outstanding. 

Move  your  personal  computer  forward 
into  a  new  era  of  communications.  Visit  your 
Era  2  dealer  soon.  Call  800-322-ERA2  (in  MA, 
617-762-9310)  for  the  name  of  one  nearest  you. 
Or  write  us,  Microcom,  Inc.,  1400A  Providence 
Highway,  Norwood,  MA  02062.  We'll  send  you 
a  brochure  with  complete  information  on  Era  2. 
Only  from  Microcom:  The  Personal  Computer 
Communications  System  with  MNP. 



MAY  1984 

Apples  Al 


It  is  hot  in  Tunis,  on  the  Mediterranean  coast  of  Africa.  One 
of  the  oldest  civilized  regions  in  the  world,  Tunis  is  just  a  stone's 
throw  from  the  ancient  city  of  Carthage.  The  Phoenicians  settled 
in  Tunis.  Carthaginian  war  fleets  sailed  from  there.  The  alphabet 
originated  there. 

Tunis  is  the  capital  of  the  Republic  of  Tunisia.  The  republic,  a 
nation  of  seven  million  people,  was  born  in  1957  after  centuries 
of  French  and  Turkish  rule— a  young  nation  in  the  cradle  of  civili- 
zation. The  climate  of  Tunisia  nourishes  olives,  dates,  lemons 
and  limes,  and  all-important  wheat;  it  is  too  hot  for  apples.  But, 
six  thousand  miles  from  Cupertino,  California,  Apples  are  grow- 
ing in  Tunisia. 

And  Apples  are  proliferating  all  over  the  world.  This  month, 
Softalk  visits  some  countries  with  many  Apples  and  some  with 
only  a  few— but  each  has  a  fresh,  new  flavor.  Together  they  form 
a  collage  of  Apples  and  Apple  users. 

In  developing  nations,  where  having  enough  to  eat  is  a  strug- 
gle, Apples  are  helping  governments  organize  their  resources  and 
plan  for  the  future.  Special  assignments  editor  Andrew  Christie 
reports  on  how  Apples  are  helping  Tunisia  manage  the  production 
and  distribution  of  cereal  grains.  Also,  this  month's  Newspeak 
column  describes  how  a  French  organization  is  working  in  the 
heart  of  Africa,  helping  Chad— a  poor,  war-torn  nation  five  hun- 
dred miles  south  of  Tunisia — use  computer  technology. 

Europe  lies  just  north  of  Tunisia,  across  the  Mediterranean 

Sea.  Apples  are  almost  as  familiar  there  as  they  are  in  the  United 
States.  Apple  has  a  plant  in  Cork,  Ireland,  to  supply  the  European 
market,  and  there  are  sixty  thousand  Apples  in  Germany  alone, 
where  the  little  beige  machine  is  known  as  the  Mercedes  of  per- 
sonal computers.  German  businesspeople  have  received  them  en- 
thusiastically, while  the  German  home  market  remains  less  than 
ideal.  Apple  sales  representative  Terry  Adams  reports  that  less 
than  5  percent  of  the  Apples  in  Europe  are  in  the  homes. 

Correspondent  Eden  Recor  writes  from  Germany, 
"Americans  can  be  characterized  as  people  who  will  first  buy  a 
computer,  then  ask,  'Okay,  what  can  it  do  for  me?'  and  go  on  to 
find  all  sorts  of  uses  for  it.  That  attitude  doesn't  exist  in  Ger- 
many." Higher  computer  prices  coupled  with  less  disposable  in- 
come make  impulsive  buying  of  computers  rare.  And  perhaps 
there  is  a  national  temperament  that  explains  the  different  con- 
sumer patterns,  including  an  opinion  that  computer  games  should 
be  free! 

In  his  Exec  on  Paris-based  Apple  Computer  International, 
senior  editor  David  Hunter  looks  at  Apple's  overall  strategy  for 
marketing  machines  in  the  twenty-three  countries  that  Apple  con- 
siders its  European  market.  The  He,  HI,  and  Lisa  have  been  well 
received,  and  the  Macintosh  is  on  the  launching  pad.  Also,  in 
"Personal  Computing  in  the  Old  World,"  Hunter  addresses  the 
attitudes  and  reactions  of  Europeans  to  the  personal  computing 
phenomenon.  There  may  be  fewer  users  in  Europe  than  in  the 
States,  but  the  excitement  is  strong  and  getting  stronger. 

MAY  1984 



Over  the  World 

The  worldwide  spread  of  computers  shouldn't  be  thought  of 
as  merely  the  exportation  of  American  goods  to  foreign  markets. 
Software  development  is  an  international  concern.  For  example, 
the  word  processor  Zardax  is  an  import  from  Australia.  German 
bakers  use  specially  designed  German  bakery  software,  and 
French  developers  are  working  on  hardware  and  software  that 
may,  in  some  cases,  be  superior  to  what  is  available  in  the  United 
States.  From  Canada,  correspondent  Don  Officer  reports  that 
three  Canadians  and  American  Seymour  Papert  developed  such 
an  impressive  version  of  Logo  that  it  earned  the  Apple  brand. 

Other  Canadians  are  using  Apples  to  manage  farm  produc- 
tion, from  hogs  to  wheat.  Apples  have  "pioneered  dozens  of  ap- 
plications" on  farms,  according  to  Ontario  cattle  rancher  Betty 
Vandenbosch.  "The  Apple  is  a  thousand  dollars  cheaper  than  any 
other  system  with  suitable  software. ' '  Sheep  and  dairy  farmers  an 
ocean  away  in  New  Zealand  are  also  using  Apples,  according  to 
correspondent  John  MacGibbon.  Shrinking  markets  and  prices 
there  have  forced  New  Zealand  farmers,  "already  reckoned 
among  the  world's  most  efficient,"  to  turn  to  computers  for  ways 
to  improve  efficiency. 

Meanwhile,  kids  and  computers  around  the  world  are  becom- 
ing inseparable.  Summer  computer  camps  are  available  to  Aus- 
tralian children,  who  also  receive  computer  instruction  at  school. 
And  MacGibbon  reports  that  an  amazing  95  percent  of  the  high 
schools  in  New  Zealand  have  at  least  one  Apple.  Canada  and  Ger- 
many are  also  committed  to  bringing  computers  to  their  children. 

In  Germany,  some  knowledge  of  Pascal  is  already  required  of 
high  school  students.  German  computer  dealer  Andreas  Stoerzer 
says  that  a  desire  for  greater  programming  capability  has  led  Ger- 
man educational  advisers  to  recommend  that  schools  invest  in 
Apples  over  Commodores,  which  previously  had  the  nod. 

Computer  users  in  other  countries  face  problems  unknown  to 
American  users.  For  instance,  in  New  Zealand  the  per  capita  in- 
come is  twenty-five  hundred  dollars  a  year  less  than  in  America. 
On  top  of  this,  hardware  and  software  can  cost  as  much  as  three 
times  more.  Simple  economics  makes  it  harder  for  even  seriously 
interested  consumers  to  investigate  computers  down  under. 

Language  differences  are  an  obvious  but  sometimes  over- 
looked impediment  to  computers  in  other  countries.  In  Canada, 
two  languages  are  spoken;  programs  must  accommodate  both 
English  and  French.  Different  languages  require  different  charac- 
ter sets.  Non-English-speaking  users  require  software  written  or 
revised  in  their  native  tongue,  and  hardware  must  be  made  to  con- 
form to  language  variations  as  well. 

Maybe  in  the  future  an  icon-based  interface  like  Apple  has  in- 
troduced worldwide  on  the  Macintosh  will  facilitate  intercultural 
computer  development,  much  like  international  road  signs  help 
world  travelers  now. 

It  may  be  idealistic  to  think  that  the  spread  of  computers  will 
engender  a  greater  unity  among  nations.  But  New  Zealand  isn't 
so  far  from  Canada— and  the  distance  from  Cupertino  to  Tunis  is 
getting  shorter  all  the  time.  Hi 

Do  Disks  Spin 
Backward  in  the 
Southern  Hemisphere? 

er  loun  haccibboh 

"The  whole  world's  going  to  be  taken  over  by  computers  and 
all  that  sort  of  thing,"  the  eager  youngster  insists.  Ten-year-old 
Nina  Siers  quits  steering  her  turtle  and  leaves  the  Logo  screen 
long  enough  to  explain  her  presence  at  summer  computer  camp. 
"No  one  in  our  family  knows  anything  about  computers.  I'm 
here  to  check  them  out  and  report  back." 

Further,  young  Nina  insists  that  when  computers  take  over  the 
world,  everything  will  become  dark — "just  like  in  Blade  Run- 
ner." But  that  pessimistic  vision  is  complicated  by  the  fact  that 
here  she  is,  having  fun. 

Barely  pausing  for  breath,  Nina  pours  out  her  enthusiasm 
about  programming  with  Logo,  playing  Animals,  Rats,  Apple 
Check,  Insulter,  Pac-Man,  and  Lemonade,  as  well  as  tennis,  hik- 
ing, swimming,  doing  gymnastics,  eating.  .  .  . 

None  of  it  is  dark,  and  everything  is  "just  great." 

Downloading  with  the  Joneses.  Yes,  computers  are  alive, 
well,  and  bursting  into  everyone's  consciousness  down  under  in 
Australasia.  Though  both  countries  covered  by  that  term  have 
small  populations  (Australia  fifteen  million,  New  Zealand  three 
million),  the  locals  are  well  educated,  relatively  affluent,  and 
have  a  long-time  passion  for  keeping  up  with  the  Northern 

Especially  in  computers.  Both  countries  see  silicon 
technology  as  a  great  chance  to  break  the  tyranny  of  distance 
separating  them  from  the  rest  of  the  world.  It's  a  chance  to 
become  full-fledged  residents  of  the  new  global  village,  and 
they're  grabbing  it. 

Just  as  it  brings  Australians  and  New  Zealanders  closer  to  the 
world  in  terms  of  communications,  so  the  micro  revolution  offers 
possibilities  for  new  exports  that  will  be  less  affected  by  heavy 
freight  costs  than  traditional  minerals  and  farm  products  are. 

Higher  Tech.  Kiwis  and  Aussies  are  probably  as  interested 

and  involved  with  computers  as  Americans,  but  there  are  dif- 
ferences, partly  resulting  from  the  extra  cost  of  computer 

An  Apple  He  starter  package  including  a  64K  basic  unit,  Ap- 
ple drive/controller,  and  Apple  monitor  that  costs  about  $1 ,650  in 
the  U.S.  retails  (in  local  currency)  for  $2,695  in  Australia  and  a 
whopping  $3,995  in  New  Zealand.  Blame  those  figures  on  ex- 
change rates,  limited  competition,  and  extortionate  government 
rake-offs.  New  Zealand,  which  fares  the  worst,  gets  only  sixty- 
five  U.S.  cents  for  one  of  its  dollars  and  suffers  a  40  percent  com- 
puter sales  tax  as  well. 

These  costs,  in  combination  with  lower  average  wages,  make 
owning  a  microcomputer  an  expensive  business.  Whereas  an 
American  citizen  works  five  weeks,  on  the  average,  to  buy  an 
Apple  starter  package,  an  Australian  must  work  nine.  New 
Zealanders  must  labor  nearly  fifteen  weeks  to  join  the  Apple  clan. 

Yet  people  still  buy.  New  Zealanders  in  particular  are  less 
concerned  with  trappings  of  affluence  than  Americans  are  and 
have  different  priorities  for  their  incomes.  They'll  happily  do 
without  glittering  office  suites,  en  suite  bathrooms,  big  cars,  and 
designer  wardrobes  if  doing  so  means  they  can  buy  some  shiny 
new  high-tech  gear. 

These  are  boom  times  for  micros.  Nineteen  eighty-three  was  a 
very  good  year  in  Australia,  though  more  for  IBM  than  for  Ap- 
ple. In  the  second  half  of  the  year,  Apple's  share  of  new  micro 
sales  slumped  from  27  percent  to  12  percent;  the  IBM  PC,  in- 
troduced in  February,  was  chiefly  responsible.  According  to 
dealers,  Apples  were  perceived  as  too  expensive  for  the  features 
they  offered  in  comparison  with  the  Commodore  64  and  cheap 
Apple  compatibles  in  the  high-end  home  market  and  the  IBM  PC 
in  the  business  market.  In  Australia,  much  hangs  on  the  accep- 
tance of  Macintosh  and  the  revamped  Lisa  line. 

Boomier  Boom.  Apple's  year  was  rather  better  in  New 
Zealand.  The  He  remained  the  top-selling  micro,  gaining  26  per- 
cent of  new  business.  But  IBM's  PC  was  gaining  fast,  moving 
from  0  to  20  percent  of  1983  sales. 

A  major  survey  of  the  New  Zealand  computer  market  pub- 
lished last  December  foretold  a  huge  micro  boom  in  1984:  It  was 
predicted  that  the  value  of  the  entire  installed  micro  base  would 
rise  by  a  whopping  86  percent.  The  survey  suggested  that 
business  and  professional  markets  would  see  the  largest  growth, 
followed  by  the  home  and  education  markets,  in  that  order.  About 
half  of  all  purchases  would  be  made  by  first-time  computer  users. 

By  the  end  of  1983,  there  were  an  estimated  thirty  thousand 
Apple  Us  in  Australia.  New  Zealand,  with  about  seven  thousand 
machines,  had  far  fewer,  though  more  on  a  per  capita  basis. 

Good  numbers  of  Apples  are  in  Australian  homes,  but  in  New 
Zealand  home  sales  are  less  than  1  percent  of  the  Apple  market. 
An  Apple  is  too  costly  for  the  average  Kiwi,  who,  if  he  has  one, 
probably  has  a  commercial  excuse  for  it.  (Sometimes  rather  flim- 
sy, of  course!) 

Australia  has  particularly  strong  user  groups.  Largest  is  the 
Sydney  Apple  User  Group,  with  more  than  five  hundred 
members.  The  Sydney  group  has  published  more  than  forty 
double-sided  program  disks,  puts  out  a  monthly  magazine,  and 
has  installed  its  own  electronic  bulletin  board,  through  which  it 
sells  cheap  club-designed  modems  and  communications  software. 

New  Zealand's  relatively  high  per  capita  Apple  ownership 
reflects  an  extraordinarily  high  number  of  computers  in  education 
and  a  strong  business  base.  Apple's  New  Zealand  distributors 
don't  consider  the  Apple  a  home  computer,  while  Apple  Australia 

MAY  1984 

S  O  C  T  A  I  If 


must  be  very  worried  about  losing  its  home  market  to  cheaper 
brands.  Home  users  and  hobbyists  in  both  countries  are  buying 
vast  quantities  of  micros  costing  less  than  $1,000,  such  as  the 
Commodore  64  and  VIC,  Sinclair  Spectrum  and  ZX81,  and  a 
plethora  of  Japanese  models. 

It  is  a  tragedy  that,  while  the  level  of  home  interest  is  probably 
nearly  as  high  down  under  as  it  is  in  the  United  States,  entry-level 
computers  tend  to  be  underpowered  machines  with  cassette 
storage  that  are  capable  of  playing  games,  and  teaching  Basic,  but 
little  else  in  the  way  of  practical  applications. 

From  Apple  to  Zapple.  In  1982,  Apple's  New  Zealand 
agent,  CED  Distributors,  scored  a  marketing  coup  by  offering 
one  computer  to  every  high  school  in  the  country— at  half  price. 
Schools  took  the  bait.  Even  after  antidumping  levies  were  added 
to  the  price,  Apple  ended  up  with  a  micro  in  nine  out  of  every  ten 
high  schools.  Sales  have  since  increased,  and  about  95  percent  of 
all  high  schools  have  at  least  one  Apple.  Some  80  percent  of  all 
computers  in  New  Zealand  schools  are  Apples. 

Most  schools  have  computer  clubs,  popular  with  the  many 
students  who  don't  have  a  computer  at  home  but  who  are  still  able 
to  converse  in  machine  language  as  if  it  were  their  mother  tongue. 
Surprisingly  high  numbers  of  New  Zealand  schools  have  large 
Apple  networks,  something  that's  rarely  found  in  Australia, 
where  few  schools  have  more  than  five  machines. 

This  year,  CED  Distributors  is  consolidating  its  support  for 
education  by  introducing  the  "New  Zealand  Beginning,"  a  small 
Source-styled  database  and  bulletin  board  aimed  particularly  at 
the  education  market. 

Wellington  High,  a  school  with  about  one  thousand  students, 
is  on  the  wrong  side  of  the  tracks  in  New  Zealand's  capital  city. 
Once  the  school  had  difficulty  attracting  students  and  maintaining 
student  numbers.  Now  that  has  changed,  largely  because  Wel- 
lington offers  the  most  successful  computer  courses  in  town— on 
Apples,  of  course. 

Currently  the  school  runs  seventeen  He's  with  disk  drives  and 
printers,  linked  in  a  Nestar  network  to  forty  megabytes  of  hard 
disk  storage.  The  network  can  take  a  maximum  of  sixty-four  Ap- 
ples, a  goal  that  may  well  be  achieved  before  too  long,  if  com- 
puter director  Martin  Leda  has  his  way. 

The  school  got  its  first  Apples  in  1980  as  donations  from  the 
Parent-Teacher  Association.  Students  themselves  subsequently 
won  two  more  computers  in  programming  competitions.  But 
most  of  the  network  has  been  bought  out  of  profits  from  evening 
computing  classes  for  adults.  There's  been  extraordinary  interest 
in  the  adult  computer  program,  which  this  year  has  more  than 
thirty  classes  of  about  twenty-four  people  each.  Leda  expects  that 
more  classes  will  be  added  as  the  year  progresses.  Wellington 
High  also  earns  money  hiring  out  its  equipment  to  computer 
camps  during  school  holidays. 

Like  most  New  Zealand  schools,  Wellington  High  stresses 
Logo,  especially  for  younger  students.  This  approach  has  been 
encouraged  by  Apple's  distributors,  who  include  Logo  in  their 
package  for  schools.  A  similar  Apple  policy  has  led  to 
widespread  use  of  Pascal.  As  a  result,  it's  claimed,  there's  more 
intensive  high  school  use  of  these  languages  in  New  Zealand  than 
there  is  in  any  other  country. 

At  Wellington  High,  Logo  is  used  in  computer  awareness 
classes  by  third-  and  fourth-form  (eighth-  and  ninth-grade) 
students,  who  also  learn  a  little  Basic.  Older  students  move  to 
UCSD  Pascal. 

After  eighteen  months  of  teaching  Logo,  Martin  Leda  is  an 

Rocky  cliffs  off  the  coast  of  Sydney,  Australia.  Then  called  Port  Jackson, 
the  city  was  founded  as  a  British  penal  colony  in  1 788. 

enthusiast.  "I'm  beginning  to  see  what  Seymour  Papert  was  talk- 
ing about  when  he  said  students  should  be  programming  the  com- 
puters not  because  they  want  to  learn  to  be  commercial  program- 
mers but  to  train  their  own  thinking,"  Leda  says. 

His  experience  is  that  it's  hard  to  teach  Basic  as  a  first 
language.  He  finds  that  students  who  excel  are  those  who  are 
already  mathematically  bright  and  "would  learn  anything  you  put 
in  front  of  them. 

"Any  student  who  has  trouble  with  math  will  find  computer 
programming  difficult  if  he's  taught  Basic,"  he  explains.  "We're 
trying  to  develop  the  attitude  here  that  programming  and  using  a 
computer  isn't  difficult— it's  for  everybody." 

Aside  from  work  with  computer  languages,  the  school  en- 
courages students  to  look  on  the  computer  as  a  tool— with  Apple 
Writer  He,  VisiCalc,  accounting  packages,  and  databases— for  in- 
vestigating ideas  in  mathematics,  physics,  graphics,  social 
studies,  and  physical  education. 

Other  than  the  languages  and  business  packages,  most  soft- 
ware in  the  schools  is  from  New  Zealand  sources.  Apart  from 
some  public  domain  material,  little  American  education  software 
is  used. 

Aussie  Net.  At  present,  few  large  networks  exist  in  Australian 
schools,  although  this  may  change  with  the  introduction  of  cheap 
networking  systems.  The  largest  single  installation  at  present  is  at 
the  New  South  Wales  Institute  of  Technology's  accountancy 
school,  where  twenty  computers  are  networked  through  Omninet 
to  a  Corvus  ten-megabyte  storage  system.  The  school  uses  its 
own  software,  plus  standard  commercial  accounting  and  spread- 
sheet packages. 

One  of  the  institute's  lecturers,  Steve  Trevillion,  presented  a 
paper  on  the  system  to  the  1982  Business  Schools'  Conference  in 
San  Francisco.  He  was  surprised  to  find  that  the  Australian 



MAY  1984 

Kangaroos  run  free  on  protected  land  down  under.  Born  small  enough  to 
fit  several  into  a  teaspoon,  baby  kangaroos  crawl  into  their  mother's 
pouches  unaided. 

system  was  ahead  of  the  pack.  "Our  uses  of  the  Apple  personal 
computer  proved  far  more  advanced  than  methods  used  in  other 
countries,"  Trevillion  said.  "Universities  in  Europe,  England, 
and  the  U.S.  will  probably  follow  Australia  in  its  use  of 
microcomputers . ' ' 

Overall,  Apple  hasn't  done  as  well  in  Australian  schools  as  it 
has  in  New  Zealand's  educational  settings,  although  it  is  still  the 
biggest  single  micro  supplier,  with  seventy-five  hundred  units  in- 
stalled. Late  last  year  an  Australian  Schools  Commission  report 
recommended  the  microcomputers  from  Apple,  BBC,  and 
Microbee  for  general  school  use.  At  around  the  same  time  the 
Commonwealth  Government  established  a  school  computer  ad- 
visory board  and  promised  to  spend  $18  million  on  school  com- 
puting over  the  next  three  years.  Emphasis  was  to  be  placed  at  the 
junior  secondary  school  level.  (This  contrasts  with  the  New 
Zealand  Minister  of  Education's  priorities,  which  are,  in  order, 
college,  secondary,  and  elementary  schools.) 

Neither  country  has  come  to  appreciate  the  value  of  computers 
in  elementary  education. 

Tasmania,  an  Australian  state,  known  because  of  its  fruit 
crops  as  the  Apple  Isle,  has  (appropriately  enough)  the  highest 
proportion  of  Apples  in  Australian  schools.  It  has  also  been  most 
innovative  in  their  use.  Tasmanian  education  programs  are  used 
throughout  Australia  and  even  in  New  Zealand. 

Most  respected  of  the  Tasmanian  programs  is  Convicts,  a 
database  with  details  of  reluctant  settlers  who  arrived  with  the 
First  Fleet  of  1788.  Australians  are  fascinated  by  their  convict 
past,  and  this  makes  students  eager  to  delve  into  the  program  and 
learn  about  information  technologies. 

Perhaps  the  most  impressive  single  Australian  education 
package  is  Direct  Helper,  a  reading  and  spelling  program  de- 
signed especially  for  slow  readers. 

Australia's  first  computer  program  to  help  improve  hand- 

writing is  in  the  final  stages  of  testing  by  the  Australian  National 
University  in  the  capital  city,  Canberra.  Designed  over  a  period 
of  eight  years,  the  program  makes  use  of  Apple  lis,  graphics 
tablets,  and  Intex  Talkers.  Results  in  local  schools  have  been  en- 
couraging, and  commercial  release  is  intended. 

Australian  education  authorities  have  also  produced  in- 
teresting computer-aided  instruction  programs  based  on  arcade 
action  games,  while  excellent  spelling  and  foreign  language 
tutors  have  been  created  by  a  Sydney  software  house,  Lothlorien 

Software  Takes  a  Trashing.  But  in  neither  Australia  nor 
New  Zealand  are  education  observers  satisfied  with  the  overall 
range  of  quality  of  courseware  available  for  schools.  One  critic  is 
Arthur  Sale,  a  professor  of  information  science  at  the  University 
of  Tasmania:  "Probably  90  percent  of  all  courseware  available 
today  is  junk,"  he  asserts.  Sale  argues  that  there's  room  for  a 
substantial  Australian  education  software  industry,  given  the  ex- 
pertise available.  While  more  extreme  in  his  criticisms  than  most 
educators,  Sale  does  highlight  a  problem  with  American  soft- 
ware: In  spite  of  twenty  years'  conditioning  by  U.S.  television 
programs,  a  broad  cultural  gap  still  exists.  Many  social  values 
differ,  and  both  Australia  and  New  Zealand  use  metric  measure- 
ments and  British  word  spellings. 

Teachers  in  Australia,  like  teachers  everywhere,  are  finding  it 
hard  to  keep  up  with  the  computer  revolution— and  particularly 
with  some  of  their  brighter  students  who,  of  course,  spend  enor- 
mous amounts  of  time  at  the  keyboard.  Seventeen-year-old 
Michael  Orphanides  actually  took  over  the  computer  class  at  his 
Sydney  high  school.  Orphanides  doesn't  own  an  Apple  yet,  but 
he  used  the  school's  computer  to  write  a  book,  Outstanding 
Games  for  the  Apple  II,  which  has  been  released  in  the  United 
Kingdom.  He  also  has  a  contract  to  write  programs  for  Australian 
Personal  Computer  magazine. 

Camping  with  Apples.  Glyn  Hurley  started  the  first  residen- 
tial computer  camps  in  New  Zealand,  but  he'd  happily  snap  his 
fingers  and  make  computers  disappear.  An  education 
psychologist,  Hurley  has  reservations  about  the  social  conse- 
quences of  computerization.  But  he's  pragmatic  and  aware  that 
the  machines  are  here  to  stay.  "Computers  are  the  only  way  to 
go,  so  I'm  trying  to  do  something  about  it,"  he  says. 

Hurley  likens  the  dangers  of  computers  to  those  of  television, 
but  says  computers  can  have  far  graver  consequences.  "People 
said  TV  would  do  terrible  things  to  us.  It  did  kill  conversation  and 
decrease  interaction  between  people,  but  we've  adapted  to  it," 
Hurley  says.  "TV  has  nowhere  near  the  degree  of  involvement 
that  a  computer  has.  TV  is  interest-arousing,  but  the  ultimate  in 
human  experience  is  interactive  performance.  Computers  require 
interactive  performance." 

Hurley  says  computers  encourage  complete  absorption, 
something  that  makes  people  quite  unaware  of  the  passage  of 
time.  But  it  doesn't  necessarily  make  people  happy,  and  it  cer- 
tainly doesn't  improve  communication  between  people.  To 
counteract  such  insidious  tendencies,  Glyn  Hurley  works  social 
skills  components  into  his  camps  by  means  of  sessions  of  what  he 
terms  "social  training." 

"We  have  very  simple  exercises,  like  the  youngsters  turning 
to  look  at  each  other  when  they're  talking,  or  passing  com- 
pliments," he  says.  An  important  part  of  the  sessions  is  con- 
fidence building,  which  Hurley  considers  particularly  helpful  to 
the  many  children  he  sees  who  are  introverted  or  lack  confidence. 
Some  of  the  activities  are  organized  so  that  children  have  to  co- 

MAY  1984 

s  o  r  T  A  L  k 


operate  in  pairs. 

Students  are  encouraged  to  think  of  the  computer  as  a  tool,  not 
as  an  end  unto  itself. 

Most  activities  at  his  six-day  camps  are  standard  fare: 
physical  activities,  including  an  outdoor  challenge  course,  gym 
work,  tennis,  skating,  hiking  and  nature  study  in  the  nearby 
mountains,  swimming,  and,  of  course,  computer  time,  the  favor- 
ite of  all. 

The  kids  have  one  computer  each,  either  an  Apple,  a  Commo- 
dore VIC,  or  a  BBC  Acorn.  Apples  are  used  especially  with 
rank  beginners,  because  of  the  availability  of  Logo.  More  ad- 
vanced kids  work  on  self-paced  lessons  in  Basic  and  Pascal. 
Older  students  can  also  learn  about  word  processing,  flow  chart- 
ing, file  writing,  and  database  operation. 

Glyn  Hurley  is  particularly  interested  in  databases,  believing 
effective  use  of  them  to  be  the  ultimate  point  of  computer  train- 
ing. Senior  students  even  have  the  opportunity  to  contact  overseas 
databases,  such  as  The  Source. 

Beach  Blanket  Basic.  Competing  with  Glyn  Hurley's  setup 
in  New  Zealand  are  camps  run  by  a  former  associate  of  Hurley's, 
Barry  Small.  Small's  Adventure  Holidays  organization  even  ex- 
ports its  live-in  camps  across  the  Tasman  Sea  to  Eleanora 
Heights,  within  cooee  of  Sydney's  famous  surfing  beaches. 

The  only  other  residential  computer  camp  in  Australia  is  at  a 
farm  near  Mount  Barney  National  Park  in  Queensland.  Accom- 
modating eight  people  at  a  time,  Lynn  and  Tom  McHale's  camp 
is  aimed  particularly  at  parents  who  want  to  unravel  the  mysteries 
of  computing  along  with  their  children. 

Other  Australian  holiday  computer  courses  are  nonresi- 
dential—at  Sydney's  University  of  New  South  Wales  and  Ade- 
laide's Institute  of  Technology. 

Digging  the  Good  Dirt.  New  Zealand  may  be  well  into  the 
computer  revolution,  but  the  big  money  is  still  made  down  on  the 
farm.  Most  export  income  comes  from  sheep  meat,  beef,  wool, 
dairy  products,  and  horticultural  produce,  especially  apples  and 

This  small  country  was  developed  as  Britain's  farm  in  the 
South  Pacific,  and  that  was  the  basis  for  a  standard  of  living  that 
was  the  fifth  highest  in  the  world  at  one  point  during  the  1950s. 
But  times  change;  terms  of  trade  for  primary  products  declined, 
and  traditional  markets  in  Europe  have  gradually  been  closed  off 
by  European  Economic  Community  trading  policies.  Agricultural 
protectionism  in  the  United  States  and  Japan  hasn't  helped  either. 

With  declining  markets  and  declining  prices,  New  Zealand's 
farmers,  already  reckoned  among  the  world's  most  efficient, 
have  had  to  look  for  even  greater  efficiencies.  Many  are  consider- 
ing microcomputers  and  agriculture  databases.  At  present  four 
local  companies  sell  farm  computing  systems.  Two  of  these 
systems  run  on  the  Apple  EI. 

In  Christchurch,  Rural  Computer  Systems  supplies  a  hard- 
ware and  software  service  adapted  from  the  English  Farmplan 
system,  which  is  also  used  in  European  countries,  the  U.S., 
Australia,  and  South  Africa.  The  system  includes  a  specialized 
database,  a  dozen  or  so  financial  and  farm  management  templates 
for  either  VisiCalc  or  Multiplan,  and  a  variety  of  other  financial 
and  farm  management  programs. 

You  can  even  purchase  programs  to  raise  deer,  currently  a 
fashionable  and  profitable  activity.  (The  deer  yield  venison  and 
high-priced  antler  velvet,  which  is  exported  to  Korea  for  use  in 
aphrodisiacs.)  Reliability  was  the  reason  another  farm  software 
house,  Agricultural  Computer  Services,  chose  Apples.  The  new 

Rank  beginners  at  a  New  Zealand  computer  camp  are  lucky  enough  to 
begin  on  Apples.  After  a  session  with  Logo,  the  kids  can  then  go  hike, 
swim,  or  play  tennis. 

company,  based  in  Napier  in  the  North  Island's  Hawke  Bay,  is  a 
joint  venture  between  a  farm  service  company  and  a  microcom- 
puter retailer.  It  offers  cash  flow  recording  systems,  stud  record- 
ing software,  and  a  number  of  smaller  utility  programs. 

Many  farms  in  the  region  are  some  distance  from  service 
facilities  in  Napier,  so  the  likelihood  of  breakdowns  had  to  be 
minimized.  Company  head  Dave  Smith  also  likes  Apple's  power 

"It's  big,  and  that's  important  in  country  areas  where  the 
power  supply  fluctuates,"  he  says.  "Some  machines  crash  im- 
mediately if  there's  a  power  flip,  but  the  Apple  is  less  likely  to  do 
that.  The  power  can  drop  off  to  the  point  where  the  picture  disap- 
pears from  the  screen  completely,  but  it  comes  back.  The  same 
goes  for  the  disk  drives." 

Cows  Coming  On-Line.  This  year  heralds  the  introduction  of 
two  rural  videotex  databases.  One  of  these,  the  Bureau  of 
Primary  Information,  is  based  on  the  UK  Prestel  standard  and  can 
also  be  accessed  by  micros. 

A  pilot  system  for  dairy  farmers  began  in  March,  while  what 
is  claimed  as  one  of  the  world's  most  comprehensive  veterinary 
databases  comes  on-line  this  month.  The  scheme  was  started  by 
Cargill  McKenzie  and  Peter  Trim,  former  senior  information 
staffers  at  New  Zealand's  ministry  of  agriculture  and  fisheries. 
Trim  is  a  qualified  veterinary  surgeon,  which  may  explain  the 
early  attention  to  animal  health. 

McKenzie  admits  that  micros  are  ultimately  a  better  way  for 
farmers  to  go,  but  says  the  price  puts  them  off.  Videotex  ter- 
minals cost  only  $700,  and  farmers  can  use  them  with  their  televi- 
sion sets. 

"You  don't  convince  a  farmer  to  spend  $5,000  on  something 
very  new  or  novel  very  easily,"  Cargill  says.  "But  if  he  buys  a 
videotex  terminal  he  may  later  move  upward  to  a  micro,  because 
he'll  be  familiarizing  himself  with  computer  technology." 

Eighty-Column  March.  A  small  but  growing  Apple  pe- 
ripherals industry  exists  in  both  Australia  and  New  Zealand. 
The  best-known  item  in  the  United  States  is  probably  Zofarry 
Enterprises's  Vision-80  card,  which  until  the  advent  of  Videx's 
Ultraterm  was  generally  regarded  as  the  industry  standard.  A 
feature  of  the  Vision-80  is  its  smart  terminal  emulation  com- 
munications mode. 

Zofarry  now  has  a  wider  range  of  products,  including  eighty- 
column  preboot  disks  for  Apple  Writer  II  and  VisiCalc,  128K  and 
256K  memory  expansion  cards,  and  a  variety  of  utility  programs. 

Buzzing  Between  Machines.  Communications  is  the  com- 
puter buzzword  everywhere  these  days.  The  Australian-designed 
Netcomm  card  enables  communication  between  Apples  and 

Young  campers  Logoing  at  the  Te  Horo,  New  Zealand,  computer  camp. 
Another  camp  across  the  Tasman  Sea  at  Eleanora  Heights  offers  access  to 
surfing  beaches. 

nearly  all  IBM  mainframes.  Apple  Computer  was  impressed  and 
has  taken  up  worldwide  marketing  rights. 

Pirates  on  the  Software  Seas.  Software  running  on  Australa- 
sian Apples  is  largely  from  America.  Most  applications  aren't 
worth  developing  locally.  The  reasons?  A  small  market  and  the 
prevalence  of  software  piracy.  One  Auckland  micro  retailer 
claims  that  more  than  90  percent  of  software  running  on  local  Ap- 
ples is  pirated.  Microshop,  a  Wellington  retailer,  reckons  pirate 
copies  account  for  20  percent  of  business  use,  40  percent  of 
games  use,  and  80  percent  of  education  use.  Any  Australasian 
hoping  to  make  his  pile  in  the  software  business  had  better 
develop  markets  overseas  or  have  a  cast-iron  protection  system. 
With  software  costing  so  much,  the  two  countries  possess  some 
of  the  most  active  and  sophisticated  Blackbeards  south  of  the 
Bahamas.  Some  representative  prices  illustrate  their  incentive. 

Screenwriter  II  is  priced  at  about  $125  in  the  U.S.,  $195  in 
Australia,  and  $275  in  New  Zealand.  Americans  pay  about  $175 
for  Multiplan;  in  Australia  it  is  $300  and  in  New  Zealand  $600. 

MasterType  is  just  under  $40  in  the  United  States,  $65  in 
Australia,  and  $95  in  New  Zealand.  Choplifter  is  about  $35  in  the 
United  States,  $48  in  Australia,  and  $85  in  New  Zealand.  And 
remember,  Aussies  and  Kiwis  buy  these  programs  with  lower 
average  wages  than  U.S.  consumers. 

Parents  would  love  to  buy  Rocky 's  Boots  for  their  kids,  but 
must  ask  themselves  "Is  it  worth  $115?"  That  much  money 
would  buy  a  lot  of  educational  books.  But  the  New  Zealand 
Customs  Department  rates  books  (even  Playboyl)  duty-free 
"cultural"  items  while  slamming  computer  programs  with  27.5 
percent  duty  and  40  percent  sales  tax. 

Strange  Fruit.  Australians  are  no  more  honest  than  New 
Zealanders.  In  fact,  the  situation  there  has  worsened  since  a  re- 
cent decision  against  Apple  in  an  action  against  a  Melbourne 
retailer  of  Taiwanese  Wombat  copies.  As  Apple's  case  was  partly 
based  on  proprietary  programs  copied  by  Wombat,  the  court 
decision  has  thrown  the  software  industry  into  turmoil. 

In  January  a  group  calling  itself  the  Public  Domain  Software 
Library  announced  that  it  would  sell  cheap  copied  software.  The 
Sydney  Morning  Herald  has  advertised  the  Banana  personal  com- 
puter for  $489.  This  tasty  fruit  may  be  garnished  with  Apple  soft- 
ware at  "unbelievable  prices."  Meanwhile,  a  heavily  lobbied 
Australian  Government  has  promised  early  legislation,  retroac- 
tive if  necessary,  to  modernize  its  copyright  laws. 

In  spite  of  this  difficult  environment,  good  software  is  being 
written  in  both  countries,  and  useful  export  trade  is  developing. 
Advantages  often  cited  by  local  software  developers  include  high 
educational  standards,  lower  wage  structures,  and  inventive, 
lateral-thinking  populations.  The  latter  attributes  have  developed 
as  a  result  of  the  two  countries'  relative  isolation  from  the  world, 
which  has  often  forced  them  to  produce  quick  homegrown  solu- 
tions to  technical  problems. 

Particularly  attractive  is  the  low  cost  of  sending  software  to 
the  Northern  Hemisphere,  compared  to  freighting  of  bulky  tradi- 
tional agricultural  and  mineral  exports.  Software  houses  are  now 
actively  seeking  associations  and  joint  ventures  with  British,  Jap- 
anese, and  American  companies.  The  most  successful  of  these  to 
date  has  been  in  the  Burroughs  rather  than  Apple  field. 

When  Burroughs  decided  to  adopt  the  Logistics  Information 
Network  Compiler  (LINC)  "fourth  generation"  program 
development  package  as  its  software  flagship,  it  could  have 
transferred  the  development  team  lock,  stock,  and  barrel  to 
Detroit.  Instead  the  company  let  the  group  remain  in 
Christchurch,  New  Zealand,  and  the  product  has  since  become  a 
substantial  export  earner. 

Communicating  with  the  Burroughs  head  office  is  no  problem 
with  air  freight  and  electronic  mail,  and  LINC  inventors  Peter 
Hoskins  and  Gil  Simpson  think  they  work  better  in  their  own 
country's  less  hurried  environment.  In  three  years  Burroughs  has 
invested  nearly  $9  million  in  LINC  development,  and  Hoskins 
expects  an  equal  sum  will  come  his  way  in  the  next  three  years. 
It's  been  a  good  investment:  The  LINC  people  won't  say  how 
much  the  product  has  earned,  but  other  sources  estimate  total  in- 
ternational sales  in  the  past  two  years  at  around  eighty  million 
U.S.  dollars. 

How  nice  it  would  be  if,  alongside  each  of  their  dairy  factories 
or  wool  stores,  New  Zealand  and  Australia  could  have  a  software 
house  earning  that  kind  of  money!  It  is  little  wonder  that  phrases 
such  as  "sunrise  industries"  and  "high-tech  future"  have  sud- 
denly become  so  trendy  among  down  under  politicians  of  all  per- 
suasions. 31 


"Popular  Computing  says 
The  Home  Accountant 
does  just  about  everything 
you'd  ask  of  a  personal 
finance  package."* 

"You  mean  you  can  use 
The  Home  Accountant 
for  business, 

Wouldn't  want  to  run 
my  consulting  firm 
without  it." 

"The  Home  Accountant 
Is  the  #1  best-selling 
home  finance  package 
in  the  world." 

"The  Home  Accountant 
even  flags  transactions  for  tax  time. 

And  that's  a  big  time-saver 
because  I  can  transfer  information 
to  The  Tax  Advantage™  program 
and  easily  figure  out  what  I  owe." 

"My  company  has 
5  checking  accounts, 
6  business  credit  cards 
and  3  money  market 
funds  to  keep  track  of. 
The  Home  Accountant 
makes  it  easy." 


"Softalk  Magazine 
says  it's  the  most 

thorough  and 
powerful  program 
of  its  kind."  t 

"I  agree." 

"It  automatically  prints 
my  checks.  And  gives 

them  a  very 
professional  look." 

"The  Home  Accountant 
is  great  for 
realistic  budgeting." 

"I'm  so  glad  you  brought 
it  home.  I  never  thought 
that  creating  a  budget 
and  managing  money 
could  be  so  easy." 

"You  can  create  trend  analyst! 
graphs  for  each  budget 
category,  so  you  can  make 
isual  comparisons  of  where 
you  stand  financially." 

"And  you  can  do  it  in 
full-scale  color  graphics." 

*  Popular  Computing,  November,  1982 
t  Apple  Softalk,  April,  1982 

"The  Home  Accountant 
will  even  print  a 
personal  financial  statement 
and  net  worth  statement. 
Keeps  me  right  on  top  of 
my  finances." 

Everyone's  talking  about  The  Home  Accountant. 

Is  it  because  it's  the  #1  bestselling 
home  finance  package  in  the  world?  Or 
because  it's  extremely  thorough  and 
powerful  and  easy  to  use?  Or  because 
it's  great  for  home  and  business  use? 
Or  because  it  has  up  to  200  budget 
categories  and  handles  up  to  5 
checking  accounts? 

Yes.  But  there  are  a  lot  more  reasons 
why  people  buy  The  Home  Accountant. 
And  why  you  will,  too. 

Because  The  Home  Accountant  can 
literally  save  you  hours  of  time.  And 
take  the  headache  out  of  handling  your 
finances.  Whether  it's  setting  up  a  budget, 
cataloging  your  expenses,  balancing 
your  checkbooks  or  handling  your 
credit  cards  and  money  market  funds. 
For  personal  or  business  use. 

The  Home  Accountant  and  The  Tax  Advantage  are  registered  trademarks  of  Continental  Software  Apple  i 

The  Home  Accountant  will  even 
print  net  worth  and  financial  state- 
ments. Not  to  mention  being  a  lifesaver 
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A  Division  of  Arrays,  Inc. 

THE  GIFT  OF  SPEECH.  Now  your  computer  can  tell  you  the  words  you've  always 
wanted  to  hear.  Go  ahead.  Plug  in  a  Mockingboard  and  feed  your  computer  some 
lines.  Sweet  Micro  Systems,  Cranston,  Rl  02920.(800)  341-8001. 

Mockingboard  speech  is  easy  to  understand,  unlimited  in  vocabulary  and  uses  very 
little  memory.  No  wonder  over  40  leading  software  companies  will  soon  be  talking 
to  you  on  Mockingboard.  And  you  thought  it  was  just  for  music  and  sound  effects. 

M  O  C  K  I  N 




Extremely  individualistic  and  infinitely  more  patient,  Euro- 
peans live  life  at  a  slower  pace  than  people  in  the  United  States. 
They  believe  that  Americans  only  see  the  beginning  and  the  end, 
never  the  middle.  The  histories  of  some  countries  are  not  counted 
by  century  but  by  millenia. 

Europeans  may  be  slower  to  embrace,  and  excel  at,  personal 
computing  than  other  people  in  the  world.  But  this  is  not  due  to 
backwardness,  laziness,  snobbishness,  and  slowness— meaning 
lack  of  intellectual  wherewithal. 

If  anything  explains  their  slower  pace,  it's  that  Europeans  are 
too  practical,  too  cautious,  too  conservative,  and  too  intellectual. 
They  are  not  without  shortcomings,  but  these  are  the  strengths 
that  keep  Europe  standing  tall  in  even  the  shakiest  of  times.  Not 
rushing  headlong  into  a  volatile  market  like  the  worldwide  com- 
puter industry  is  hardly  due  to  lack  of  initiative.  Let's  not  forget 
that  it  was  European  scientists  and  researchers  who  supplied  the 
basic  knowledge  needed  to  create  computers.  Let's  not  forget  that 
America  is  a  melting  pot  and  that  Steve  Wozniak  was  not  bred  of 
generations  of  drawling  Texans. 

Emerging  Europeans.  On  a  person-to-person  basis,  most 
Europeans  are  not  as  gung-ho  about  personal  computers  as  Amer- 
icans. In  France,  though,  this  is  changing.  In  England,  it  depends 

on  your  definition  of  a  personal  computer.  Below  the  six-hun- 
dred-dollar price  range,  so-called  personal  computers  are  quite 
popular.  In  England,  there's  this  homegrown  Nolan  Bushnell-like 
guy  named  Clive  Sinclair  who  has  sold  hundreds  of  thousands  of 
his  ZX-80  and  ZX-81  home  computers. 

Commodore  computers  are  fairly  popular  in  some  countries 
because  they  sell  for  less  than  $300.  The  price  factor,  far  more 
than  the  concept,  has  kept  true  personal  computing  from  really 
taking  off  there.  In  fact,  it's  not  all  that  different  than  it  was  in  the 
United  States  a  few  years  ago.  But  pricing  is  not  the  only  inhibit- 
ing factor,  just  the  most  obvious  one. 

People  in  Europe  are  not  the  impulsive  buyers  Americans  are. 
They  ask  over  and  over  again,  "What  will  this  thing  do  for  me?" 
Again,  there  is  a  certain  similarity  to  the  situation  in  the  United 
States.  American  consumers  have  gobbled  up  ten  million  or  so 
cheap  computers  with  which  they  can  play  Pac-Man.  But  Apple 
has  only  sold  a  million  and  a  half  personal  computers. 

When  you  add  to  the  basic  conservative  European  attitude  to- 
ward new  technology  the  fact  that  good  software  is  often  difficult 
to  find,  it's  not  surprising  that  personal  computing  in  Europe  is 
just  now  growing  up.  "Personal"  software  is  practically  nonexis- 
tent. Europeans  on  the  whole  do  not  share  Americans'  love  of  ar- 
cade, strategy,  adventure,  and  fantasy  role-playing  games.  Up 
until  last  year,  the  vast  majority  of  Apples  were  used  in  busi- 
ness—for accounting,  managing  inventories,  forecasting,  word 
processing,  and  the  like. 

But  the  situation  appears  to  be  changing.  In  Europe,  1983  was 
a  very  good  year  for  Apple.  Dealers  now  number  around  fifteen 
hundred  in  the  twenty-one  countries  Apple  considers  its  European 
market— the  United  Kingdom,  West  Germany,  France,  the  Neth- 
erlands, Italy,  Austria,  Belgium,  Sweden,  Cyprus,  Spain,  Den- 
mark, Finland,  Greece,  Iceland,  Israel,  Malta,  Norway,  Portu- 
gal, Switzerland,  Turkey,  and  Yugoslavia. 

The  folks  at  Apple  Computer  International,  Apple's  strategic 
center  for  European  marketing  and  sales  located  just  outside 
Paris,  say  that  Europe  tends  to  fall  into  north  and  south  regions 

characterized  by  the  culture  and  mentality  of  the  inhabitants. 
Generally  speaking,  countries  like  France  and  Italy  have  been 
faster  to  accept  the  personal  computer  phenomenon  because  the 
people's  personalities  are  lighter,  more  creative,  with  even  a  cer- 
tain sense  of  playful  craziness,  whereas  the  northern  peoples, 
such  as  those  in  England  and  West  Germany,  approach  the  whole 
thing  more  logically. 

The  major  European  countries  for  Apple  are  England, 
France,  Italy,  and  West  Germany,  with  the  rest  lumped  together 
in  a  category  known  as  the  General  European  Area.  This  is  not  to 
say  that  other  countries  are  not  as  important,  but  Sweden,  for  in- 
stance, has  sales  numbering  only  a  few  thousand.  A  country  like 
France,  meanwhile,  is  fast  becoming  a  major  market. 

The  key  for  Apple,  and  for  personal  computing  in  general,  is 
to  localize  the  product  so  that  it  appeals  to  a  specific  country's 
consumers.  Localization  is  a  term  that  applies  to  the  design  of  the 
machine  itself— such  as  the  keyboard,  character  set  EPROMs, 
and  video  interface.  For  instance,  most  European  languages  have 
different  ways  of  writing  quotation  marks,  monetary  symbols, 
and  accent  marks;  many  also  have  additional  letters  in  the 
alphabets.  Localization  also  refers  to  the  process  software  must 
go  through  before  it  can  appeal  to  any  but  those  who  understand 

Interpretive  EuroApples.  Localization,  however,  involves 
much  more  than  just  changing  English  into  German  and  recon- 
figuring keyboards.  The  way  software  is  structured  and  the  way  it 
performs  are  subject  to  a  wide  range  of  conditions  throughout 
Europe.  Similarly,  the  way  Apples  are  marketed  and  supported  is 
different  from  country  to  country.  The  real  trick  is  to  walk  the 
thin  line  of  localizing  a  product  for  each  country  but  not  losing  the 
overall  consistency  that  makes  an  Apple  recognizable  whether  it's 
in  the  hands  of  a  user  in  Marseille,  Osaka,  or  Fort  Worth. 

The  problem  of  importing  good  software  from  the  States  is  be- 
ing solved  slowly  but  surely.  Apple  itself  is  localizing  most  of  its 
popular  packages,  including  Apple  Writer,  III  E-Z  Pieces,  Ap- 
pleWorks, Basic,  Logo,  Pascal,  and  more.  Some  of  the  large 
American  firms  are  also  taking  an  active  interest  in  marketing 
their  software  in  Europe.  Among  these  are  Microsoft,  Lotus,  and 

Still,  the  root  of  the  software  problem  lies  in  European  soil. 
There  just  hasn't  been  enough  good  local  software— the  kind  the 
Europeans  would  know  best  how  to  create — to  generate  interest  in 
personal  computing.  A  flood  of  entrepreneur- founded  software 
firms  hasn't  swept  this  region  as  it  has  the  United  States. 

One  way  Apple  is  helping  to  change  this  situation  is  by  en- 
couraging European  companies  to  market  their  software  in  the 
United  States  and  other  foreign  countries.  If  Apple  is 
metaphorically  in  the  record  player  business,  then  the  company  is 
doing  its  best  to  help  people  make  records  that  play  on  its 
machines.  And,  like  in  the  record  business,  it's  crucial  that  soft- 
ware appeal  to  a  population's  culture  rather  than  only  to  its  in- 
tellect. Apple  software  must  become  more  than  just  another 
American  anomaly.  It  must  become  part  of  the  European  value 
system.  The  best  way  for  Apple  to  do  this  is  to  show  Europeans 
how  to  create  their  own  software  instead  of  leaving  them  to  use 
refurbished  American  wares. 

One  important  area  is  education,  and  Apples  are  finding  their 
way  into  European  schools  in  increasing  numbers.  Apple  has  a 
Kids  Can't  Wait-type  program  in  most  countries.  In  France  the 
program  is  called  The  Future  Can't  Wait  and  last  year  Apple  sold 
ten  thousand  He's  to  French  schools.  In  England,  Apple  has  a  lot 

Something  no  modem  has  ever  said  before. 

As  you'll  notice,  the  Apple  Modem  is  hardly 
noticeable  under  a  desk  phone. 

If  you're  looking  for  a  premium  modem 
without  a  premium  price,  here's  a  word  of  advice: 

Introducing  the  Apple  Modem  300.  And,  to 
keep  up  with  the  busi- 
ness world,  our  faster 
Apple  Modem  1200. 
Inside,  they're  pack- 
ed with  all  the  technical 
wizardry  you  would  want 
in  an  intelligent  modem. 
Auto-dial.  Auto-answer. 
Built-in  error  diagnostics. 
And  compatibility  with  all  the  latest  advanced 
communications  software. 

But  the  real  message  is  located  outside,  due 
north  of  the  little  green  light. 

That  one  familiar  symbol  tells  you  as  much 
as  a  gigabyte  of  specs.  It  says  Apple  quality  Apple 
technology  And  in  the  unlikely  event  you  should 
need  it,  Apple  service. 

It  also  means  total  compatibility  with  what- 
ever Apple  you  own.  Particularly  since  we  include 
the  right  accessory  kit  to  get  any  system  in  our  line 
on  line.  Immediately 

We  even  give  you  a  subscription  offer  to 
THE  SOURCE'and  a  free  demonstration  of  Compu- 
Serve! Together,  they  let  you  access  almost  any 
subject  known  to  mainframes. 

News  reports.  Dow  Jones  averages. 
Sports  scores.  Closing  prices  on  pork  bellies. 

You  can  send  electronic  mail.  Play  games. 
Bank  at  home.  Make  friends.  Influence  people. 
Find  the  lowest  air  fares  for  business  trips.  Or  do 
almost  anything  else  you  like. 

And  since  the  computer  age  happens  to 
coincide  with  the  plastic  age,  you  can  charge  your 
Apple  Modem  with  an  Apple  Credit  Card. 

Which,  along  with  the  low  price,  makes 
buying  an  Apple  Modem  as  much  fun  as  using  one. 

That's  something  no  modem  has 
been  able  to  say  before, 

Vie  cable,  phone  cord  and 
power  supply  are  all  included.  Ami 
we  offer  a  serial  interface  card  for  tlx 
Apple  lie  at  an  unusually  reasonable  price. 

Soon  there'll  be  just  two  kinds  of  people. 
Those  who  use  computers.  And , 
those  who  use  Apples.' 

For  an  authorized  Apple  dealer  nearest  you  call  (800)  538-9696.  In  Canada,  call  (800)  268-7796  or  (800)  268-7637.  ©  1984  Apple  Computer,  Inc.  Apple  and  the  Apple  logo  are  registered 
trademarks  of  Apple  Computer,  Inc.  CompuServe  is  a  registerd  trademark  of  CompuServe  Corp.  THE  SOURCE  is  a  servicemark  of  Source  Telecomputing  Corporation,  a  subsidiary  ofThe  Reader's  Digest  Association,  Inc. 

of  competition  from  the  Acorn,  a  locally  produced  machine. 
Price,  again,  is  something  of  a  barrier,  preventing  widespread 
use  of  personal  computers  in  education  in  Europe. 

EuroMacs  on  the  Move.  A  plan  similar  to  Apple's  stateside 
University  Consortium  program  with  Macintosh  is  being  con- 
sidered. But  higher  education  in  Europe  is  much  different  than  in 
the  United  States.  Getting  universities  to  agree  to  buy  $2  million 
worth  of  merchandise,  produce  software,  and  then  share  that  soft- 
ware will  be  a  tricky  business.  Apple  is  convinced,  though,  that 
Europeans  can  only  gain  from  such  a  program.  Putting  Macintosh 
technology  into  the  hands  of  eager  students  is  intended  to  en- 
courage a  homegrown  software  industry. 

In  terms  of  add-on  hardware  and  peripherals,  there's  a  grow- 
ing number  of  companies  offering  such  high-end  items  as 
joysticks  and  paddles.  And  a  few  manufacturers  are  bringing  out 
hard  disks.  But  in  hardware,  as  everywhere,  the  practicality  of 
most  Europeans  is  evident.  There  is  no  reason,  for  instance,  for  a 
company  to  introduce  a  new  Z-80  card  when  Microsoft  already 
offers  one.  The  same  logic  applies  to  monitors  and  printers. 

Currently,  only  a  very  small  fraction  of  Europeans  work  out 
of  their  homes  with  personal  computers.  Resistance  to  this  trend 
stems  from  the  same  attitudes  that  can  be  found  in  the  United 
States:  Many  people  just  plain  like  going  somewhere  to  work. 
The  facts  that  most  employers  don't  trust  their  workers  and  that 
most  employees  are  fond  of  interacting  with  their  fellows  are 
keeping  the  so-called  electronic  cottage  from  catching  on  in 
Europe  and  the  United  States. 

On  the  other  hand,  there  are  practical  reasons  why  working  at 
home  may  one  day  be  mandatory  for  some  Europeans.  Cities 
such  as  Paris  and  London  are  so  choked  with  automobile  traffic 
that  the  mechanics  of  moving  people  in  and  out  each  day  is 
becoming  a  major  concern.  And  the  time  people  spend  in 
automobiles,  or  on  buses  and  trains,  is  essentially  wasted. 

People  will  tend  to  work  at  home  when  the  infrastructure 
allows  them  to— when  there  are  less  expensive  communications 
and  a  deliberate  democratization  of  business  practices. 
Employers  have  to  realize  that  it  doesn't  always  matter  where 
people  reside  while  they  work.  What  counts  is  the  result  of  the 
work.  People  can  be  paid  according  to  their  productivity,  not  just 
according  to  attendance. 

The  Videotex  Challenge.  One  potential  threat  to  personal 
computing  in  Europe  is  videotex,  a  system  whereby  graphics  and 
text  are  sent  to  dumb  terminals  in  homes  via  telephone  lines.  Both 
France  and  England  have  burgeoning  videotex  services  and  are 
years  ahead  of  the  United  States  in  this  promising  technology.  In 
France,  for  instance,  videotex  is  replacing  the  need  for  a 
telephone  directory  service.  Using  a  small  terminal  with  a  full 
keyboard  and  screen,  Parisians  can  get  information  faster  and 
more  efficientiy  by  searching  through  directories  than  by  talking 
over  the  phone.  Many  other  information  services  are  available, 
but,  since  the  terminals  only  receive  information,  videotex  is  by 
no  means  comparable  to  personal  computing. 

Still,  videotex  is  continuing  to  evolve.  There  is  the  possibility 
of  two-way  videotex  becoming  affordable  and  practical  sometime 
this  century.  There  is  also  the  possibility  that  manufacturers  could 
include  video  recorders,  television  sets,  stereos,  and  personal 
computers  in  one  big  package.  These  mass  marketing  approaches 
to  personal  computing  are  more  a  challenge  than  a  threat  to  com- 
panies like  Apple.  Videotex  is  roughly  akin  to  a  state-issued  bicy- 
cle, and  a  TV/stereo/pc  is  an  expensive  RV.  Personal  computers 
are  private  cars,  ranging  in  price  and  performance  from  inexpen- 

sive Volkswagens  to  BMWs  and  Mercedeses. 

The  speed  of  penetration  of  new  technology  in  Europe,  ac- 
cording to  some,  is  traditionally  slow  at  first.  Whether  it  be  com- 
puters, stereos,  or  videotape  players,  a  foreign  company  can  ex- 
pect about  10  percent  of  its  sales  to  come  from  Europe  until  the 
technology  matures.  But  once  this  happens,  Europe  may  account 
for  more  than  50  percent  of  sales. 

The  total  GNP  for  Europe  is  roughly  equal  to  that  of  the 
United  States.  And  the  size  of  the  overall  population  of  Europe  is 
probably  a  little  more  than  that  of  the  States.  At  some  point  the 
European  market  is  likely  to  equal  or  even  surpass  the  U.S. 

American  companies  have  to  foster  a  two-way  situation,  a 
more  balanced  trade  with  Europe.  There  are  practical  reasons  for 
this  approach,  but  the  motives  need  not  be  limited  to  increasing 
profits  alone. 

Life  Goes  On.  Last  month  in  a  special  cover  story,  Newsweek 
painted  a  not-so-pretty  picture  of  Europe.  In  most  countries  high 
unemployment  is  a  problem.  European  industries  are  struggling 
because  of  both  the  current  economic  slump  and  increased 
foreign  competition.  Cooperation  between  the  various  countries 
seems  to  be  at  a  low  point;  both  the  EEC  (European  Economic 
Community)  and  NATO  alliances  are  in  trouble. 

Relations  between  the  United  States  and  some  European  coun- 
tries are  strained.  Our  foreign  policy  is  met  with  expressions  of 
approval  or  with  angry  scowls.  Likewise,  American  companies 
that  set  up  shop  on  European  soil  are  sometimes  welcomed  and 
sometimes  given  the  cold  shoulder. 

When  approaching  the  subject  of  personal  computing  in  the 
Old  World,  it's  impossible  to  ignore  the  overall  bad  news  from 
Europe,  but  the  generally  bleak  picture  that's  painted  by  the  mass 
media  is  sometimes  a  less  than  accurate  representation  of  what's 
going  on.  The  media  has  jumped  on  the  "Decline  of  Europe" 
bandwagon,  just  as  it  has  heralded  the  arrival  of  the  personal 
computer  industry  shakeout.  Another  point  of  view  is  that  Europe 
is  just  going  through  one  of  its  periodic  economic  slumps  and  the 
American  computer  industry  is  just  shaking  off  the  slaggards  and 

Okay.  You  ask,  "On  a  personal  level,  what  about  the  one  out 
of  every  ten  Europeans  who  is  out  of  work?  What  about  all  those 
workers  that  Coleco  just  laid  off?"  Without  question  these  are 
tragedies  on  a  personal  level.  But  to  make  the  blanket  statements 
that  IBM,  with  its  multi-billion-dollar  guns,  is  going  to  sink  Ap- 
ple, and  that  America  and  "Japan  Inc."  are  going  to  collectively 
sink  Europe,  is  to  ignore  both  the  lessons  of  history  and  the  reali- 
ty that  surrounds  us. 

Apple's  European  Family  Ties.  In  the  late  seventies,  a  hardy 
group  of  pioneers  took  their  relatively  primitive  Apple  U  and  II 
Plus  computers  and  started  an  industry  that  is  still  growing,  still 
contributing  wonderful  things  to  life  here  in  the  United  States. 
The  Artwicks,  Budges,  Bricklins,  Clardys,  Williamses, 
Carlstons,  Pelczarskis,  Kapors,  Woodheads,  Greenbergs,  and 
Wagners  have  climbed  to  great  heights  and  still  haven't  reached 
the  top  of  the  software  world. 

Can  you  imagine  what  those  pioneers  could  have  accom- 
plished had  they  started  with  Macs,  He's,  He's,  and  Lisas?  Well, 
get  ready.  The  Europeans  are  getting  into  stride,  and  they  have 
the  benefit  of  years  of  Apple's  march  forward  in  hardware  design. 
Expect  to  see  some  great  software  coming  from  over  there  in  the 
next  few  years.  Expect  to  see  software  with  a  touch  of  English 
manners,  French  joie  de  vivre,  and  Italian  spice.  31 

The  Pick  of  the  Crop 

The  Brady  Co.  now  has  on  display 
the  tastiest,  crunchiest,  and  shiniest 
books  for  you  and  your  Apple.  Among 
all  the  Apple  volumes  on  the  market, 
only  Brady  presents  the  Pick  of  the 

To  harvest  the  best,  the  Brady 
Company  begins  early  in  the  season 
by  choosing  with  care,  the  authors 
who  are  the  experts  in  the  personal 
computing  field.  They  are  also  the 
writers  and  teachers  with  the  most 
experience  with  the  Apple. 

They're  then  set  to  work  under  the 
optimum  creative  climate,  so  they 
can  write  the  books  you'll  want  to 
read.  The  Brady  Co.  publishes  their 
work  in  attractive,  durable  volumes, 
giving  you  a  nourishing  product  at  an 
affordable  price.  The  result  is  an 
Apple  book  as  good  on  the  inside  as  it 
looks  on  the  outside,  with  enough 
great  taste  to  stay  with  you  for  a  long, 
long  time. 

"Applesoft  BASIC  for  the 
Apple  II/IIe" 

by  Lois  Graft  Larry  Joel  Goldstein 

This  is  a  practical  guide  to  Apple- 
soft BASIC  which  makes  learning 
easy,  even  for  those  without  pro- 
gramming experience.  Most  of  the 
applications  programs  can  be  easily 
applied  to  specific  personal  and  pro- 
fessional needs. 

1983/320pp/paper/ISBN  0-89303-320-0/ 

"Apple  Graphics:  Activities 

by  Harold  J.  Bailey,  J.  Edward  Kerlin 

Here's  a  "hands  on"  approach  to 
learning  both  low  and  high  resolution 
graphics  for  the  Apple.  Step-by-step, 
users  will  learn  by  doing.  The 
graphics  novice  and  the  more  sophis- 
ticated graphics  user  will  find  just  the 
right  activities  to  maximize  the 
graphics  capabilities  of  the  Apple  II 
and  He. 

1983/300pp/ paper  /  ISBN  0-89303-308-l/$14.95 
Book/Diskette  1983/ISBN  0-89303-310-3/$24.95 

"Programming  the  Apple  II 
and  He;  A  Structured 
Approach,  Revised  and 

by  John  L.  Campbell,  Lance 

This  is  the  guide  that  will  take 
you  down  the  right  path  to  pro- 
gramming your  Apple  in  BASIC.  The 
approach  presents  the  BASIC  lan- 
guage as  a  problem-solving  tool, 
which  gives  you  quick,  easy,  and  use- 
ful results.  It  shows  how  to  more 
effectively  write  programs  starting 
simply  then  proceeding  to  more 
complex  ideas. 

1 984/650pp/paper/ISBN  0-89303-779-6/$  1 7.95 

Make  your  selection  for  your  Apple 
II  or  He  from  the  Pick  of  the  Crop  at 
B.  Dalton  Booksellers,  Waldens, 
Crown  Books,  and  other  fine  book- 
stores and  computer  dealers  nation- 
wide. Or  call,  800-638-0220  for 
information.  The  Brady  Co.  is  a 
Prentice-Hall  Company,  located  in 
Bowie,  MD  20715.  ■  ■ 

f  t~ 


for  the  Apple  II  &  He 





.  Structured  Approach 




MAY  1984 



The  Mercedes  of 
Personal  Computers 


Apples  play  a  role  in  a  variety  of  applications  in  Germany.  In 
southwest  Germany  they're  pressed  and  made  into  apple  wine. 
The  Sachsenhausen  section  of  Frankfurt  is  well  known  for  this 
wine,  as  many  American  tourists  can  attest.  Apples  are  also  an 
essential  ingredient  of  a  fine  pastry  called  Apfelstrudel.  Howev- 
er, there's  another  kind  of  Apple  that  interests  Germans,  and  it's 
made  by  Apple  Computer. 

Approximately  sixty  thousand  Apple  computers  exist  in  Ger- 
many. Of  these,  only  about  5  percent  are  found  in  the  home. 
Also,  Apples  aren't  found  in  schools  here  as  often  as  in  America. 
Instead,  they're  being  used  in  small  businesses  and  by  profes- 
sionals such  as  lawyers  and  doctors. 

Give  Me  a  Home  Where  the  Apfelstrudels  Roam.  Up  until 
last  year,  Apple  computers  were  sold  by  distributors  in  this  coun- 
try. The  first  distributor  was  a  Hamburg-based  company  called 
Basis.  The  firm  started  distributing  Apples  about  two  years  after 
the  Commodore  started  selling  in  Germany.  Then  Basis  decided 
to  build  its  own  computer  that,  amazingly  enough,  happens  to  run 
Apple  software.  Another  company,  Apple  Computer  Marketing, 
then  took  over  the  distribution  of  the  Apple,  with  Basis  still  main- 
taining some  distribution  rights. 

About  a  year  ago,  Apple  Computer  began  consolidating  its 
European  operations  and  bought  out  several  distributors.  This 
brought  European  operations  under  Apple  International,  head- 
quartered in  Paris.  German  distribution  is  now  handled  by  Apple 
Computer  Marketing  GMBH,  with  basic  prices  and  strategies 
fixed  in  Paris. 

Another  reason  for  Apple's  poor  showing  in  the  home  is  cost. 
During  the  early  years,  Apples  cost  more  in  this  country  than  they 
did  in  America.  In  Germany,  it  often  takes  $100,000  collateral  to 
get  a  loan  of  $40,000.  Credit  cards  are  almost  unknown  except  in 
shops  catering  to  tourists.  Home  loans  normally  are  for  ten-year 

periods  and  have  correspondingly  higher  monthly  payments. 
These  higher  loan  payments  reduce  the  amount  of  income  that  can 
be  spent  on  nonessential  goods.  This  means  that  consumers  here 
have  to  save  cash  before  purchasing  a  car,  television,  or  computer. 

A  few  years  ago,  the  money  that  could  be  saved  by  going  to 
the  United  States  on  vacation  and  picking  up  an  Apple  would  pay 
plants  in  Cork,  Ireland,  and  since  Apple  International's  takeover 
of  the  German  market,  Apple  prices  have  been  kept  on  a  par  with 
those  in  America,  making  them  more  affordable  products. 

Culture  Shock.  Americans  can  be  characterized  as  people 
who  will  first  buy  a  computer,  then  ask,  "Okay,  what  can  it  do 
for  me?"  and  then  go  on  to  find  all  sorts  of  uses  for  it.  That  at- 
titude doesn't  exist  in  Germany.  A  German  will  first  ask,  "What 
will  it  do  for  me?"  and  then  someone  will  have  to  convince  him 
before  he  buys.  American  dealers,  used  to  people  dropping  in 
who  already  want  a  computer,  don't  have  to  do  the  same  kind  of 
sales  job  on  people  that  German  dealers  do. 

As  a  result,  the  dealer  network  in  Germany  is  set  up  to  handle 
professional  users,  which  probably  explains  why  about  one  in  ten 
Apples  sold  here  is  an  Apple  III.  A  survey  of  dealers  reveals  that 
many  of  them  are  not  sure  that  there's  a  use  for  a  computer  in  the 
home.  One  German  attitude  is  that  a  computer  is  for  work— and 
who  wants  to  do  work  at  home?  Many  feel  that  having  a  computer 
pens  you  up  inside  the  house  and  somehow  corrupts  you,  making 
you  forget  about  other  aspects  of  life.  They  prefer  using  their 
spare  time  for  gardening,  engaging  in  sports,  visiting  friends,  and 
going  for  walks.  The  country  is  not  as  dependent  on  television  as 
America  is,  and  this  attitude  carries  over  to  computers. 

In  America,  exposure  to  computers  in  the  school  has  brought 
them  into  many  homes.  This  hasn't  occurred  in  Germany.  Until 
recently,  the  branch  of  the  German  government  that  controls 
education  had  held  the  position  that  if  school  funds  were  to  be 
spent  on  computers,  then  Commodore  machines  must  be  pur- 
chased. Most  German  kids  exposed  to  Commodores  have  said  that 
they  are  great  game  machines  but  that  they  would  really  like  to 
have  a  computer  like  the  Apple  in  school.  Students  with  Com- 
modores at  home  because  of  the  cost  say  their  next  computer  will 
be  an  Apple.  The  computers  they  have  used  are  viewed  as  game 
machines,  and  why  spend  a  lot  of  money  to  play  games? 

The  situation  in  the  schools  may  be  changing  soon.  The 
government  is  considering  legislation  to  allow  computers  to  be 
donated  to  schools  for  tax  write-offs  similar  to  the  Apple  Com- 
puter donation  program  in  California.  The  government  may  also 
be  relaxing  the  restrictions  within  which  computers  may  be  pur- 
chased by  a  school. 

This  summer,  a  German-language  version  of  Logo  should  be 
available  for  the  Apple  II.  Apple  is  finally  being  recognized  as 
having  a  machine  with  much  to  offer  higher-grade  German 
schools.  However,  there  still  won't  be  much  happening  in  the 
grade  schools  because  computers  are  not  recognized  as  having 
any  use  there. 

Sports  Model  or  Sedan?  An  emerging  overall  awareness  of 
the  personal  computer  may  be  changing  the  situation  throughout 
the  country.  One  recent  Sunday  afternoon,  a  two-hour  program 
on  the  use  of  computers  in  the  home  gave  a  very  good  European 
viewpoint  on  all  the  different  aspects  of  home  computing.  Apple 
Computer  was  heavily  featured.  Also,  three  times  in  the  last 
month  a  program  called  Kinder  vom  Apple  und  Atari  (Kids  of  the 
Apple  and  Atari)  ran  on  German  television.  In  addition,  major 
magazines  are  now  starting  to  notice  personal  computers  and  run 
articles  on  them. 

Many  people  here  have  been  waiting  for  higher  technology 
and  don't  want  to  risk  buying  an  earlier-generation  computer  that 
may  quickly  become  obsolete.  With  Apple's  introduction  of  the 
Macintosh,  the  company  will  probably  convince  many  that  an  ad- 
vanced technology  has  arrived,  one  that  won't  leave  them  behind. 
Apple  is  considered  the  Mercedes  of  personal  computers  in  Ger- 
many; a  German  consumer  will  save  money  a  long  time  to  buy 
one  because,  as  it  is  in  the  car,  the  quality  is  recognized. 

Probably  the  one  event  that  will  most  affect  home  and  school 
use  of  the  Apple  is  the  introduction  of  the  Etc.  This  new  machine, 
with  its  current  Apple  software  compatibility,  German  key- 
board, low  cost,  and  well-engineered  layout,  is  sure  to  drive 
Apple  directly  into  schools  and  homes.  Sold  through  department 
stores,  the  lie  will  bring  computers  into  the  sight  and  reach  of 
many  families  that  wouldn't  normally  visit  an  authorized  dealer. 
At  the  same  time,  businesses  will  also  be  considering  the  other 
Apple  machines— Mac  and  Lisa— for  those  applications  where 
Apples  were  not  even  thought  of  before. 

There's  No  Mischas  like  Soft  Mischas.  Apples  in  Germany 
are  now  used  mostly  in  professional  situations.  Most  programs 
running  on  the  machines  are  written  in  Pascal,  originally  defined 
in  Switzerland  and  very  quickly  accepted  in  European  univer- 
sities. Most  students  studying  programming  learn  it,  and  most 
software  houses  write  exclusively  in  the  language. 

Several  powerful  accounting  packages  for  the  II  have  been 
available  here  for  the  last  three  years.  Versions  have  also  been 
transferred  to  the  HI  to  take  advantage  of  the  extra  memory  and 
capabilities  of  that  machine.  Two  powerful  relational  databases, 
called  Aladdin  and  Beta,  are  also  available  for  the  two  computers, 
bringing  them  mainframe  and  mini  power.  In  addition,  a  Lisa- 
like database  interface  called  Fred  has  been  developed  for  the  HI 
that  uses  a  joystick,  and  a  mouse  version  will  soon  follow.  All 
three  packages  will  soon  be  available  stateside,  and  the  com- 
panies that  have  developed  them— Adi  and  Bensa— will  be  work- 
ing on  Mac  and  Lisa  versions. 

Many  American  software  companies  such  as  Microsoft, 
MicroPro,  and  VisiCorp  are  beginning  to  bring  their  software  to 
Europe  as  German  products— all  three  now  have  German  offices 
or  distributors.  All  of  Quark's  products  are  being  translated  into 
German  and  distributed  in  Germany,  Switzerland,  and  Austria. 

Translating  software  into  a  foreign  language  is  a  long  and  dif- 
ficult job.  Many  manuals  written  for  U.S.  programs  can't  be 
directly  translated  and  often  require  complete  rewrites,  especially 
of  tutorials  and  examples.  German  is  more  difficult  than  English 
in  that  many  of  the  technical  terms  require  longer  words  (com- 
pound nouns)  than  in  English.  Sentence  structure  is  also  different 
with  regard  to  the  location  of  verbs  in  German.  Often  there's  no 
standard  technical  term  that  makes  sense  in  precisely  the  way  it 
does  in  English.  Consequently,  programs  require  more  coding 
area  and  can  overflow  memory. 

A  program  such  as  VisiCalc,  which  uses  a  command  structure 
based  on  spoken  English,  is  a  good  example  of  another  problem. 
A  P  for  print  means  little  to  a  German-speaking  person,  since  the 
counterpart  word  in  German  doesn't  start  with  the  same 
character.  In  German,  D  for  drucken  would  be  a  better  print  com- 
mand. Some  programs  intertwine  commands  into  the  program- 
ming code  so  well  that  it's  difficult  to  find  and  change  them  easily 
in  a  translation  job. 

Better  than  Esperanto.  Apple  now  makes  its  machines  in- 
ternationally compatible.  Starting  with  the  HI,  all  Apple  products 
come  with  keyboards,  character  sets,  and  power  supplies  for  the 

The  meandering  Main  River  is  a  tributary  of  the  Rhine,  which  rises  in 
Switzerland  and  flows  west  across  Germany  and  the  Netherlands  to  the 
North  Sea.  The  famous  river  is  navigable  by  smaller  vessels  as  far  as 

country  in  which  they're  sold.  Lisa  and  Macintosh  software 
development  kits  contain  tools  that  help  developers  convert  to 
foreign  languages,  and  Apple  publishes  guidelines  on  how  to 
write  programs  that  can  be  easily  translated. 

It  took  special  planning  by  Apple  International  to  ensure  that 
the  Mac  would  be  50/60  Hz-compatible.  As  a  result  of  these 
efforts,  Apple  can  now  announce  a  machine  around  the  world  on 
the  same  day,  something  few  other  companies  can  do. 

Quite  a  few  German  business  clients  are  "computer-shy,"  the 
way  most  Americans  were  a  few  years  ago.  They  fear  they'll  hurt 
something  when  they  get  an  error  message  and  immediately 
freeze  up.  A  lot  less  familiar  with  their  systems  than  their 
American  counterparts,  they  call  their  dealers  for  help. 

Many  Apple  dealers  in  Germany  are  also  software  develop- 
ers, functioning  more  in  the  role  of  consultants  than  U.S.  dealers. 
In  many  cases  they  design  a  system  to  meet  a  customer's  needs, 

The  Bavarian  Alps  overlook  Apple's  central  Europe  sales  and  marketing 
offices  in  Munich.  Extensively  bombed  during  World  War  II,  the  city  was 
the  birthplace  of  Adolf  Hitler's  National  Socialist  German  Workers  Party. 



MAY  1984 

Life  seems  barely  changed— except  for  computers— on  a  small  rural  farm 
in  Germany.  One-third  of  West  Germany  is  devoted  to  agriculture. 

install  it,  and  continue  to  give  plenty  of  postsale  support.  Since 
they  are  dealing  with  professional  buyers,  they  charge  extra  for 
this  kind  of  support. 

Apple  Computer  held  its  first  developers  conference  in  Ger- 
many last  October,  the  first  exposure  many  software  houses  had 
to  Apple's  third-party  software  development  efforts.  Attendees 
were  surprised  at  how  much  Apple  can  give  in  the  way  of 
preliminary  software  programming  tools  and  marketing  help.  An- 
other conference  is  scheduled  this  month. 

A  lot  of  software  being  developed  and  used  in  this  country  is 
what's  known  as  vertical  market  software— specialized  packages 
for  a  specific  use.  Many  software  houses  develop  programs  for  a 
small  market  segment  and  then  make  their  living  customizing  it 
for  each  buyer. 

Among  the  more  interesting  German  vertical  market  pro- 
grams are  Baeckeri  (with  three  companies  using  the  same  name) 
and  Back.  These  programs  do  bakery  management,  everything 
from  entering  orders  as  they  are  taken  over  the  telephone  and 
handling  billing,  to  determining  baking  schedules  and  planning 
delivery  routes.  Kabel  is  for  electric  wiring  installation  and  does 
cost  estimating,  calculation  of  parts,  inventory  control,  and  con- 
tract writing.  Fasu  is  a  driving  school  management  package  (in 
Germany,  everyone  must  attend  driving  school  to  get  a  driver's 
license).  Mika,  Mischa,  and  Mipreis  are  for  the  production  of 
windows  (for  homes  and  offices,  not  for  Lisas).  Jewela  is  de- 
signed for  jewelers,  who  use  it  to  keep  track  of  their  inventory. 

The  Auge  of  Members  Is  upon  You.  There's  one  large  Ap- 
ple users  group— A.U.G.E.  (Apple  User's  Group  Europe)— that 
has  most  of  its  members  in  Germany.  Currently,  members 
number  about  four  thousand,  80  percent  of  whom  are 
home/hobby-oriented.  About  half  of  them  own  Apples,  while  the 
other  half  own  compatibles  of  one  type  or  another.  Some 
members  have  even  built  their  own  Apples.  A.U.G.E.  {Auge 
means  eye  in  German)  consists  of  forty-five  different  groups 
throughout  the  continent;  other  local  chapters  exist  in 
Switzerland,  Luxembourg,  Norway,  Yugoslavia,  and  Hungary. 

The  president  of  A.U.G.E.,  Klaus  Schmidt,  believes  that  the 
Macintosh  is  reawakening  interest  in  Apple  computers  and  may 

bring  members  back  from  the  various  compatibles  they've  pur- 
chased. So  far,  the  group  has  released  about  thirty  public-domain 
disks  of  various  programs.  Their  address  is  Postfach  110169, 
4200  Oberhausen  11,  West  Germany. 

A  WordStar  Topping  Every  Tree.  Once  users  have  pur- 
chased programs  in  Germany,  it's  very  unlikely  that  anyone  is 
going  to  come  after  them  for  violating  a  copy  protection  regula- 
tion if  they  give  copies  to  all  their  friends.  That's  not  viewed  as 
being  in  violation  of  any  copyright  laws,  unless  the  disk  is  actual- 
ly sold. 

Among  developers,  there's  a  reluctance  to  develop  any  pro- 
grams such  as  games  or  educational  software  for  the  masses. 
Most  feel  that  they  won't  have  large  enough  sales  to  warrant 
bringing  such  software  to  the  market.  Most  home/hobby  users 
with  Apples  also  have  CP/M  cards,  or  something  similar,  and 
possess  copies  of  WordStar  and  dBase  II,  given  to  them  by 
friends.  Thus,  it's  little  wonder  that  copy  protection  is  on 
developers'  minds  when  they  bring  out  new  packages  in  this 
country.  If  anything,  widespread  copying  is  one  of  the  most  in- 
hibiting factors  to  wider  software  development  in  Germany. 

As  part  of  a  Christmas  promotion,  Apple  included  a  game 
with  each  He  sold.  This  game  was  a  well-written  adventure— said 
to  be  the  first  written  in  German— that  takes  several  weeks  to 
complete.  However,  several  recipients  of  the  bonus  game  were 
surprised  when  its  authors  offered  it  to  a  dealer  for  commercial 
distribution.  They  felt  that  a  game  should  be  free! 

The  Armed  Forces  March  on  Their  Software.  There  are 
about  six  hundred  thousand  Americans  associated  with  the  U.S. 
armed  forces  stationed  in  Germany.  A  couple  of  years  ago,  when 
Apple  in  Cupertino  discontinued  all  mail  order  sales  to  the  coun- 
try, these  Americans  were  abandoned.  If  they  went  to  German 
computer  dealers,  there  were  often  language  problems,  and  the 
dealers  couldn't  help  them  much  in  terms  of  software.  And  if  they 
had  friends  purchase  computers  for  them  stateside  and  ship  them, 
they  were  without  warranty  service.  The  problem  of  adapting  to 
European  voltages  also  has  to  be  considered. 

This  situation  has  started  to  change,  with  four  military  ex- 
change computer  stores  now  carrying  Apple  products.  There  are 
computer  clubs  forming  at  large  bases,  and  there  are  several 
original  equipment  manufacturers  selling  to  Americans.  Also, 
many  German  dealers  are  beginning  to  recognize  that  Americans 
are  very  good  customers  and  are  giving  them  better  support. 

Buying  a  machine  in  Germany  has  several  advantages.  All 
Apple  products  purchased  here  have  a  one-year  warranty  while 
they  remain  in  the  country,  with  easy  conversion  from  1 10-volt  to 
220- volt  use.  German  He's  also  have  a  keyboard  with  both  Ger- 
man and  English  keycaps.  A  flick  of  a  switch  brings  up  the  de- 
sired keyboard  and  font— an  advantage  for  children  who  are 
learning  German. 

Apples  Are  Looking  More  Delicious.  Apple  Computer  is 
starting  to  take  off  in  Germany.  The  company  currently  has 
seventy-five  busy  employees  there — almost  double  the  number  it 
had  a  year  ago.  This  April,  Apple  moved  to  new  offices  in 
Munich,  a  sure  sign  of  growth.  At  the  Hanover  Fair,  the  world's 
largest  trade  fair  (with  everything  from  trains  to  micros),  Apple 
had  its  largest  booth  ever,  including  thirty-five  debuting  Macin- 
toshes for  use  by  fair  attendees. 

Perhaps  one  of  the  happiest  things  to  occur  in  Germany  this 
year  is  the  country's  first  Applefest,  which  will  take  place  in  Mu- 
nich this  summer.  Who  knows— maybe  in  a  few  years  the  Ap- 
plefest will  match  the  Oktoberfest  in  popularity.  31 

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resources  for  coping  with  hunger  and  poverty.  The  immense  task 
can  be  tackled  once  the  necessary  collective  will  is  mobilized. 
What  is  necessary  can  be  done,  and  must  be  done. 

—North-South:  A  Program  For  Survival, 

The  Brandt  Commission,  1980 

On  the  first  day  of  1984,  the  government  of  Tunisia  made  a 
mistake.  It  removed  the  agricultural  subsidy  that  had  kept  a 
small  loaf  of  bread  priced  at  about  seven  cents  for  the  last  twenty 
years.  This  error  increased  the  price  of  grain  products  100  per- 
cent overnight. 

A  wave  of  demonstrations,  beginning  among  the  poorest  peo- 
ple in  the  arid  southern  rural  provinces,  swept  northward  through 
the  unemployed  and  underemployed — a  fourth  of  the  country's 
population— and  rocked  the  capital  city  of  Tunis.  President  Habib 
Bourguiba  proclaimed  a  state  of  national  emergency;  tanks 
rumbled  through  the  streets;  soldiers  and  police  killed  some 
forty-five  rioters  in  Tunis  and  sixty  more  in  the  provinces. 
Finally,  six  days  later,  Bourguiba  announced  that  prices  would  be 
returned  to  their  previous  levels  immediately,  and,  just  as  im- 
mediately, calm  was  restored. 

The  price  hike  turned  out  to  be  a  bad  idea.  But  no  bad  idea  is 
that  simple,  according  to  Charles  K.  Mann,  associate  director  of 
agriculture  and  social  sciences  for  the  Rockefeller  Foundation. 
"When  the  proposal  to  drop  the  subsidy  completely  was  pre- 
sented to  the  minister  of  national  economy,  he  asked  his  staff, 
'What  would  be  the  financial  impact  of  reducing  the  subsidy  by 
about  20  percent  instead  of  dropping  it  altogether?'  "  says  Mann. 

"They  advised  him  that  it  would  take  several  days  to  do  these 
calculations.  As  a  decision  was  required  immediately  on  the 
budget,  they  went  forward  with  the  alternative  that  had  been 
costed  out— that  of  dropping  the  bread  subsidy  entirely.  Had  they 
had  a  VisiCalc  model,  they  could  have  calculated  in  a  matter  of 
minutes  the  effect  of  a  20  percent  reduction  in  the  subsidy." 

Had  computers  been  involved  in  the  economic  ministry's  de- 
cision to  cut  off  the  bread  subsidy,  a  less  drastic  change  in  the 
bread  price  might  have  resulted  and  the  food  riots  might  have 
been  averted. 

"That  is  the  kind  of  analytical  capacity  the  policymakers  [in 
Tunisia]  want,"  says  Mann,  "and  it  is  what  computers  have 
helped  them  get  in  the  Ministry  of  Agriculture." 

Those  computers  are  Apples,  and  how  they  got  there  is  an  ad- 
venture in  foreign  affairs.  What  the  Tunisians  had  to  say  about 
them  was  "Fantastic!" 

This  year,  famine  is  looming  over  Africa  again.  The  African 
problem  of  chronic  hunger  is  deeply  rooted,  going  back  to  the 
policies  of  the  nineteenth-century  colonial  governments  and  their 
emphasis  on  industry  and  urban  development  at  the  expense  of 
agriculture  and  basic  food  production.  Ironically,  the  tool  that  is 
the  most  salient  symbol  of  postindustrial  high  technology  has  now 
come  to  the  aid  of  the  developing  nations  in  the  fight  against 
hunger— and  they  will  need  all  the  help  they  can  get. 

From  a  Single  Seed.  In  Tunisia,  as  in  many  developing  na- 
tions, much  depends  on  the  current  disposition  of  the  grain  crop. 
Since  it  dominates  the  diet  of  the  people  and  is  the  main  source  of 
calories  and  nutrients,  any  fluctuation  in  the  price  or  availability 
of  bread  is  a  serious  matter.  Africa  is  the  only  area  of  the  world 
where  food  production  has  actually  declined  in  the  last  ten  years, 
despite  increased  aid  and  concern— and  in  tandem  with  a  steadily 
increasing  population. 

That's  why,  when  the  Rockefeller  Foundation  organized  a  re- 
view of  cereal  production  and  policy  in  1980,  the  foundation  took 
an  interest  in  Tunisia's  agricultural  fortunes,  seriously  flagging 
since  the  late  seventies. 

Charles  Mann  was  part  of  the  team  that  put  Apples  in  Tuni- 
sia's Ministry  of  Agriculture.  He  has  considerable  experience 
with  the  governments  of  developing  nations,  the  problem  of 
wheat,  and  Apple  computers. 

"There  is,"  says  Mann,  "broad  recognition  that  many  of  the 
Third  World's  hunger  problems  don't  stem  from  a  lack  of  tech- 
nology to  produce  more  food,  but  from  poor  management— pub- 
lic and  private— and  government  policies  that  discourage  food 
production.  The  foundation  is  working  with  several  Third  World 
nations  to  help  them  overcome  these  barriers  to  higher  food  pro- 
duction and  consumption." 

When  the  foundation  launched  its  food  and  agricultural  policy 
project,  the  expertise  of  Chris  Mock  made  her  the  woman  for  the 
job.  She  had  done  extensive  research  on  grain  distribution,  knew 
the  structure  of  the  Tunisian  Ministry  of  Agriculture,  and  was 
trained  in  economic  development  and  management.  Mock  first 
worked  in  Tunisia  in  1974  as  a  consultant  for  the  U.S.  Agency  for 
International  Development  (AID)  and  the  World  Bank.  She  came 
to  the  agricultural  sciences  division  of  the  Rockefeller  Foundation 
in  1978,  and,  at  her  suggestion,  Tunisia  was  included  in  the 
cereal  review  project. 

Mock  arrived  in  Tunis  in  June  1980  for  a  series  of  study  plan- 
ning sessions  with  Badr  Ben  Amar,  head  of  planning  for  cereals 
and  economic  analysis  for  the  Ministry,  and  various  members  of 
the  Tunisian  Commission  Centrale  and  the  National  Institute  of 
Agronomy  (INAT).  Quite  apart  from  the  cereal  project,  her  pri- 
mary observation  was  that  the  Tunisian  analysts  were  spending 
too  much  time  doing  routine  spreadsheet  analysis  and  projections. 
Also,  they  had  no  rapid  information  feedback  system  that  could 
let  them  know  if  they  were  meeting  their  objectives  in  the  crucial 
areas  of  fertilizer  and  herbicide  deliveries. 

MAY  1984 



Mock  reported  to  Charles  Mann  on  the  frustration  and  drudg- 
ery that  plagued  workers  in  the  Ministry  of  Agriculture  and  in  the 
county  extension  offices  where  they  were  doing  the  work  of  a 
computer  with  pencil  and  paper.  At  her  urging,  project  funds 
were  directed  toward  the  purchase  of  a  dozen  programmable  cal- 
culators for  the  Ministry's  Office  of  Planning,  and  two  desk  cal- 
culators for  every  county  office  in  Tunisia. 

"Although  work  at  the  lower  levels  was  speeded  up  substan- 
tially," says  Mann,  "at  the  higher  levels  the  appetite  for  a  mi- 
crocomputer system  was  whetted  rather  than  satisfied  by  the 

The  need  was  clear,  and  Mann  could  relate.  In  his  case,  he 
had  been  converted  to  the  joys  of  micros  by  experiencing  the 
trials  of  mainframe  computer  time-sharing  in  Turkey  in  1976, 
when  political  upheaval  blocked  the  access  of  his  field  study 
group  to  the  Middle  East  University's  IBM  370.  The  computer 
center's  staff  was  suddenly  replaced  with  personnel  more 
politically  acceptable  to  the  new  regime  but  somewhat  lacking  in 
knowledge  of  computers.  It  was  two  years  before  the  study's  data 
could  be  input  to  the  computer. 

Mann's  work  with  the  data  involved  "counting  manually  on 
our  dining  room  table  the  responses  to  several  of  the  questions  on 
the  survey  forms.  While  this  is  one  way  to  get  a  good  feel  for  in- 
dividual farmer  responses,  it  creates  a  certain  predisposition  to 
view  warmly  the  advent  of  the  microcomputer." 

While  investigating  the  project's  request  for  a  microcom- 
puter, Mann  discovered  that  the  USDA  was  operating  two  North- 
star  Horizon  micros  in  the  Office  of  Statistics,  one  floor  below  the 
planning  office  in  the  Ministry.  However,  they  were  dedicated 
solely  to  the  processing  of  their  survey  data  and  had  no  spare 
capacity  for  other  projects.  Even  if  there  had  been  a  possibility  of 
time-sharing,  Mann  points  out,  it  would  have  been  something  of  a 
moot  point. 

"In  the  early  months  of  this  installation,  apparently  the  Tuni- 
sians had  considerable  difficulty  in  getting  the  Northstars  to  run 
properly.  It  was  an  imposing-looking  installation,"  he  explains. 
"I  don't  believe  it  ever  crossed  Ben  Amar's  mind  that  he  could 
actually  sit  down  at  this  computer  and  run  programs— if  you 
needed  something  done  and  it  involved  a  computer,  you  took  it  to 
some  programmer  and  he  did  it.  This  clearly  was  handled  as  a 
computer  center-type  installation  where  the  only  persons  allowed 
to  approach  the  machine  were  those  trained  in  its  use. 

"On  one  visit,  we  could  not  even  locate  anyone  who  could 
physically  unlock  the  door  even  to  let  us  look  at  the  machines." 

Nevertheless,  there  were  Northstar  microcomputers  already 
in  Tunisia.  Should  the  Office  of  Planning  have  its  own?  Mann 
consulted  with  a  colleague  who  used  two  of  them  in  business. 

"After  telling  me  what  absolutely  marvelous  machines  they 
were,  he  concluded  by  saying  that  if  he  were  in  my  position,  and 
despite  the  Northstar 's  technical  superiority,  he  would  recom- 
mend Apples.  In  his  words,  'They  are  ubiquitous;  they  are  ap- 
proachable; they  have  a  reputation  for  excellent  reliability,  and 
there  is  a  far  larger  software  universe  available  for  them.'  " 

In  September  1981  a  reluctant  Rockefeller  Foundation— 
which  wanted  hard  numbers  on  the  computers'  uses  and  expected 
results— agreed  to  ship  the  Tunisians  two  complete  Apple  sys- 
tems. The  cereal  review  project  was  scheduled  to  end  in  Decem- 
ber, so  Mann  planned  a  package  that  he  hoped  would  offer  the 
best  possible  chance  for  success  in  the  meager  period  of  time 
available.  He  placed  the  greatest  emphasis  in  four  areas. 

"First,  that  we  build  into  the  system  a  great  deal  of  redun- 

dancy so  that  the  failure  of  any  one  component  would  not  put  the 
whole  system  down;  second,  that  the  software  be  well  proven  and 
include  a  variety  of  packages  to  handle  common  office  and  ana- 
lytical tasks;  third,  that  there  be  an  excellent  training  component; 
and  fourth,  that  the  senior  managers  as  well  as  the  technicians 
have  hands-on  experience  with  the  system  so  that  they  would 
understand  the  variety  of  tasks  that  it  could  do." 

Everything  was  set.  System  specialists  John  and  Barbara 
McMullen  agreed  to  design,  assemble,  and  test  an  appropriate 
hardware/ software  configuration,  and  to  make  periodic  trips  to 
Tunisia  to  help  in  getting  various  applications  up  and  running  and 
to  bring  in  any  needed  replacement  parts— the  nearest  Apple  serv- 
ice facilities  then  were  in  Egypt  and  Europe. 

At  the  last  moment,  the  foundation  turned  down  the  request 
for  funding  for  the  training  portion  of  the  program. 

Immediately,  Mann  turned  to  independent  video  producer 
Martha  Stuart  and  offered  to  pay  out  of  his  own  pocket  to  put  to- 
gether some  instructional  videotapes  that  would  at  least  provide 
some  kind  of  training  for  new  microcomputer  users.  She  agreed. 
The  five  videotapes,  now  known  commercially  as  the  Powershar- 
ing  series,  featured  the  McMullens  chatting  informally  with 
Mann  and  others  on  the  uses  of  the  Apple  U  and  were  included 
with  the  system— two  Apple  II  Plus  computers  and  a  selection  of 
commercial  software— when  it  finally  arrived  in  Tunis  at  the 
Ministry  of  Agriculture's  Office  of  Planning  in  February  1982. 

The  cereal  policy  and  production  review  had  been  over  for 

George  Varughese  (yellow  hat),  CIMMYT  plant  scientist,  points  out  signs  of 
soil  nutrient  deficiency  in  young  wheat  plants  to  Chris  Mock  and  Tunisian 
planner  Badr  Ben  Amar. 


MAY  1984 

two  months.  There  would  be  no  more  funds  from  the  foundation. 
Between  themselves,  Chris  Mock  and  Charles  Mann  agreed  to 
continue  without  pay  to  help  the  Tunisians  get  their  Apples  up 
and  running  and  learn  how  to  use  the  dozen  or  so  programs  sent 
with  them. 

How  To  Grow  a  User  Group.  Meanwhile,  Chris  Mock  had 
made  a  discovery:  There  was  an  Apple  installation  in  Kasserine, 
in  central  Tunisia,  four  hours  from  the  Ministry  by  car.  A  rural 
development  project  was  using  the  Apple  to  assist  in  a  baseline 
survey,  doing  complex  statistical  analysis  tasks  involving  a  large 
number  of  variables.  Two  Cornell  sociologists  had  invested  about 
two  thousand  hours  in  creating  the  software  and  setting  up 
technical  training.  The  end  results,  however,  resembled  those  of 
the  Northstar  installation  in  Tunis. 

'  'The  reports  of  others  suggest  that  the  project  functioned  ef- 
fectively during  the  times  when  the  expatriate  consultants  were 
there,"  Mann  recalls,  "but  that  not  much  happened  when  they 
were  gone.  To  the  extent  that  the  equipment  was  used,  it  was  used 
for  such  things  as  managing  the  payroll  rather  than  the  intended 
analytical  purpose." 

The  Rockefeller  project  did  not  have  the  time  or  the  money  for 
software  development  or  system  training,  but  that  may  have 
helped  them  avoid  the  fate  of  the  other  Tunisian  computer 
installations.  Just  as  the  tightness  of  funds  had  proved  the  inspira- 
tion behind  the  Powersharing  tapes,  it  now  caused  a  minirestag- 
ing  in  North  Africa  of  the  original  American  Apple  phenome- 
non— the  first  users  of  the  machines  finding  out  about  each  other 
and  spreading  the  word. 

Mock  arranged  a  field  trip  to  Kasserine  for  the  analysts  in  the 
Office  of  Planning.  "One  of  the  ideas,"  says  Mock,  "was  to  set 
up  a  sort  of  informal  user  group,  at  least  so  they  could  help  each 
other  with  repairs  or  lend  each  other  equipment.  You  can't  buy 
equipment  in-country;  whatever  you  budgeted  for  to  begin  with, 
that's  what  you  were  stuck  with.  And  we  had  a  very  small  budget. 

"We  had  the  technician  in  charge  of  the  Kasserine  machine 
show  us  all  that  he  knew.  We  spent  a  couple  of  days  down  there; 
a  really  inexpensive  way  of  getting  hands-on  experience.  Once 
they  saw  how  to  operate  it  physically,  they  were  able  to  figure  out 
most  of  the  rest.  Some  of  them  didn't  speak  English  and  there 
were  no  materials  in  French  at  the  time,  but  they  were  still  able  to 
figure  it  out.  It  was  like  a  game;  it  really  did  seduce  them  into  sit- 
ting down  and  doing  a  higher  grade  of  work.  There  was  this  in- 
credible, active,  energetic  interest  in  this— almost  to  the  point  of 
competition— that  I'd  never  seen  before." 

"Their  original  ambitions  were  quite  limited,"  recalls  Mann. 
"They  foresaw  principally  converting  existing  pencil  and  paper 
spreadsheet  work  to  mechanized  processes.  In  fact,  what  has  hap- 
pened is  that  the  computer  has  stretched  their  analytical  ambitions. 

"For  example,  as  Ben  Amar  began  to  work  with  VisiCalc,  it 
occurred  to  him  that  he  could  use  the  row  and  column  framework 
to  list  all  the  [Sixth  Five- Year]  Plan's  nonqualified  objectives. 
He  has  a  column  for  each  year  within  the  period,  in  which  he  can 
briefly  summarize  progress  toward  the  objective  of  each  row.  On 
this  one  sheet,  he  said,  T  can  see  what  is  happening  with  the 
whole  Plan.  It's  fantastic;  with  the  computer  you  can  do  anything 
.  .  .  anything^" 

Chris  Mock's  work  was  inspired  partly  by  the  activities  of  in- 
ternational groups  like  CIMMYT,  the  international  wheat  and 
corn  agricultural  research  group  in  Mexico,  which  has  developed 
its  own  software  for  various  analytical  purposes. 

'  'That  was  one  of  the  reasons  we  thought  it  would  be  good  to 

have  the  Apples  in  the  Ministry,"  says  Mock.  "They  could  share 
by  mail  with  the  other  organizations,  sort  of  like  an  international 
user  group.  If  they  could  see  that  people  who  were  in  the  same 
professional  area  were  using  the  machines  for  certain  purposes, 
they  would  do  likewise.  And  they  would  have  access  to  a  base  of 
custom  software." 

The  office  workers,  whose  educational  levels  ranged  from 
high  school  to  master's  degrees,  also  quickly  grasped  the  fact  that 
microcomputer  literacy  was  a  means  of  career  advancement  and  a 
fast  ticket  out  of  the  traditionally  structured  Tunisian  social 
system,  wherein  one's  career  mobility  is  generally  restricted  to 
the  highest  educational  degree  one  is  able  to  achieve. 

Harvest  Time.  Charles  Mann  returned  to  Tunisia  last  Febru- 
ary, some  two  years  after  the  Ministry  of  Agriculture  got  its  com- 
puters, and  was  impressed  all  over  again  at  what  two  little  Apples 
could  do.  They  had  expanded  to  ten,  and  the  entire  professional 
staff  at  the  Ministry  planning  office  is  now  able  to  use  them. 
Everyone  was  producing  better  work,  and  more  of  it. 

"Both  morale  and  analytical  self-confidence  are  extremely 
high,"  he  reports.  "They  now  routinely  undertake  analytical 
tasks  they  never  would  have  attempted  two  years  ago.  In  par- 
ticular, the  computers  have  facilitated  their  forward  planning  by 
allowing  them  to  project  food  consumption  and  supply  estimates 
through  the  year  2000.  Having  this  model  in  a  VisiCalc  frame- 
work has  allowed  them  to  engage  in  a  dialogue  with  the  minister 
on  the  implications  of  changing  various  policies  affecting  the  pro- 
jections. In  particular,  the  extreme  grain  production  shortfall  pro- 
jected by  the  year  2000  has  created  a  new  sense  of  urgency  to  im- 
prove the  production  system. 

"Directly  and  indirectly,  the  computers  have  improved 
significantly  the  analytical  capacity  of  the  Office  of  Planning  in 
ways  that  should  help  Tunisia  produce  more  food,  the  project's 
ultimate  objective." 

The  Never-Ending  Story.  As  Socrates  commented  two  thou- 
sand years  ago,  "Nobody  is  qualified  to  become  a  statesman  who 
is  entirely  ignorant  of  the  problem  of  wheat." 

The  problem  that  the  Apples  in  Tunisia  are  working  on  is  per- 
haps the  basic  problem  we  have— the  one  that  must  be  solved  first 
if  we  are  to  go  on  to  deal  effectively  with  any  other.  There  is 
no  greater  economic  burden,  no  deadlier  destroyer  of  families 
and  cultures,  and  no  more  effective  destabilizer  of  governments 
than  hunger. 

The  problem  does  not  respond  to  emergency  measures  but  to 
those  that  address  the  problem  at  its  root.  Organizations  like  AID 
and  the  World  Bank  are  pressing  African  nations  to  effect  the 
policy  changes  and  land  reform  necessary  to  turn  their  declining 
food  production  around.  To  its  credit,  as  the  primary  economic 
power  in  the  world,  the  United  States  has  now  mounted  a  five- 
year  "economic  policy  initiative"  for  Africa,  but  the  administra- 
tion is  also  contemplating  budget  cuts  for  the  International  Fund 
for  Agricultural  Development,  UNICEF,  and  the  International 
Development  Association,  traditional  support  organizations  for 
the  poorest  farmers  and  rural  families. 

The  official  response  is  never  enough.  It's  the  dedication  and 
resourcefulness  of  individuals  that  have  always  been  the  essential 
ingredients,  the  things  that  have  made  the  difference.  When  the 
microcomputer  came  to  be,  it  brought  its  gift  of  power  to  us  like 
Prometheus  bringing  the  secret  of  fire.  It  is  through  the  work  of 
such  people  as  Charles  Mann,  Chris  Mock,  and  Badr  Ben  Amar, 
in  the  service  of  such  a  cause,  that  the  best  and  most  human  prom- 
ise of  that  power  is  now  being  realized.  31 




(1  winner) 

An  exciting  two  week  adventure  for 
two  to  a  wild  game  preserve  in  Kenya, 
Africa.  The  trip  includes  airfare, 
luxurious  accommodations,  meals, 
tips,  and  taxes. 


V)  (25  winners) 
A  Bell  &  Howell 

35mm  camera.  The  35J 
complete  with  fine  Lumina  lens  completely  elim- 
inates complicated  focusing. 


(100  winners) 

Nylon  Duffle  Bag.  This  handsome  bag 
is  water  repellent  and  double  reinforced  at  all 
stress  points. 

And  thousands  of  Elephant  Safari  camou- 
flage T-shirts  featuring  the  Elephant  logo. 


(5  winners) 

A  Deluxe  Camping  Pack 
age  featuring  an  8'  x  10' 
Wenzel  Cabin  Tent,  four 
Wenzel  sleeping  bags, 
plus  a  Coleman  lantern, 
stove  and  cooler. 


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MAY  1984 




A  Nation  of  Programmers 


The  story  goes  that  the  original  edible  Mcintosh  apple  was 
discovered  in  a  lonely  corner  of  a  southern  Ontario  farm.  The 
gnarled  little  tree  didn't  look  like  much,  but  the  fruit  was  bred  to 
be  a  perfect  eating  blend  of  sweet  and  tart.  The  tough  Mcintosh 
red  loves  the  bracing  northern  climate  and  today  flourishes  coast 
to  coast  in  Canadian  orchards. 

The  executives  at  Apple  Canada  would  like  the  Mcintosh 
story  to  become  more  than  symbolic,  and  their  dream  may  be 
realized  if  current  trends  continue.  Consider  the  following:  Since 
opening  in  1980,  Apple  Canada  hasn't  had  a  year  with  a  growth 
rate  under  80  percent.  Last  year,  the  company's  sales  to  Ontario 
school  boards  doubled. 

Apple  has  always  been  strongest  in  the  western  provinces.  In 
the  Rocky  Mountain  province  of  Alberta  it  sets  the  microcom- 
puter standard  for  the  entire  school  system.  Last  year,  Apple 
Canada  exceeded  both  its  parent  company's  sales  rate  and  the 
overall  market  rate. 

The  local  branch  may  have  the  edge  in  percentages,  but  the 
Canadian  cultural  and  economic  climate  poses  some  problems  for 
establishing  a  healthy  computer  manufacturing  industry  here. 

Canada  is  still  a  frontier  in  several  senses.  Socially  and  geo- 
graphically, large  tracts  of  Canadian  territory  remain  undevel- 
oped. Furthermore,  Canadian  industry  is  not  quite  ready  for 
robotics,  and  offices  are  still  visibly  shaken  by  the  introduction  of 
white-collar  automation.  However,  Canadians  are  forever  chal- 
lenged by  their  pioneer  situation,  and  the  challenge  has  produced 
much  excellence,  notably  in  the  realm  of  high  technology. 

Canadians  are  known  to  be  technically  sophisticated  people. 
Influenced  by,  yet  recognizably  distinct  from,  their  neighbor 
Americans,  Canadians  sometimes  seem  obsessed  with  self- 
criticism.  They  relish  debugging  everything  from  the  country's 
constitution  to  the  National  Hockey  League.  Obviously  then, 
Canada  is  a  potential  "nation  of  programmers"  and  software  ap- 
plications specialists.  And  the  Apple  has  taken  root  and  bloomed 
here,  in  applications  ranging  from  medical  research  to  farming  in 
the  vast  Canadian  countryside. 

Apple  Computer's  involvement  in  Canada  has  managed  to 
change  the  country  in  one  small  way.  Canadians  have  come  to 
hate  the  second-fiddle  industry  image  they've  earned.  The  coun- 
try's semifree,  semiprotected  market  history  has  made  it  prime 
branch  plant  territory.  Companies  coming  into  the  country  to  set 
up  shop  must  consider  manufacturing.  Apple  Canada  came  along 
and  said,  "We'd  like  to  break  that  mold.  Canada  can't  support  an 
economical  computer  manufacturing  industry.  Marketing  and 
development  of  software  are  the  way  to  go." 

"In  Canada  we're  a  little  more  conservative  and  the  equip- 
ment tends  to  be  more  expensive,"  according  to  Kevin  Ford,  a 
mechanical  engineer  and  proprietor  of  Hydroford,  a  company 
depending  heavily  on  Apple.  "On  the  other  hand,  labor  rates  are 
higher  and  there  is  a  different  work  ethic  here.  The  net  effect  is 
lower  productivity." 

Ironically,  it's  that  lower  productivity  coupled  with  a  relative- 
ly small  marketplace  that  seemed  to  indicate  that  Apple  had  found 
an  ideal  manufacturing  home  in  this  country.  However,  as  Apple 
representative  Bill  Holtzman  explains,  the  microcomputer  busi- 
ness is  not  your  typical  smokestack  industry.  If  the  new  $20-mil- 
lion  Mac  plant  in  Fremont,  California,  can  ship  half  a  million 
Macintoshes  with  a  work  force  of  270,  the  economics  of  building 
another  North  American  factory  in  Canada  is  questionable. 

When  Apple  Canada  was  established,  commitments  were 
made  to  the  Canadian  federal  government's  Foreign  Investment 
Review  Agency  (FIRA)  to  build  microcomputers  in  Canada.  But 
David  Killins,  soon  to  be  president  of  Apple  Canada,  and  his 
associates  persuaded  FIRA  to  consider  the  jobs  created  by 
marketing  and  outside  software  development  firms. 

According  to  Killins,  the  smokestack  mentality  that  focuses 
on  manufacturing  is  obsolete.  Instead,  Apple  Canada  is  building  a 
fifty-five-thousand-square-foot  support  center  housing  offices 
and  warehouse  facilities  near  Toronto.  Occupancy  of  the 
$5-million  center  in  Markham— Toronto's  Silicon  Valley— is 
scheduled  for  July. 

The  Turtle  Always  Wins.  An  impressive  example  of  outside 
software  encouragement  is  Apple  Canada's  special  relationship 
with  Logo  Computer  Systems  (LCSI).  In  1981  a  group  of  Cana- 
dians—entrepreneur Guy  Montpetit,  programmer  Brian  Silver- 
man, and  marketing  expert  Jim  Baroux— met  with  Seymour  Pap- 
ert  in  a  Montreal  kitchen  to  form  LCSI.  Because  the  early  Krell, 
Terrapin,  and  Texas  Instruments  versions  of  the  language  didn't 
satisfy  the  developers,  they  decided  to  produce  a  Logo  that  wasn't 
just  good  but  excellent.  Their  eyes  were  on  the  Apple  as  the  best 
available  vehicle. 

Apple  Computer  was  equally  impressed  with  the  new  Logo 
enthusiasts,  and  an  unprecedented  contract  was  signed  with  the 
company.  Apple  agreed  to  sell  the  program  under  its  own  label. 
Apple  Logo  won  the  best  microcomputer  software  of  the  year 
award  in  1981  from  the  Learning  Periodicals  publishing  group  of 
the  United  States.  Earlier  this  year  the  Federation  of  Quebec 
Chambers  of  Commerce  awarded  its  prestigious  Mercure  prize  to 
Montreal-based  LCSI  for  exceptional  performance  in  exporting 
Quebec  products  outside  Canada.  When  Apple  Computer  donated 
microcomputers  to  9,250  California  schools  in  its  Kids  Can't 
Wait  program,  the  chosen  programming  language  was  LCSI's 
Apple  Logo. 

The  LCSI  success  story  may  be  Canadian  in  origin,  but  it's  in- 
ternational in  scope.  Reflecting  the  bicultural  nature  of  Canadian 
life,  LCSI  produces  Apple  Logo  in  French  as  well  as  English. 
The  company  also  has  more  than  sixty  employees,  carries  on 

research  in  Paris,  France,  as  well  as  in  Quebec,  and  has  business 
offices  in  New  York  and  Tokyo. 

Wizard  in  a  Blizzard.  "Canada  has  always  been  a  leader  in 
computer  communications,"  says  Kevin  Ford,  an  engineer  who 
saves  hours  of  machine  time  and  vital  weeks  of  turnaround  by 
sending  energy-use  statistics  to  Waterloo  University  in  one  shot. 
He  calculates  his  own  aggregations  and  metric  conversions  on  his 
Apple  He,  then  sends  only  the  results  to  Waterloo. 

"The  biggest  practical  applications  for  microcomputers  will 
appear  when  they  start  talking  to  mainframes.  I  don't  mean  sim- 
ple terminal  functions  either.  What  needs  to  be  designed  are 
specific  programs  to  meet  the  needs  and  quirks  of  specific  in- 
dividuals. Then  when  he  has  something  to  send  off  or  take  from 
the  mainframe,  the  user  can  work  it  up  on  his  VisiCalc,  do  his 
calculations  or  his  extractions,  and  discretely  use  the  big  machine 
only  when  he  must." 

Even  now,  the  mighty  micro  can  do  things  a  mainframe  can't. 
Ford  once  had  a  contract  with  a  firm  in  Frobisher  Bay,  a  remote 
Arctic  port  where  the  initial  cost  of  almost  anything  shipped  is 
dwarfed  by  the  transportation  rates.  Understandably,  in  Fro- 
bisher, inventory  control  is  a  priority. 

When  Ford  was  contacted,  the  firm  was  running  its  asset- 
management  system  through  a  terminal  link  with  the  south.  Un- 
fortunately, bad  weather  shuts  down  microwave  transmissions  a 
good  portion  of  the  time— a  major  fact  of  Arctic  life.  Ford  found 
that  the  versatile  Apple  readily  accepted  the  mainframe  inventory 
program.  Now,  Frobisher  only  has  to  send  out  its  orders. 

Muscle  for  Keeping  House.  Because  it  was  there  first,  Apple 
has  a  lot  of  friends  in  the  science  and  medical  research  com- 
munities. Dr.  G.W.  Main  wood  of  Ottawa  University's  medical 
faculty  is  researching  the  energetics  of  muscles;  keeping  sets  of 
complex  statistics  is  important  to  his  work.  His  Apple  helps  him 
trace  energy  sources,  limits  to  muscle  capacity,  factors  in  the 
maintenance  of  muscle  power,  and  so  on.  This  is  what  he  ex- 
pected from  the  Apple. 

A  well-walked  trail  cuts  around  a  thicket  of  birch  trees  in  Canada.  France's 
colonization  of  the  country  wasn't  very  successful,  but  French  explorers 
managed  to  penetrate  beyond  the  Great  Lakes  to  the  western  prairies  by 
the  end  of  the  seventeenth  century. 

What  came  with  it  as  an  unexpected  surprise  was  the  bonus  of 
the  Apple's  versatility.  Mainwood's  microcomputer  has  become 
an  all-around  laboratory  housekeeper,  tracing  supplies,  accounts, 
and  schedules.  The  Apple  gives  him  access  to  experimental  litera- 
ture through  international  databases.  Word  processing  and  file 
organizing  programs  help  him  write  papers  for  journals  and  tests 
for  his  students. 

Mainwood's  Apple  also  frees  him  for  research  into  the  critical 
questions  of  muscle  fatigue.  His  research  may  help  uncover  the 
causes  of  and  help  treat  muscular  dystrophy.  As  a  solid  scientific 
tool  and  a  general-purpose  computer,  Mainwood  believes  the  Ap- 
ple is  the  best  for  the  money. 

The  Apple  Pulls  the  Plow.  As  a  terminal  emulator,  the  Apple 
gives  farmers  access  to  crucial  market  data  on  various  videotex 

A  trio  of  Morgan  horses  stretch  their  legs  on  a  Morgan  horse  farm.  Apples  are  very  popular  with  Canadian  farmers  and  ranchers.  Software  is  plentiful 
and  service  is  nearby. 


MAY  1984 

Zigzagging  highway  takes  travelers  up  into  the  northern  Rocky  Mountains 
of  British  Columbia.  The  highest  point  in  Canada  is  Mount  Logan  (19,850 
feet),  in  the  neighboring  province  of  Yukon. 

systems.  Canadian  farmers  have  to  stay  on  top  of  the  facts  in  or- 
der to  stay  in  business  because  land,  machinery,  and  capital  are 
available  only  at  premium  rates.  The  farmgate  (price  asked  for 
goods  at  the  farm  site)  price  on  crops  and  livestock  can  vary 
gready,  so  it  comes  as  no  surprise  that  at  every  major  Canadian 
farm  show  there  is  a  computer  display. 

Canadian  farmers,  used  to  buying  tractors  and  milking  ma- 
chines, find  it  hard  to  think  of  buying  a  microcomputer  in  the 
same  way.  As  they  begin  to  see  what  software  can  do  for  a  farm's 
productivity,  their  way  of  thinking  begins  to  change. 

"The  Apple  is  a  thousand  dollars  cheaper  than  any  other 
system  with  suitable  farm  software.  It's  versatile  and  has  pio- 
neered dozens  of  applications,  with  hundreds  of  useful  programs 
in  the  public  domain,"  says  Betty  Vandenbosch,  who,  along  with 
her  husband  Stan,  owns  a  cattle  farm  near  Winchester  in  eastern 
Ontario.  Stan  is  also  chairman  of  the  Agracomp  Computer  User 

"There's  always  an  available  dealer,  and  the  home  applica- 
tions are  entertaining  and  useful,"  she  adds.  She  sells  and  serv- 
ices Apple  products  herself.  "The  software  that  attracts  farmers 
most  are  accounting  packages  and  enterprise  analysis  disks."  In 
their  operation,  the  Vandenbosches  keep  track  of  fertilizer  ap- 
plications, crop  rotations,  yields,  and  soil  tests.  "I  know  a  hog 
farmer  who  monitors  his  two  hundred  and  fifty  sows,  their 
breeding  data,  litter  size,  and  health  profiles  with  an  Apple  and 
compatible  software." 

Garage  In,  Garage  Out.  Gary  Little,  a  Vancouver  lawyer, 
represents  the  more  typical  Canadian  user.  Little  is  "the  kind  of 
home  user  who  brings  his  micro  in  through  the  garage,"  as  Bill 
Holtzman  of  Apple  Canada  puts  it. 

His  Apple  lie  edits  text,  acts  as  a  teletypewriter,  and  accesses 
legal  databases.  Little  expects  it  soon  to  handle  his  accounting 
functions.  He  also  uses  the  machine  for  hobby  programming  and 
as  a  home  security  monitor.  Belonging  to  several  user  groups,  in- 
cluding Apple  BC  Computer  Society  and  the  Vancouver  PC 
Users  Group,  Little  sees  membership  as  an  opportunity  to  meet 
interesting  people  and  to  find  answers  to  puzzling  questions. 

Well,  maybe  Little  isn't  so  typical  after  all.  He's  written  a 
book  titled  Inside  the  Apple  lie,  to  be  published  this  year  by 
Brady,  and  helps  organize  the  annual  Pacific  Coast  Computer  Fair. 

Scientists  at  the  National  Research  Council  of  Canada  may  ac- 
tually be  more  typical  Apple  users  than  Little,  if  typical  for  the 
Apple  means  innovative.  For  example,  their  electrical  engineer- 
ing group  has  an  Apple  linked  with  a  microscope  to  provide  im- 
age analysis  with  the  help  of  a  digitizing  pad  (soon  to  be  replaced 
with  a  Micron  Eye). 

Similarly,  Betty  Dion  of  the  Canadian  Hearing  Society  reports 
of  new  opportunities  for  the  deaf  who,  thanks  to  Apple  technol- 
ogy, can  use  the  telephone  for  the  first  time. 

Can't  Stop  the  Micro.  Canadian  educators  viewed  the  Apple 
with  enthusiasm  when  it  first  appeared.  The  excitement  has  since 
deepened  to  a  commitment  in  some  cases  and  cooled  off  in  others. 
Two  local  issues  have  determined  the  direction  in  which  Cana- 
dian computer  education  leans:  focus  and  compatibility. 

Focus  means  the  way  a  classroom  computer  is  used.  If  the 
educational  aim  of  the  province,  school  board,  school,  or  teacher 
is  computer  literacy,  then  any  computer  will  do.  Their  emphasis 
is  on  electronic  data  processing  history,  binary  language,  and 
simple  programming.  This  approach  is  favored  by  the  Hamilton, 
Ontario,  Board  of  Education.  In  Hamilton,  Apples  are  disappear- 
ing, being  replaced  by  Commodores. 

Over  at  the  Carleton  Board  of  Education  in  Ottawa,  things  are 
different.  Carleton  is  known  as  a  pro- Apple  school  board.  "The 
kind  of  programming  we  can  run  on  the  Apple  presents  a  huge  va- 
riety of  options,"  says  Terry  Chalmers,  a  school-board  consult- 
ant in  Ottawa.  "The  educational  material  is  superior  in  presenta- 
tion on  Apple  software.  We  say,  let  the  student  use  the  computer. 
He  will  acquire  the  literacy  he  needs." 

Even  on  a  pro- Apple  school  board  like  Carleton' s,  there's  a 
long  way  to  go.  Current  pupil-to-machine  ratios  offer  the  student 
an  allotment  of  nine  minutes  a  week.  The  microcomputer  budget 
was  slashed  in  half  this  year.  However,  an  enthusiastic  teacher 
who  wants  to  do  something  valuable  has  access  to  pilot  develop- 
ment money.  Schools  in  the  district  also  run  fund-raising  drives 
to  purchase  more  hardware  and  software. 

Software  development,  not  manufacturing,  is  what  makes 
the  Apple  tick  in  Canada.  Apple  Canada  is  aware  of  this  and,  just 
as  at  Apple  in  Cupertino,  encourages  third-party  software 

This  attitude  has  made  all  the  difference.  As  Karl  Parks,  a 
software  dealer,  explains,  "We  carry  more  than  twenty-two  hun- 
dred Apple  titles  in  our  software  catalog.  Apple  software  is  imag- 
inative, intriguing,  and  full  of  content.  Loading  is  always  straight- 
forward and  operation  doesn't  intrude  on  your  concentration. 

"I  think  that's  what  Canadians  want  from  their  microcom- 

Apple  Canada  is  betting  that  it  is.  ^ 

The  word  is  out  on 
word  processors. 
Format-II  ranked  number 

We've  always  thought  of  Format-II 
as  the  finest,  easiest  to  use  word 
processor  for  Apple®  II  + ,  lie  and 
Franklin®  computers.  We're  pleased 
that  Peelings  II  magazine  agrees. 
They  judged  Format-II  best  out  of  18 
leading  word  processors.  Here's  why: 
Format-II  makes  editing  easy. 
There's  our  unique  editing  process: 
simple,  mnemonic  commands  log- 
ically relate  to  the  task  you  want  to 
perform.  To  center  text,  you  press 
0.  To  delete,  0.  To  justify  EL 

And  since  what  you  see  on 
the  monitor  is  exactly  what  will 
print  out,  editing  and  formatting  is 
always  a  breeze. 

The  Peelings  II  reviewer  said, 
"Format-II is  one  of  the  few  word 
processors  that  is  so  comfortable 
and  predictable,  I  would  con- 
sider it  as  an  addition  to  my  small 
library  of  personal  software. " 

Peelings  II  Magazine  Rating 



owJtibJBiJV  VVJcvl  1  JBirl  11 























SUPERTEXT  40/80™ 










Reviewed  by  John  Martellaio,  September  1983, 
based  on  Peelings  II  rating  system  for  performance 
and  performance  to  price  ratio. 

w—         reviewer  sum  it  u 

In  the  words  of  the  Peelings  II 
reviewer:  "This  is  the  best  program  I 
have  seen  for  people  who  do  a  lot  of 
work  with  mailing  lists,  form  letters 
and  short  correspondence. " 
An  easy  to  follow  manual. 
Essential  to  any  good  program  is  a 
manual  that's  clear  and  under- 
standable. The  Peelings  II  reviewer 
describes  the  Format  II  manual. 
"All  in  all,  it  is  one  of  the  best  word 
processor  manuals  I  have  seen. 
The  latest  documentation  is  a 
model  of  clarity  and  organization. " 

Put  it  all  together.  Then  add 
features  such  as  support  of  hard 
disk  drives  and  a  standard  DOS 
text  file  format  compatible  with 
spellers  and  communications  pro- 
grams, and  it's  not  hard  to  see  why 
Format-II  has  earned  the  number 
one  rating. 

The  words  of  the  Peelings  II 
J  cannot  think  of  another  word  pro- 
cessor that  would  be  better  overall  for  business  use. " 

Thanks  Peelings  II.  We  couldn't  have  said  it  better 

For  a  reprint  of  the  full  review  or  to  order  Format-II, 
fill  out  coupon  and  send  it  to:  Kensington  Microware,  Ltd. 
251  Park  Avenue  South,  NYC,  NY  10010  or  call  us  at  (212)  475-5200. 
Tlx:  467383  KML  NY  Or  visit  your  local  Apple  dealer. 

Please  send  (indicate  quantity): 

 Free  reprint(s)  of  Peelings  n  review 

 Format-II  Word  Processing  Program(s)  $150  each.  Total  $_ 

 Apple  II  +  owners  require  keyboard  mod  $5  each.  Total  $_ 

On  purchases  add  $2.50  shipping  and  handling 

Format-II  supports  all  printers. 

Unlike  other  word  processors,  Format-II  is  compatible  with 
every  printer  that  works  with  the  Apple,  from  the 
simplest  dot  matrix  printer  to  the  most  advanced  letter 
quality  printer. 

A  built  in  mailing  list  at  no  extra  cost! 

Actually  a  database  system  resembling  an  index  card  file. 
A  SORTING  program  will  arrange  the  mailing  list  alpha- 
betically or  numerically.  Powerful  LOGIC  commands 
merge  specific  entries  into  form  letters  and  documents. 

New  York  State  residents  add  applicable  sales  tax. 
□  Check  enclosed    □  Visa    □  Mastercard 

Total  order  $_ 

Card  No. 


Name  on  Card 


Address  (UPS  delivery) 


Kensington  Microware,  Ltd. 
251  Park  Avenue  South 
New  York,  NY  10010 





©  1983  Kensington  Microware  Ltd. 

Format-II  is  a  registered  trademark  of  Kensington  Microware  Ltd 
Peelings  II  is  a  registered  trademark  of  Peelings  II ,  Inc 
Format-II  requires  64 K  and  an  30  column  card. 


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Images  can  be  displayed  on  back- 
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relative  rates  of  change  for  your  most  important  information. 
Like  cash  flow  projections.  Or  revenue  estimates. 

Plot  flowcharts,  time  and  motion 
studies,  industrial  process  flows  with 
lighting critical  paths.  Animate  the 
sequences  to  show  how  flows  actually 

Work  with  live  action?  Prepare 
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the  unique  FRAME -BY-FRAME  graphic  sequencer  that 
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education— The  Graphic  Solution™ 
at  $149. 95  has  the  answer.  Take  a 
hard  look  at  The  Graphic  Solution. 
You'll  like  what  you  see. 

The  Graphic  Solution  requires  a 
64K  Apple  II  with  ROM  Applesoft 
and  DOS  3.3. 
See  your  local  dealer  or 
send  $10.00  for  a  demonstration  diskette  to: 


4546  El  Camino  Real,  Los  Altos,  CA  94022     (415)  949-271 1 

Apple  is  a  registered  trademark  of  Apple  Computer,  Inc. 

Unless  otherwise  noted,  all  products  can  be  assumed  to  run  on  either  Apple  II, 
II  Plus,  or  He  with  48K,  Applesoft  in  ROM,  and  one  disk  drive.  The  requirement 
for  Applesoft  in  ROM  can  be  met  by  Applesoft  in  a  language  card.  Many  Apple  II 
programs  will  run  on  the  Apple  III  in  the  emulation  mode. 

If  the  cryptic  initials  at  the  ends  of  reviews  don 't  fit  the  staff  listed  on  page  4, 
then  they  refer  to  guest  reviewers.  This  month,  they  are  Cary  Hara,  Joel  Harrod, 
Kevin  J.  Linden,  and  Willard  Phillips. 

TURBO  PASCAL.  When  you  hear  that  this  CP/M  Pascal  compiler  sells  for 
fifty  bucks,  you  might  be  pretty  skeptical.  Sure  it's  cheap;  it's  probably 
a  watered-down  where's-the-beef  compiler  with  more  bugs  in  it  than  a 
tropical  forest.  Maybe  some  dumb  fool  who  doesn't  want  to  dish  out 
$300  or  more  for  a  "real"  compiler  would  spend  money  on  it,  but  that's 
about  it.  Wrong. 

Not  only  is  Turbo  Pascal  a  complete  standard  Pascal,  it's  an  im- 
proved, beefed-up  version  with  features  that'll  have  Pascal  programmers 
dancing  in  the  streets.  Here  are  a  few. 

Strings  have  been  added  as  a  data  type  and  can  be  manipulated  easily 
by  several  handy  built-in  string  functions  and  procedures.  The  functions 
and  procedures  are  basically  the  same  as  those  in  UCSD  Pascal,  plus  the 
procedure  val  for  converting  strings  to  numbers  (reals  or  integers). 

Typed  constants  are  new  and  extremely  useful.  They  are  defined  just 
like  untyped  constants,  but  the  type  of  the  constant  must  be  included 
along  with  its  value.  Since  typed  constants  are  essentially  predefined 
variables,  they  may  be  used  exactly  the  same  as  an  unassignable  variable 
of  the  same  type.  However,  they  can't  be  used  to  define  other  constants 
or  types,  because  typed  constants  are  considered  variables.  Which  brings 
to  mind  the  free  format  of  the  var,  const,  and  type  declarations.  Declara- 
tions can  be  in  any  order  or  mixed  with  each  other  without  any  ill  effects. 

Apart  from  additions,  the  only  significant  difference  from  standard  or 
UCSD  Pascal  is  the  absence  of  the  put  and  get  functions;  to  compensate, 
the  read  and  write  statements  have  been  changed  to  handle  all  types  of 
files  instead  of  just  text  files.  Essentially  anything  you  can  do  with  stan- 
dard Pascal  you  can  do  with  Turbo  Pascal  and  then  some. 

Describing  Turbo  Pascal  as  fast  doesn't  do  it  justice.  Its  compilations 
are  lightning-fast;  no  more  waiting  for  those  dots  to  scroll  across  the 
screen.  The  compiler  gives  you  the  choice  of  compiling  code  into  memo- 
ry, into  executable  COM  files  (with  the  same  name  as  the  source  code 
file  except  with  a  .COM  tacked  on),  or  into  CHN  files,  which  are  smaller 
than  the  COM  files,  but  lack  the  Pascal  library  and  must  be  activated 
through  the  chain  command  from  another  Turbo  Pascal  program. 

Of  the  three  options,  compiling  to  memory  is  by  far  the  fastest, 

w  &  msmtt 

BASIC  BUILDING  BLOCKS™  lets  us  interact 
with  our  computer  and  learn  at  our 
own  pace.  Dad  says  it's  so  easy  to  use, 
it  even  eliminates  the  need  for  him  to 
read  the  manual.  You  should  see  all  the 
programs  Mom  has  written  by  herself. 
I  like  it  because  it  really  gets  into  the 
fun  of  the  computer. .  .fast.  BASIC 
BUILDING  BLOCKS  is  like  having  personal 
computer  experts  in  our  house/' 




>  A  unique,  challenging  and  enter- 
taining introduction  to  BASIC 

•  Consumer  testing  shows  that 
9  out  of  10  people  didn't 
even  need  the  manual. 

-  BASIC  commands  fully  demon- 
strated, including  disk  access, 
sound  and  graphics. 

•  Over  60  sample  programs  exe- 
cuting so  you  can  see  how  BASIC 
commands  work,  learn  program 
structure  and  flow  of  control. 

« innovative  program  design  for 
freedom  of  movement  any- 
where in  the  tutorial  This  lets 
\ «ou  test  sample  programs  at 
your  own  pace  until  you  under- 
stand how  they  work. 

•  Actually  encourages  you  to  write 
anci  test  your  own  programs. 

>  Design  usefui  programs,  trace 
their  fiow  and  detect  pro- 
gramming errors. 

soon  for  IBM  PC,  XT  and  PCjr. 

I"  Sof  tware  that  makes  your 
I  -hometomputer  worth  having, 

•  06080- <203)  222-1000 

MAY  1984 


because  it  doesn't  require  as  much  disk  access  (none  if  the  source  code  is 
already  in  memory);  but  either  of  the  other  two  options  compiles  so 
quickly  that  it'll  make  you  wonder  whether  the  program  compiled  cor- 
recdy  (don't  worry,  it  really  did). 

Here's  one  for  Ripley:  Turbo  Pascal  even  includes  a  resident  text 
editor  that  contains  features  such  as  block  moves,  search,  replace,  and 
block  deletions.  Its  design  and  commands  are  similar  to  those  of  Word- 
Star, if  the  editing  keys  throw  you  off,  you  can  redefine  them  to  suit  your 
taste.  Some  WordStar  functions  have  also  been  removed  to  conserve 
space,  but  what's  left  is  more  than  powerful  enough  to  write  programs.  If 
you  decide  to  use  some  other  CP/M  text  editor,  the  compiler  will  work 
just  fine  with  the  file  it  creates,  but  it's  much  simpler  to  use  Turbo 
Pascal's  editor,  since  it  forms  an  integrated  package  with  the  compiler 
and  system's  menu. 

Rivaling  Turbo's  compilation  speed  is  its  execution  speed.  Again 
there's  no  comparison  to  Apple  Pascal.  If  a  run-time  error  occurs  during 
execution,  and  your  source  code  is  still  in  memory,  Turbo  Pascal 
automatically  enters  the  editor,  marks  where  the  error  occurred,  and 
displays  the  run-time  error  code. 

It  doesn't  really  make  much  sense.  A  complete  Pascal  system  that  in- 
cludes an  editor  and  compiler  that  reside  completely  in  memory  and  re- 
quire no  disk  swapping  and  that  compile  and  execute  extremely  fast,  all 
for  a  ridiculously  low  price.  The  manual  is  excellent  as  a  reference  man- 
ual and  clearly  describes  all  the  differences  between  Turbo  Pascal  and 
standard  Pascal.  A  licensing  fee  for  programs  created  with  Turbo  Pascal 
has  been  waived,  so  there  are  no  hidden  costs  to  jump  out  on  you. 

If  you  don't  have  CP/M,  Turbo  Pascal  is  reason  enough  to  buy  it. 
Borland  International  has  created  an  extremely  high-quality  product  at  a 
more  than  reasonable  price.  (II 
Turbo  Pascal,  Borland  International  (4807  Scotts  Valley  Drive,  Scotts  Valley,  CA 
95066;  408-438-8400).  Requires  CP/M.  $49.95. 

THE  HEIST.  By  Mike  Livesay  and  Mike  Mooney.  The  folks  who  brought 
Miner  2049er  to  the  Apple  are  at  it  again.  It  would  be  unfair  to  ask  any 
encore  to  measure  up  to  an  original  like  Miner,  as  no  sequel  can  carry  the 

excitement  and  surprise  value  inherent  in  a  hit  the  first  time  around.  No 
Marx  Brothers  fan  would  rank  A  Day  at  the  Races  with  A  Night  at  the 
Opera,  but  most  would  acknowledge  its  superiority  to  nine-tenths  of  the 
competition  (say,  Olsen  and  Johnson  and  the  Three  Stooges).  So  it  is 
with  The  Heist.  And  just  as  the  real  world  seemed  to  overwhelm  the 
anarchy  of  the  Marxes  in  time,  the  surreal  cartoon  slapstick  of  Miner  has 
here  given  way  to  the  mundane  walls  and  floors  of  an  art  museum,  from 
which  a  perfectly  proportioned  humanoid  must  steal  all  the  artworks. 

Mind  you,  this  is  no  art  museum  you're  ever  likely  to  visit  of  a  Sun- 
day. Robot  drones  patrol  sectors;  booby  traps  appear  out  of  the  floor  or 
plummet  from  the  ceiling.  There's  a  real  trick  to  jumping  over  the 
alarms,  and  it's  not  likely  you'll  make  it  every  time.  Much  coordination 
and  more  patience  is  what  the  game  requires,  and  you'll  probably  forget 
the  ostensible  "goal"  early  on  and  just  try  to  get  through  the  forty-eight 
rooms  on  level  one,  never  mind  being  allowed  to  move  up  to  the  next 
two  levels. 

The  influence  of  Miner  is  evident  throughout  the  game,  which  is  full 
of  moving  ledges,  lifts,  escalators,  and  elevators.  Nice  touches  like  the 
do-it-yourself  joystick  calibrating  menu  are  back. 

If  only  .  .  .  there  were  more  to  it.  The  near-infinite  combinations  of 
floors/levels/screens  do  not  obscure  the  fact  that  this  is  a  one-trick  game: 
knowing  how  to  jump  and  where.  Miner's  real  variety  was  not  in  its 
famous  ten  screens  but  in  the  diversity  of  skills  required— Pac-Man  and 
Donkey  Kong  were  prerequisites;  timing  was  all;  everything  was  inter- 
twined. With  The  Heist,  you  can  get  a  new  screen  every  five  seconds,  but 
there  isn't  a  heck  of  a  lot  to  do  in  most  of  them. 

Nevertheless,  what's  there  is  more  challenging,  better  executed,  and 
more  pleasing  to  the  eye  than  is  the  case  with  nine-tenths  of  the  competi- 
tion. Don't  expect  Miner,  and  your  pleasure  should  be  major.  AC 
The  Heist,  by  Mike  Livesay  and  Mike  Mooney,  Micro  Lab  (2699  Skokie  Valley 
Road,  Highland  Park,  IL  60035;  312-433-7550).  Joystick  required.  $40. 


Nicholas  A.  Romano.  Master  Diagnostics  takes  an  otherwise  boring 
task,  adds  a  touch  of  panache,  and  makes  it  rather  interesting.  The  utility 

iSSffl)  Un'lPrint    Built  for  Apple  owners 
that  demand  quality  and  features  on  a  budget! 

When  you're  trying  to  find  the  right  parallel  interface  for  your  printer,  look  to  Videx  to  bring  you 
the  best  in  quality  and  features.  At  only  $89.00  suggested  retail,  the  UniPrint  is  packed  with 

•  Full  Basic,  Pascal ,  ProDOS,  and  CP/M  compatibility. 

•  Text  and  High  Resolution  Graphics  transfers. 

•  Logo  graphics  transfers! 

•  Color  graphics  transfers  to  the  Dataproducts  (IDS)  Prism. 

•  Centronics—  Compatible  Cable  included. 

•  Comprehensive  48  page  manual  includes  easy  installation 
and  operating  instructions,  and  configurations  for  over  25 
different  printers. 

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UniPrint ...  A  simple  solution  to  your  printer  interfacing  needs! 

UniPrint  is  easy  to  install  and  use.  And  Videx'  customer  support  lets  you 
buy  UniPrint  with  confidence!  We've  taken  the  guessing  out  of  shopping  for 
a  full  featured  card. 

UniPrint  is  a  trademark  of  Videx,  Inc. 

Apple  and  ProDOS  are  trademarks  of  Apple  Computer,  Inc. 

CP/M  is  a  trademark  of  Digital  Research,  Inc. 

Prism  is  a  trademark  of  Dataproducts,  Inc. 


1105  N.E.  Circle  Blvd.  •  Corvallis 

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Professional  Software  Products 


The  Series  Includes  These  4  Programs: 

STATISTICAL  ANALYSIS  I:  This  menu  driven  program 
performs  LINEAR  REGRESSION  analysis,  deter- 
mines the  mean,  standard  deviation  and  plots  the 
frequency  distribution  of  user-supplied  data  sets. 

NUMERICAL  ANALYSIS:  HI-RES  2-Dimensional  plot  of 
any  function.  Automatic  scaling.  At  your  option, 
the  program  will  plot  the  function,  plot  the 
INTEGRAL,  plot  the  DERIVATIVE,  determine  the 

MATRIX:  A  general  purpose,  menu  driven  program 
for  determining  the  INVERSE  and  DETERMINANT  of 
any  matrix,  as  well  as  the  SOLUTION  to  any  set  of 

3-D  SURFACE  PLOTTER:  Explore  the  ELEGANCE  and 
BEAUTY  of  MATHEMATICS  by  creating  HI-RES 
PLOTS  of  3-dimensional  surfaces  from  any  3- 
variable  equations.  Hidden  line  or  transparent 

For  APPLE  II  (48K)  and  IBM  PC  (64K)  $50.00 


Both  Programs  $250.00 

A  user-friendly  yet  comprehensive  double-entry 
accounting  system  employing  screen-oriented 
data  input  forms,  extensive  error-trapping,  data 
validation  and  special  routines  for  high  speed 
operation.  The  series  includes  these  two  modules: 

GENERAL  LEDGER:  A  complete  accounting  system 
with  these  features: 

•  Up  to  500  accounts  and  500  transactions  per 

•  Interactive  on-screen  transaction  journal. 

•  Produces  these  reports: 

Transactions  Journal 
Account  Ledgers 
Income  Statement 

For  APPLE  II  and  IBM  PC   $150.00 


Balance  Sheet 
Account  Listings 

A  flexible  system  with  these  features 

•  Up  to  500  accounts  and  up  to  500  invoices  per 

•  Prints  invoices,  customer  statements  & 
address  labels. 

•  Interfaces  to  General  Ledger. 

•  Interactive  screen-based  invoice  work  sheet. 

•  Produces  these  reports 

Aged  Receivables 
Sales  Analysis 
Account  Listings 
Customer  Balances 

For  APPLE  II  and  IBM  PC  ....  (2  DRIVES)  ..  $150.00 


An  interactive  graphics  program  for  designing  and 
simulating  digital  logic  systems.  Using  the  built-in 
graphics  module,  the  user  creates  a  logic  diagram 
consisting  of  AND,  OR,  NAND,  NOR,  EX-OR,  D,  T,  JK 
FLIP  FLOP  and  powerful  16pin  user-defined  MACRO 
functions.  A  typical  page  of  a  logic  diagram  looks 
like  this: 

The  system  provides  on-screen  editors  for 
WAVEFORMS  and  GATES.  GATE  attributes  include 
DELAY,  TRUTH  TABLE,  NAME  and  I/O  clocking. 

The  system  is  available  for  Apple  II  and  IBM  PC 
computers.  A  non-graphics  version  is  available  for 
CP/M  2.2  It  uses  the  network  editor  to  create 
netlists  and  text  printer  plots  to  display  simulation 
results.  All  versions  require  2-  5  1/4"  disk  drives. 

For  APPLE  II,  IBM  PC  (192K)  and  CP/M  (70K)  $450.00 
MANUAL  &  DEMO  DISKETTE   $50  00 


The  premier  personal  and  small  business  financial 
system.  Covering  all  types  of  accounts  including 
check  registers,  savings,  money  market,  loan, 
credit  card  and  other  asset  or  liability  accounts,  the 
system  has  these  features: 

Handles  25  Asset/Liability  Accounts 
Monthly  Transaction  Reports 
Budgets  Income  &  Expense 
Reconciles  to  Bank  Statements 
Prints  Checks  &  Mailing  Labels 
Automatic  Year-End  Rollover 
Prepares  a  Net  Worth  Reports 
Searches  for  Transactions 
Handles  Split  Transactions 
User-Friendly  Data  Entry  Forms 
Fast  Machine  Language  Routines 
Extensive  Error  Trapping 
HI-RES  Expense/Income  Plots 
For  APPLE  II  and  IBM  PC    $75.00 


Microcomputer  Circuit  Analysis  Program 

Tired  of  trial  &  error  circuit  design?  Analyze  and 
debug  your  designs  before  you  build  them.  With 
MICRO-CAP  you  simply  sketch  your  circuit  diagram 
on  the  CRT  screen  and  run  an  AC,  DC  orTRANSIENT 
ANALYSIS.  Your  circuit  may  consist  of  RESISTORS, 
can  analyze  any  such  network  containing  up  to  40 
separate  nodes.  Includes  a  user  controlled  MACRO 
library  for  modelling  complex  components  such  as 
OPAMPS  and  Transistors. 

For  APPLE  II  and  IBM  PC  computers.  A  non-graphics 
version  using  an  on-screen  editor  to  enter  networks 
and  text  printer  plots  to  display  simulation  results 
is  available  for  CP/M  (2.2-  5  1/4"  SSSD)  systems 
Requires  2  disk  drives. 

For  APPLE  II,  IBM  PC  (192K)  and  CP/M  (70K)  $475.00 
MANUAL  and  DEMO  DISKETTE    $50. 

ORDERING  INSTRUCTIONS:  All  programs  are  supplied 
on  disk  and  run  on  Apple  II  (64K)  or  IBM  PC  (128K) 
with  a  single  disk  drive  unless  otherwise  noted. 
Detailed  instructions  included.  Orders  are  shipped 
within  5  days.  Card  users  include  card  number.  Add 
$2.50  postage  and  handling  with  each  order. 
California  residents  add  6  1/2%  sales  tax.  Foreign 
orders  add  $5.00  postage  and  handling  per  product. 


690  W.  Fremont  Ave.,  Suite  D 
Sunnyvale,  CA  94087 

(408) 738-4387 

MAY  1984 



also  instructs.  If  the  doctor  tells  you  that  he's  going  to  remove  one  of 
your  kidneys,  you  have  a  right  to  know  why,  and  if  you're  prudent  you'll 
demand  to  be  told  how  to  prevent  the  loss  of  the  second  one.  Within  its 
area  of  expertise  (the  Apple's  hardware),  Master  Diagnostics  instructs 
without  duplicating  the  Apple  Reference  Manual. 

At  each  test  point  during  the  diagnosis  there's  an  illustration  of  what 
the  monitor  will  show  if  a  component  fails  or  if  it  passes.  Bad  ROMs  are 
named,  and  bad  RAM  chips  are  identified  by  their  row  and  column  on 
the  motherboard.  There's  even  a  glossary  of  terms  for  those  who  don't 
speak  computerese. 

In  addition  to  ROMs  and  RAMs,  the  program  tests  ROM  cards,  par- 
allel cards,  the  Hayes  Micromodem  II,  video  monitor,  speaker,  paddles, 
disk  drive  speed  and  head  alignment,  and  the  drive's  write-protect 

In  addition,  there's  an  instruction  set  on  disk  head  cleaning,  IC  pin  in- 
spection and  cleaning,  and  housing  and  monitor  screen  cleaning.  If 
you're  trying  to  find  that  elusive  intermittent  bug  that  appears  and  disap- 
pears without  leaving  a  clue,  Master  Diagnostics  will  run  an  automatic 
test  procedure  for  one  to  twelve  hours,  cycling  and  recycling  RAM  chips 
until  the  little  pest  falls  out. 

In  cases  where  it's  possible  to  repair  or  replace  a  bad  part,  clear  in- 
structions are  given,  and  the  don'ts  are  explained  as  explicitly  as  the  dos. 

There's  a  solid  feel  to  this  utility;  you'll  find  yourself  using  it  with  a 
sense  of  security,  and  when  you're  finished  you  feel  that  it  was  worth  the 
price,  even  if  no  problems  were  discovered.  WP 
Master  Diagnostics  II  &  11+  and  Master  Diagnostics  He,  by  Dr.  Nicholas  A. 
Romano,  Nikrom  Technical  Products  (25  Prospect  Street,  Leominster,  MA 
01453;  617-537-9970).  $55. 

SOFTERM  2.  Beyond  the  usual  phone  lists,  macros,  and  file  transfer  abil- 
ities, communications  programs  usually  include  some  form  of  terminal 
emulation — making  the  Apple  function  like  a  mainframe  terminal.  In 
most  cases  it's  a  standard  TTY  device  or  a  popular  terminal  such  as  the 
DEC  VT100,  which  is  usually  sufficient.  However,  to  emulate  another 
specific  terminal,  Softerm  2  is  a  package  to  consider  seriously. 

It's  a  communications  package  that  provides  an  extensive  list  of  ter- 
minal emulations,  among  which  are  ADDS  Regent  Models  20,  25,  40, 
60,  and  Viewpoint;  DEC  Models  VT52,  VT100,  and  D200;  Hazeltine 
Models  1400/1410,  1500,  and  1520;  Honeywell  VIP7205,  VIP7801, 
and  VIP7803;  H-P  2622A;  IBM  3101-1X  and  3101-2X;  LSI  ADM-3A 
and  ADM-5;  Televideo  910,  925,  and  950.  The  list  is  growing,  and 
emulations  are  continually  updated  and  revised  as  necessary. 

A  keyboard  enhancer  is  included  to  handle  various  keyboard  defini- 
tions of  the  emulated  terminals.  It  consists  of  a  board  that's  inserted  into 
an  open  slot  inside  the  Apple,  and  a  three-key  keypad  connected  to  it. 
The  keys  function  as  shift  keys  and,  when  used  with  the  main  keyboard, 
allow  you  to  "fake"  the  function  keys  supported  by  Softerm  2.  Several 
of  the  program  commands  themselves  also  use  the  keypad. 

Most  of  the  emulations  work  satisfactorily;  however,  for  the  H-P 
2622A  some  of  the  terminal's  capabilities  aren't  included.  The  line- 
drawing  character  set  is  replaced  with  blanks,  some  of  the  terminal  con- 
trol functions  are  ignored,  and  there's  only  one  page  of  memory.  Half- 
bright  intensity  and  underlining  are  employed,  but  their  display  depends 
on  which  eighty-column  board  is  being  used.  The  function  keys  and  ter- 
minal status  display  are  emulated  but  aren't  continually  shown  on  the 
screen;  instead,  they're  displayed  only  after  pushing  one  of  the  keypad 
combinations,  and  when  they're  displayed  they  cover  the  bottom  two 
lines  of  the  normal  display.  The  emulation  is  not  totally  comprehen- 
sive, but  it's  very  functional.  The  Televideo  910  and  Hazeltine  1500 
aren't  nearly  as  smart  as  the  2622A,  but  their  emulations  are  much  more 

Softerm  2  uses  three  types  of  protocol  for  file  transfer — character, 
CP/M  xmodem,  and  the  Softerm  Softrans.  Character  protocol  is  the  stan- 
dard ASCII  text  file  mode  of  file  transfer;  xmodem  is  an  implementation 
of  the  CP/M  User's  Group  standard  protocol,  and  Softrans  is  Softerm's 
own  protocol  written  in  Fortran  77.  Softrans  operates  in  block  mode  and 
features  error  recovery,  automatic  data  encoding  and  decoding,  and  data 
compression.  To  use  Softrans,  you  must  have  it  on  both  the  receiving  and 
sending  computers.  Softrans  is  included  on  the  Softerm  disks  and  can  be 
transferred  to  the  host  computer  using  the  character  protocol.  At  present, 
however,  only  a  version  for  the  Data  General  MV/6000  running  the 
AOS/VS  operating  system  is  included  with  the  package.  Versions  for  the 

H-P,  Tandem,  and  Prime  are  due  soon.  In  the  meantime,  the  user  is 
responsible  for  implementing  the  protocol  on  the  host.  The  source  code 
for  all  of  the  necessary  modules  is  included  along  with  explanations  of 
how  to  implement  it. 

Files  can  be  transferred  among  DOS,  CP/M,  and  Pascal  disk  for- 
mats, and  they  can  be  edited  during  transfer  to  match  the  data  format  of 
the  host  computer.  With  the  use  of  the  macro  command  capability,  the 
whole  file  transfer  process  can  be  fully  automated  from  log-on  to  log-off, 
including  dialing  up  the  host  computer  with  the  built-in  phone  book. 

About  service:  There's  lots  of  it.  A  twenty-four-hour  modem  line 
provides  information  on  any  problems  users  might  have  experienced 
with  the  package,  solutions  to  problems,  revisions  and  patches  to  the 
original  package  that  can  be  downloaded  to  the  user's  disk  and  applied  to 
the  program  with  a  utility  provided,  and  general  news  of  interest. 

Because  terminal  emulations  are  constantly  being  added  and  en- 
hanced, it  seems  like  the  manual  will  always  be  somewhat  out  of  date. 
New  emulations  are  included  in  the  software  but  aren't  mentioned  in  the 
manual.  However,  documentation  for  new  additions  is  included  on 
the  disk. 

Softerm  2  is  a  very  good,  highly  professional  package  that  can  meet 
the  communications  needs  of  many  users,  especially  those  wanting  to 
make  their  Apples  look  like  other  terminals  to  host  minis  or  mainframes. 
Definitely  worth  the  price.  IWH 
Softerm  2,  Softronics  (3639  New  Getwell  Road,  Suite  10,  Memphis,  TN  38118; 
901-638-6850).  $195. 

PERSONAL  TAX  PLAIMER.  That's  tax  planner,  not  tax  preparer.  The  dif- 
ference is  that  this  program  helps  answer  what-if  tax  questions  as  op- 
posed to  calculating  amounts  for  tax  forms. 

Though  we've  survived  through  April  15,  1984,  it's  not  too  late  to 
start  getting  ready  for  next  year.  Personal  Tax  Planner  is  a  program  for 
planning  strategies  that  will  minimize  the  taxes  you'll  pay  when  Uncle 
Sam  holds  out  his  hand. 

Two  modes  of  operation  are  included.  One  helps  you  evaluate  up  to 
five  alternatives  that  could  affect  your  taxes,  and  another  helps  you  make 



Quick  Search  Librarian  (QSL)  makes  it  easy  to  enter  and  edit 
your  journal  references,  search  for  articles,  and  print  or  sort  a 
list  of  articles  using  the  48K  APPLE*  II  +  computer.  Important 
QSL  features  include: 

•  Two  keystrokes  select  any  one  of  255  keywords  or  any  one 
of  255  journal  titles. 

•  Four  lines  available  for  listing  authors,  title  and/or  comments. 

•  Powerful  data  base  screen  editing,  copying  and  merging 

•  Average  search  speed  is  50  articles/second  with  multiple  cri- 
teria; average  sorting  speed  is  40  articles/second  when  sort- 
ing on  3  fields. 

•  Typically,  1000  articles  can  be  stored  on  a  single  disk. 

•  Includes  sample  data  base  and  tutorial  for  Scientific  American. 

VISA  or  Mastercard  orders  accepted.  QSL  manual  available  sep- 
arately for  $5.  (Price  of  manual  deductible  later  with  purchase 
of  QSL  software.)  Add  $1.50  for  shipments  made  in  U.S.A. 

•  Trademark  of  Apple  Computer.  Inc. 

H   n   I  P.O.  Box  771,  Dept.  2 

■  UJ  ■  State  College,  PA  1 6801 ,  (81 4)  238-8294 



MAY  1984 



Automatic  Game  Port  Expander 
for  Apple  II+  or  lie 

The  new  Swapper  Stopper  plugs  inside  your  Apple, 
and  provides  automatic  switching  between  joystick 
and  paddles.  Simply  pick  up  either  joystick  or  paddles, 
and  Swapper  Stopper  automatically  passes  control  to 
that  device. 

Swapper  Stopper  requires  no  unsightly  externally 
mounted  cables  or  switches,  and  installs  in  seconds. 

Swapper  Stopper  is  available  from  stock.  Specify 
version  (II+  or  Me). 

Dealer  inquiries  invited. 

A  B  Computers 

252  Bethlehem  Pike 
Colmar,  PA  18915 

Guaranteed  Error-Free  Performance 
with  Scotch®  Diskettes  by  3M 



per  box  of  1 0 


for  5  boxes 

3M  double  density  diskettes  with  reinforced  hub 
ring.  Packed  in  3M  two  piece  storage  box.  Add 
$1 .50  for  plastic  library  case  with  1 0  diskettes. 
Larger  quantity  prices  available. 

Add  $1 .50  per  order  for  continental  U.S.  UPS  surface  shipping. 

projections  of  taxes  based  on  potential  transactions  for  up  to  five  years. 

The  program  uses  a  spreadsheet  format  similar  to  Multiplan  and  the 
various  calc  programs,  so  it's  easy  to  create  alternatives  for  comparison 
by  replicating  information  with  just  a  few  keystrokes.  The  spreadsheet 
capabilities  of  the  projection  mode  are  especially  powerful.  For  exam- 
ple, married  couples  can  enter  separate  base-year  salaries,  a  few  simple 
codes,  and  the  assumed  percentage  growth  rate  (or  one  salary  can  in- 
crease by  a  percent  rate  while  the  other  increases  by  a  flat  rate),  and  each 
spouse's  appropriate  salary  will  automatically  appear  for  each  suc- 
ceeding year. 

Personal  Tax  Planner  performs  several  complicated  tax  calculations, 
among  them  income  averaging,  the  alternative  minimum  tax,  two-earner 
married  couple  deduction,  and  capital  gain  deduction. 

Unfortunately,  screens  don't  have  enough  lines  for  input  with  appro- 
priate prompts.  For  example,  instead  of  having  its  own  line,  the  prior 
year's  state  tax  refunds  must  be  entered  as  "other  income,"  while  real 
estate  taxes,  personal  property  taxes,  and  sales  taxes  must  be  manually 
added  and  entered  as  "other  taxes."  Separate  lines  for  each  would  be 
helpful,  as  they  would  prompt  you  not  to  forget  certain  items.  Also, 
more  descriptive  prompts  would  be  helpful  when  reviewing  the  tax 
plan  later. 

Entering  data  can  be  tricky  because  the  program  doesn't  automatical- 
ly calculate  the  deduction  for  two-earner  married  couples.  Instead,  it's 
necessary  to  calculate  (with  paper  and  pencil,  adding  machine,  or 
calculator,  but  not  the  program)  the  deduction  and  then  enter  the  proper 
amount  of  qualifying  earned  income  for  each  person. 

You  don't  need  to  know  a  lot  about  computers  to  use  this  program  ef- 
ficiently, but  it  helps  to  know  something  about  federal  income  tax  law. 
The  value  of  the  program  increases  with  your  knowledge  of  federal  taxa- 
tion, as  you  can  better  understand  what  information  is  required. 

Playing  what-if  games  with  taxes  helps  to  avoid  year-end  surprises, 
such  as  underpayment  penalties  and  large  balances  due  to  the  Internal 
Revenue  Service.  Ill 
Personal  Tax  Planner,  Aardvark/McGraw-Hill  (783  North  Water  Street, 
Milwaukee,  WI  53202;  414-289-9988).  $99. 

BUC  OFF!  By  Carl  Byington.  When  all  typing  of  code  and  removing  of 
syntax  errors  is  done,  rare  is  the  Pascal  program  that  works  properly. 

Bug  Off!  takes  some  of  the  drudgery  and  wasted  time  out  of  debugg- 
ing Apple  Pascal  programs  by  eliminating  much  of  the  unnecessary  com- 
piling and  source  code  editing.  Once  Bug  Off!  is  installed  into  your  pro- 
gram as  an  intrinsic  unit  (one  or  two  lines  in  your  source  code)  no  other 
editing  of  the  source  code  is  necessary  except  for  the  changes  needed  to 
fix  the  bugs  in  the  program.  Once  the  program's  completely  debugged, 
removing  Bug  Off!  from  the  source  code  eliminates  the  evidence  of  any 
kind  of  debugging. 

Running  a  program  with  Bug  Off!  installed  puts  you  immediately  into 
a  debugging  command  mode.  If  you  want  to  ignore  debugging  complete- 
ly, you  may  execute  the  program  as  if  Bug  Off!  were  not  even  there.  You 
may,  however,  set  break  points  in  the  program  that,  when  executed,  will 
return  you  to  the  debugging  command  mode,  where  you  may  then  review 
or  alter  your  program's  variables.  If  everything  looks  hunky-dory,  you 
can  continue  execution  or  define  more  break  points. 

Don't  worry  if  you  defined  a  break  point  and  want  to  get  rid  of  it;  you 
can  easily  delete  it  or  simply  skip  over  it.  Break  points  are  fantastic, 
allowing  you  to  see  variables  or  change  their  values  without  having  to 
reedit  or  recompile  the  source  code.  Execution  can  then  continue  as  if 
nothing  had  been  altered.  Once  you  have  located  the  problem,  you  can 
step  through  it  one  statement  at  a  time,  trace  through  it  in  large  statement 
blocks,  or  even  decide  to  exit  the  program  completely  and  fix  it.  If  you 
want  to  know  how  the  program  arrived  at  its  current  location,  Bug  Off! 
can  easily  display  the  return  path  (the  procedures  that  called  it).  Most  of 
these  features  would  be  either  impossible  or  a  hassle  to  do  the  old- 
fashioned  way. 

This  is  only  a  small  subset  of  the  commands  and  features  that  make 
Bug  Off!  easy  to  use  yet  extremely  powerful.  Don't  expect  to  implement 
Bug  Off!  and  immediately  start  finding  all  those  bugs,  though.  Like  lear- 
ning to  use  most  word  processors,  it  takes  a  bit  of  time  to  discover  how 
to  get  the  most  out  of  the  commands,  but  patience  will  pay  off. 

One  of  the  lowlights  of  Bug  Off!  is  its  manual.  It's  hard  to  understand 
and  lacks  the  polish  and  careful  detail  given  to  the  program.  The  only 
other  irritation  is  the  method  of  copy  protection.  Every  time  you  execute 

A  B  Computers 



in  the  World. 

Spellcaster  is  a  new  computer  language  that  is  easier  to  learn  than 
LOGO  or  BASIC.  With  Spellcaster  you  can  learn  to  program  your  own 
fast-action  video  games,  intricate  art  designs,  interactive  courseware, 
and  many  other  applications  using  graphics,  color,  movement  or  sound. 

What  makes  Spellcaster  so  easy  to  learn? 

•  Spellcaster  is  the  simplest  language  on  the  market.  Young  children 
use  it  to  draw  all  over  the  screen.  As  they  grow,  the  tutorial  entices 
them  into  true  programming. 

•  Everything  a  Spellcaster  program  does  leaves  marks  on  the  screen. 
You  watch  all  its  inner  workings  in  motion. 

•  Spellcaster's  on-screen  tutorial  makes  your  computer  teach  you  pro- 
gramming. It  even  teaches  you  how  to  program  your  own  video  games. 

•  Debugging  a  Spellcaster  program  is  easy,  because  you  can  stop  it, 
make  it  back  up  to  the  mistake  (while  you  watch),  change  it,  and  let  it 
run  forward  again. 

•  Spellcaster's  manual,  The  Book  of  Spells,  is  light-spirited,  color-coded 
and  loaded  with  examples. 

For  $39.95  you  get 

The  Book  of  Spells  (Manual) 

Copyable  disk  with: 
Spellcaster  Language 
Tutorial  program 
Video  game  subprogram  library 

One  issue  of  The  Spellswappers'  Gazette 


MC/VISA   (In  VA  call  1-703-433-8788) 

At  your  dealer  or  direct  from: 
Shenandoah  Software 
1111  Mt.  Clinton  Pike 
Harrisonburg,  VA  22S01 

For  Apple  II,  II+,  He 

The  language:  Spellcaster  was  designed  from 
scratch  to  be  easy  to  learn,  yet  formally  complete.  Its 
privitives  are  not  numeric  operations,  but  screen 
operations.  Each  change  in  state  is  visible  to  the 
programmer.  Spellcaster  is  highly  structured  (nested 
conditions,  loops  with  exit  conditions,  recursion)  but 
the  control  structures  are  expressed  with  radical 
simplicity.  "Teleporters"  are  unique  language  fea- 

tures that  partially  save  and  restore  process  state  to 
permit  real-time  video  game  programming. 

The  environment:  Imagine  an  editor  and  an 
interpreter  so  wed  that  every  keystroke,  as  it  is 
typed,  is  syntactically  checked  and  executed,  so  you 
instantly  see  its  effects.  If  you  backspace,  the  pro- 
gram reconstructs  its  previous  state  —  even  in  the 

middle  of  conditions  and  loops. 

The  tutorial:  Keystrokes  generated  by  the  tutor- 
ial guide  the  user,  stroke  by  stroke,  through  experi- 
ments in  programming.  The  tutorial  can  generate 
macro's  which  execute  on  the  spot.  The  pedogogical 
approach  is  to  have  beginners  build  their  own  video 

*  On  the  flip  side  of  the  Spellcaster  disk  is  a  free  issue  of  The  Spellswappers'  Gazette,  a  diskette  magazine  of  readers'  games, 
comments  and  programming  know-how. 

Apple  is  a  trademark  ot  Apple  Computer.  Inc. 


S  O  F  T  A  I  I 

MAY  1984 

We  make 
apples  grow! 





The  Infax  101 A  disk  drive  subsystem  has  been  designed 
specifically  for  Apple*  owners  interested  in  added  storage. 

The  Infax  101 A  features  a  removable  10  megabyte  data 
cartridge.  Your  Apple*  can  have  almost  infinite  storage 
capacity  with  the  new  Infax  101A. 

Look  at  the  features  the  Infax  101A  offers:  *  Highest 
performance,  reliability  of  any  removable  disk  drive. 

*  Lowest  cost  10  megabyte  (formatted)  data  cartridge. 

*  More  resistant  to  shock  and  vibration  than  any  other 
fixed  or  removable  disk  drive.  ★  Fastest  start/stop  (car- 
tridge replacement)  time  of  any  high  performance  disk 
drive.  *  Non-contact  head  to  disk  interface.  *  Micro- 
processor-based error  correction.  +  User  transparent 
error  detection  and  correction.  *  Automatic  start-up  diag- 
nostics, idle  drive  shutdown,  error  recovery  procedures. 

*  Host  adapter/controller  and  software  supports  up  to  4 
drives  simultaneously.  *  Cartridge  write  protect  switch. 

The  Infax  101 A  comes  with  disk  drive,  data  cartridge,  power  supply,  cables  and 
personal  computer  adapter.  Software  included  supports  Apple"  DOS  3.3,  Pascal 
and  CP/M."  Also  included  are  support  software  for  quick  copying,  backup  and 
file  management.  Slot  independent.  Supports  auto-boot  capability.  Infax  is  a 
"  "roducts  "Apple.  Apple  III,  Apple  II  ProDOS  and 
rks  of  Apple  Computer,  Inc.  '  "CP/M  is  a  regis- 
arch,  Inc. 

For  additional  information  and  the  name  of 
e  dealer  nearest  you  call  (800)  241-1 119  — 
n  Georgia  call  (404)  981-6778.  Or  write: 
UFAX,  INC.,  5301  Covington  Highway, 
Decatur,  Georgia  30035 

a  program  with  Bug  Off!  installed,  it's  necessary  to  insert  the  program 
disk  for  "product  verification";  the  verification  takes  almost  a  full 

Besides  its  debugging  features,  Bug  Off!  includes  command  macros, 
the  ability  to  save  groups  of  commands  to  be  used  later,  on-line  help 
files,  and  a  listing  command  that  lists  text  files  during  debugging.  (II 
Bug  Off!,  by  Carl  Byington,  First  Byte  (2845  Temple  Avenue,  Long  Beach,  CA 
90806;  213-595-5716).  $49.95. 

THE  VISIBLE  COMPUTER:  6502.  By  Charles  Anderson.  Remember  those 
intriguing  transparent  plastic  human  models  that  allowed  you  to  see  most 
of  the  inside  workings  of  the  amazing  human  body?  Of  course,  these 
models  didn't  instantly  teach  us  to  be  doctors,  but  instead  gave  us  some 
general  ideas  about  what's  going  on  inside  of  our  bodies.  The  Visi- 
ble Computer:  6502  serves  the  same  purpose  as  those  models,  letting 
us  explore  the  world  of  the  6502  assembly  language  used  in  the  Ap- 
ple computer. 

The  Visible  Computer:  6502  consists  of  twenty-four  sample  programs 
demonstrating  how  most  of  the  6502  instructions  work.  The  manual  asks 
that  the  user  be  familiar  with  Basic  to  understand  the  similarities  between 
the  two  languages,  but  knowledge  of  any  programming  language  will  do. 
In  a  conversational  manner,  the  tutorial  introduces  basic  concepts  for  the 
novice  programmer.  Later,  it  teaches  how  to  use  JVC's  commands. 

Now  the  real  power  of  TVC  becomes  evident.  JVC  allows  you  to  step 
through  each  individual  assembly  language  instruction  while  it  shows  a 
simulation  of  the  6502 's  internal  registers.  By  viewing  these  registers, 
you  can  see  the  effects  of  each  instruction,  which  may  lead  to  a  more 
complete  understanding  of  each  instruction. 

The  sample  programs  contained  on  the  disk  demonstrate  most  of  the 
6502 's  instructions,  but  they  do  little  more  than  execute  the  instruction 
being  discussed.  A  suggestion  on  the  usage  of  each  instruction  would 
have  been  very  helpful.  The  manual  briefly  explains  the  execution  of 
these  sample  programs,  but  if  you  get  confused,  you're  on  your  own. 
Even  though  stepping  through  the  program  should  reveal  the  answer  to 
your  question,  the  tutorial  could  be  a  little  more  thorough  in  discussing 
some  of  the  programs. 

After  going  through  each  of  the  sample  programs,  you're  ready  to 
start  writing  some  really  exciting  programs;  the  only  problem  is  that 
you're  done  with  the  tutorial.  The  disk  contains  a  few  larger  sample  pro- 
grams, but  all  you  can  do  is  read  the  listings,  step  through  them,  and  at- 
tempt to  understand  what's  going  on.  The  program  has  little  provision 
for  helping  the  user  write  programs.  It's  kind  of  like  trying  to  learn  how 
to  swim  by  reading  books  and  watching  films  about  it,  but  never  actually 
getting  into  the  pool. 

One  of  TVC's  features  is  its  power  as  a  debugging  tool.  Once  you've 
finished  the  tutorial,  bought  an  assembler,  and  finally  begun  to  write  pro- 
grams, you  can  use  7VCto  step  through  programs  similar  to  the  way  old- 
Monitor  ROM  programmers  used  the  trace  and  step  functions  in  the  pre- 
Autostart  ROM  days,  but  with  many  added  features.  If  you  are  tired  of 
looking  at  everything  in  hexadecimal,  change  the  registers  to  decimal  or 
binary  numbers.  You  may  also  choose  which  part  of  memory  to  view 
during  the  execution  of  a  program  and  the  speed  of  the  trace.  Using  these 
powerful  features  could  easily  take  some  of  the  headaches  out  of  debug- 
ging assembly  language  programs. 

Watch  out,  though.  TVC  provides  only  IK  of  user  memory.  Pro- 
grams can  be  virtually  any  size,  but  if  they  conflict  with  memory  loca- 
tions of  TVC  commands,  it's  bombs  away  time. 

TVC  won't  make  you  an  instant  6502  wizard  or  teach  you  the  greatest 
sorting  algorithms  ever;  instead,  it  helps  you  develop  the  basic  concepts 
needed  to  become  a  good  assembly  language  programmer  by  showing 
what  goes  on  inside  the  machine  during  a  program's  execution.  (II 
The  Visible  Computer:  6502,  by  Charles  Anderson,  Software  Masters  (3330 
Hillcroft,  Suite  BB,  Houston,  TX  77057;  713-266-5771).  $49.95. 

DISKQUIK.  By  Harry  Bruce  and  Gene  Hite.  Almost  as  long  as  there  have 
been  memory  cards  for  the  Apple,  there  have  been  disk  drive  emulator 
programs.  People  very  often  buy  extra  memory  because  they  need  it 
for  their  spreadsheets  or  word  processors  and  then  discover  that,  out- 
side of  the  one  program  they  bought  it  for,  none  of  their  software  can  use 
it.  Even  Basic  can  only  get  to  the  memory  via  extraordinary  program- 
ming calisthenics.  Such  are  the  perils  of  putting  more  than  64K  into  a 
64K  computer. 

Pick  a  Number  Between 
pfs:fi!e  and  dBASE  II .... 

You've  outgrown  the  simple  file  manager  you  started  with.  Perhaps  you  need  more  than  one  disk  of  data  per  file, 
or  password  protection,  or  greater  math  and  report  capabilities.  You  know  what  the  programmer  down  the  street 
uses,  but  you  still  think  that  "multiple  relations"  refers  to  your  in-laws,  and  you're  not  sure  you  want  to  know 
"query  language."  Besides,  if  it's  so  easy  to  use,  why  all  those  expensive  seminars,  books,  and  programs  to  make 
it  easier?  Don't  trade  in  your  computer  on  a  bunch  of  used  file  cabinets  .  .  . 

Check  out  the  alternatives . . . 

Power  Without  Programming! 

for  IBM-PC 


The  most  powerful 
user-oriented  information 
management  system  available 
for  the  IBM  PC®,  PC/XT®, 
100%  compatibles,  and 
SAGE™  II/IV  computers. 
Works  with  hard  disk  or 
floppies.  256K  RAM  required. 

•  Up  to  44  diskettes  of  data 
per  file! 

•  Built-in  letter  writing/mail 
merge  capability 

•  Exchange  data  with 
1-2-3™,  VisiCalc®, 
Multiplan™,  etc. 

•  Password  file  protection 

•  Keystroke  macros 

•  Computed  fields  with 
complex  formulas  and  date 

•  Automatic  table  lookups 
Retails  for  $595. 

Try  Before  You  Buy! 

For  a  working  sample  version 
of  Advanced  DB  Master,  see 
your  Stoneware  dealer,  or 
send  $9.95  (refundable  with 
purchase)  to  Sample  Version, 
Stoneware,  Inc.,  50  Belvedere 
St.,  San  Rafael,  CA  94901. 

DB  Master 

for  Apple  II 

DB  Master 

4  PLUS 

We  integrated  all  the 
functions*  of  Utility  Paks 
#1  and  #2  into  DB  Master 
Version  Four  and  created 
DB  Master  4  Plus.  Now  you 
get  more  features  than  ever 
for  Apple®  II  +  /lie  or 
Franklin  Ace™  1000/1200 
information  management — 
with  no  increase  in  price! 

•  Up  to  100  or  more  diskettes 
of  data  per  file! 

•  VisiFile™  and  PFS  file 

•  File  restructure  capability 

•  DIF™  translators 

•  Global  editor  (including 
date  math) 

•  Label  printer  (up  to  5 

•  Damaged  file  recovery 

*(except  Transaction  File 

Retails  for  $350. 

Free  Brochure 

For  a  free  brochure  describing 
DB  Master  4  Plus,  see  your 
local  Stoneware  dealer. 



TELEPHONE  (415)  454-6500  •  TELEX  II:  910-384-2016  STONEWARE  SRFL 


Stoneware  (Stoneware,  Incorporated)  •  IBM  PC  and  IBM  PC/XT 
(International  Business  Machines  Corporation)  •  dBASE  II  (Ashton-Tate) 
pfs  (Software  Publishing  Corporation)  •  VisiCalc  (VisiCofp) 


Advanced  DB  Master  and  DB  Master  (DB  Master  Associates)  •  Apple  11+ 
and  He  (Apple  Computer,  Inc.)  •  DIF  (Software  Arts  Corp.)  • 
Franklin  ACE  (Franklin  Computer  Corporation)  •  1-2-3  (Lotus  Development 
Corporation)  •  Multiplan  (Microsoft  Corporation)  •  VisiFile  (VisiCorp) 


Apple  is  a  registered  trademark  of  Apple  Computer,  Inc., 
CP/M  is  a  registered  trademark  of  Digital  Research,  Inc., 
Dow  Jones  News/Retrieval  is  a  registered  trademark  of 
Dow  Jones,  Inc.  The  Source  is  a  service  mark  of 
Source  Telecomputing  Corporation, 
CompuServe  is  a  registered 
trademark  of  CompuServe,  Inc. 

If  you  have  an  Apple  II, 
Apple  II  Plus,  or  Apple  lie, 
we  have  good  news  for  you.  Now1 
there  are  two  inexpensive  software1 
programs  that  can  turn  your  Apple 
into  a  much  more  valuable  tool. 

Softerm  1  connects  you  with 
information  services. 

Softerm  1  lets  you  retrieve  information  from 
services  such  as  The  Source,™  Compu- 
Serve®, and  Dow  Jones  News/ Retrieval®. 
Plus,  gives  you  the  ability  to  access  bulletin 
boards  and  send  or  receive  electronic  mail. 
Other  features  include  user-defined  key- 
board macros,  built-in  phone  book  for  auto- 
matic dialing,  terminal  mode  line  capture 
simultaneously  to  print  or  disk,  copy  screen 
to  print  or  disk,  and  terminal  status  display. 

Softerm  2  connects  you  with 
your  company's  computer. 

This  expanded  version  of  Softerm  lets  you 
gain  access  to  the  information  stored  in 
your  company's  main  computer  from  your 
home  or  office.  With  either  version  of 
Softerm,  you  can  down  load  information  into 
your  Apple  and  capture  it  on  your  own  disk 

in  any  format  you  choose- DOS,  CP/M®, 
or  Pascal.  Also  included  with  Softerm  is  a 
source  program  for  your  host  computer  to 
ensure  compatibility  with  Softerm's  file 
transfer  capabilities. 

Makes  your  Apple  work  exactly 
like  any  major  terminal. 

Softerm  2  provides  complete  emulation  of 
these  terminals:  ADDS  Regent  20, 25, 40, 
60;  ADDS  Viewpoint;  Data  General  D200; 
Datapoint  3601;  DEC  VT102,  VT52;  Hazeltine 
1400, 1410, 1500, 1520;  Hewlett-Packard 
2622A;  Honeywell  VIP7205;  VIP7801, 
VIP7803;  IBM  3101  Model  10  and  20;  Lear 
Siegler  ADM-3A,  ADM-5  and  TeleVideo 
910, 925, 950.  And  the  list  is  growing  all 
the  time.  We'll  send  you  a  User's  Guide,  handy 
reference  card,  and  a  telephone  number  to 
call  if  you  need  more  assistance. 

Softerm  can't  become  obsolete. 

We  constantly  improve  Softerm.  And  we 
make  those  improvements  available  to  you 
24  hours  a  day,  7  days  a  week.  To  update 
your  program,  just  dial  our  computer  and 
transfer  the  improvements  to  your  disk. 

Get  Softerm  now. 

It's  the  inexpensive  way  to  turn  your  Apple 
into  a  much  more  valuable  tool  for  your 
home  or  office.  Softerm  1  is  only  $135; 
Softerm  2  is  $195.  Both  are  available  now 
from  your  local  dealer  or  from  Softronics, 
Inc.  For  more  information  or  to  order,  call 


3639  New  Getwell  Road,  Suite  10 
Memphis,  TN  38118.  (901)  683-6850 

MAY  1984 

son  ALK 


Disk  drive  emulators  were  invented  to  fix  this  problem  by  providing 
memory  cards  with  something  generally  useful  to  do.  They  convince 
DOS  that  the  extra  memory  is  actually  a  very  fast  disk  drive,  and  so  al- 
low the  user  to  save  programs  and  other  files  to  the  memory  card  and 
then  retrieve  them  far  more  quickly  than  they  would  be  able  to  do  other- 
wise. This  function  turns  out  to  be  very  useful  when  the  user  creates  pro- 
grams that  are  so  large  they  can't  be  held  in  main  memory  all  at  once  and 
need  to  be  loaded  and  run  in  manageable  parts. 

The  64K  memory  bank  that  comes  on  the  Apple  He's  Extended 
80-Column  Text  Card  is  the  one  most  used,  for  the  simple  reasons  that 
more  people  have  that  card  than  any  other,  and  it's  made  by  Apple.  Nev- 
ertheless, Basic  still  can't  use  the  extra  memory  without  calling  on  ma- 
chine language  routines  for  help,  and  programs  that  were  written  before 
the  He  appeared  don't  recognize  the  presence  of  the  extra  memory. 

DiskQuik  is  packed  with  little  programs  you  can  use  to  customize  the 
pseudodisk  that  DOS  thinks  is  in  slot  3.  Since  there  is  no  physical  disk 
drive  in  slot  3,  it  has  no  in  use  light.  DiskQuik  solves  this  by  telling  you 
when  it's  reading  from  or  writing  to  the  disk  by  clicking  the  speaker  re- 
peatedly. If  you  find  this  annoying,  you  can  use  the  menu  program  to 
shut  it  off. 

The  menu  also  allows  a  number  of  other  things.  You  can  protect  the 
card's  graphics  memory  area  so  that  DiskQuik  doesn't  conflict  with  dou- 
ble-hi-res  graphics.  You  can  lock  the  disk,  which  has  the  same  effect  as 
gutting  a  write-protect  tab  on  a  real  disk.  DiskQuik  disables  the  DOS  ink 
command  and  replaces  it  with  wipe,  a  form  of  init  that  works  only  on  the 
slot  3  pseudodisk.  You  can  disconnect  the  pseudodisk  to  restore  the  init 
command,  and  reconnect  it  later  with  its  files  intact.  With  a  single  menu 
selection  (or  by  running  a  program  on  the  DiskQuik  master)  you  can  back 
up  the  entire  pseudodisk  to  a  floppy,  and  with  another  menu  selection  (or 
program)  you  can  restore  the  contents  of  the  floppy  to  the  pseudodisk. 

What  distinguishes  Beagle's  DiskQuik  from  any  other  disk  drive 
emulator  is  the  same  thing  that  distinguishes  all  of  Beagle's  programs. 
It's  more  than  a  sense  of  humor;  it's  the  joy  of  sharing.  That  joy  comes 
through  in  the  menu  programs  in  Beagle  disks,  which  are  easy  to  use,  vis- 
ually interesting,  imaginative,  and  often  entertaining.  It  also  comes 
through  in  their  documentation,  which  goes  beyond  mere  explanations  of 
how  to  use  their  programs  and  always  includes  information  you  can  use 
in  other  contexts.  The  Beagles  are  not  only  great  hobbyist  programmers, 
they're  also  willing  to  show  you  their  tricks.  DD 
DiskQuik,  by  Harry  Bruce  and  Gene  Hite,  Beagle  Bros  (4315  Sierra  Vista,  San 
Diego,  CA  92103;  619-296-6400).  $29.50. 

EXPEHSE  ACCOUNT  MAMACER.  While  this  program  can  be  helpful  to  em- 
pjrjyees  who  must  account  for  expenses,  it  is  especially  useful  to  those 
people  who,  for  tax  or  other  record-keeping  purposes,  need  to  track  their 
expenses  on  a  yearly  basis. 

Starting  a  statement  and  entering  expenses  is  the  electronic  equivalent 

of  filling  out  a  company  expense  report.  When  entering  expenses,  you're 
given  the  choice  of  being  prompted  for  each  expense  item  or  entering  ex- 
penses individually  by  their  codes.  Using  codes  is  faster  if  only  a  few  ex- 
penses are  to  be  entered,  but  being  prompted  helps  prevent  overlooking 
any  stray  expenses. 

After  a  statement  has  been  completed,  it's  necessary  to  print  it 
(eighty -column  printer,  please)  and  check  for  accuracy.  Incorrect  entries 
mean  having  to  go  back  to  the  main  menu  and  load  a  module  for  modify- 
ing and  deleting  expenses  (even  if  an  error  is  found  as  soon  as  it  is  en- 
tered, you'll  have  to  go  back  to  the  main  menu  to  correct  it).  A  data  disk 
can  accommodate  only  ten  statements. 

If  you'd  like  statement  totals  transferred  to  the  year-to-date  totals,  the 
system  reorganizes  all  the  expense  items  into  groups  called  budget  lines 
and  adds  them  to  expenses  from  previous  statements.  Initially,  the  budg- 
et lines  conform  to  the  lines  found  on  IRS  Form  2106;  again,  those  can 
be  changed  to  suit  individual  needs. 

One  of  the  system's  strong  points  is  how  easily  it  can  be  customized. 
When  you  initialize  a  data  disk,  you  can  choose  to  have  expenses  divided 
between  clients  or  projects.  Then,  every  time  you  enter  an  expense,  the 
system  will  ask  you  for  a  client/project  code  and  will  add  these  subtotals 
to  the  statement.  Private  contractors  and  consultants  who  charge  ex- 
penses to  various  clients  will  find  this  feature  invaluable,  though  it  would 
be  even  more  helpful  if  client  coded  expenses  were  also  subtotaled  on  a 
yearly  basis. 

Changing  the  statement  groups  or  the  budget  lines  can  be  cumber- 
some. Deleting  a  line  to  replace  it  with  another  moves  all  lines  below  it 
up  a  line,  which  means  the  new  line  will  appear  at  the  end  instead  of 
where  the  deleted  line  was.  Moreover,  expense  items  don't  automatically 
"move  up"  with  the  budget  lines  they  were  listed  under;  instead,  they 
must  be  rearranged  through  the  program's  Options/Change  module. 

Once  the  budget  lines  and  expenses  are  arranged,  you  can  enter  a 
budget  amount  for  each  line.  A  printout  will  include  the  budget  amount, 
how  much  has  been  spent  to  date,  and  the  difference  or  excess.  The  re- 
port also  predicts  whether  you  will  be  within  the  budget  at  year's  end. 

In  general,  Expense  Account  Manager  is  easy  to  use.  Most  of  the 
prompts  are  set  up  so  that  hitting  the  return  key  is  the  same  as  entering  a 
null  response;  this  makes  it  easy  to  flip  through  prompted  questions. 
Once  you  understand  the  system  structure,  polite,  informative  error  mes- 
sages and  simple  dialogue  make  the  manual  almost  unnecessary.  In  most 
cases,  entering  an  asterisk  is  all  it  takes  to  save  what  has  been  entered  and 
return  to  the  previous  menu. 

This  friendliness,  coupled  with  the  system's  adaptability,  makes  it 
easy  to  overlook  its  few  idiosyncrasies,  especially  at  tax  time,  when  Ex- 
pense Account  Manager  s  clear,  detailed  records  can  make  the  chore  of 
recording  business  deductions  as  easy  as  filling  in  the  blanks.  KIL 
Expense  Account  Manager,  Adaptive  Software  (1868  Cavell  Avenue,  Highland 
Park,  IL  60035;  312-831-4420).  $150. 


Font  Down  Loader 

Expand  the  capacity  of  your  printer  hundreds  of  times 

Load  custom  fonts  into  your  Apple®  Matrix  Printer,  ProwriterrM 
8510A,  OKI®  Microline  92,  93,  84  Step  II,  and  Epson®  FX  and  use 
them  with  virtually  every  word  processor  to  turn  your  printer  into  a 
custom  typesetter.  After  the  fonts  are  loaded,  they  will  stay  in  your 
printer  until  it's  turned  off.  A  font  editor  is  also  provided  to  allow  you  to 
create  your  own  graphics,  text,  foreign  language  letters,  math  and 
electronics  symbols  to  load  into  your  printer.  On-Disk  (Specify  Printer) 

.  s3900 

New  improved  versions  with  drivers  for  Grappler,  Pkaso.  Wizard  and  most  other  intelligent  parallel  boards 

r+>$100  REWARD +v  IRICrO  UlRPE 

P.O.  Box  113 

Submit  the  best  or  most  unique 
font  using  the  above  software  and  we 
will  make  you  SI  OO  richer.  Other 
prizes  for  the  first  25  runners  up. 

Pompton  Plains,  N.J. 

Dealer  and  Distributor  Inquiries  Invited 

"There's  got  to  be  a  betler  wa>  to  load  fonts!" 

CALL  (201)838-9027 



MAY  1984 

28   r£adV  768  T0  807 

30     POKE  X,B 

40     NEXT  X 

50  CI  =  769 

60  C2  =  773 

70     FOR  SI  =  2  TO  25S 

SO     FOR  S2=.|  TO  SI   -  I 

90     POKE  CI, SI 

100     POKE  C2.S2 

110     PRINT  SI.S2 

120     CALL- 768 

130     NEXT  S2.S1 

140  DATA  169, 50 .133, 255,169,20 
58     KffK  133  254,16d,0,l62;d 

S£JA  232,228  254  240,16,228 

|  p  m'i%\\%4^  io  9 


A  Stellar  Performance 

If  you  were  thoroughly  confused  by  the  labels  under  figure  2  last 
month,  there 's  a  good  reason.  The  labels  were  thoroughly  confusing.  All 
references  to  ULIN  were  supposed  to  read  VLIN  and  all  of  the  H  coor- 
dinates should  have  been  X  coordinates.  Our  supply  of  Vs  and  Xs  has 
been  replenished  and  steps  have  been  taken  to  see  that  such  shortages 
don 't  happen  again. 

Lo-res  graphics  are  colorful  and  fun  to  play  with,  but  let's  face  it — 
they're  blocky.  After  a  short  time,  that  blockiness  gets  to  look  childish 
and  the  appeal  begins  to  wear  thin.  Fortunately,  there  is  another  graphics 
mode  that  is  easily  accessible  from  Applesoft:  hi-res.  Unless  you've  con- 
fined your  Apple  use  entirely  to  spreadsheets,  word  processors,  Infocom 
adventures,  and,  of  course,  following  that  oF  floating  point,  you've  prob- 
ably seen  hi-res  graphics  in  action  in  many  different  guises. 

Hi-res  graphics  have  been  used  for  two-dimensional  line  drawings, 
three-dimensional  line  drawings,  paintings,  logos,  charts,  arcade  games, 
educational  games,  lower-case  lettering  and  seventy-column  text  on  stan- 
dard Apple  II  Pluses,  and  a  slew  of  other  things.  Unfortunately,  many  of 
these  things  can't  be  done  well  in  Applesoft.  Not  that  Applesoft  isn't  suf- 
ficiently flexible;  it's  just  not  sufficiently  fast.  Hi-res  graphics  deal  with 
large  amounts  of  memory. 

Same  Name,  New  Initial.  Learning  the  first  commands  of  hi-res 
graphics  is  simple.  The  first  three  commands  are  close  cousins  of  the 
first  three  lo-res  commands,  which  are  gr,  color,  and  plot.  To  derive 
their  hi-res  equivalents,  tack  an  H  onto  the  beginning  of  each  of  them  and 
you  get  hgr,  hcolor,  and  hplot. 

As  you  might  guess,  hgr  gets  us  into  the  hi-res  mode.  Like  gr,  it 
leaves  four  lines  at  the  bottom  of  the  screen  in  text  mode,  which  allows 
us  to  give  hi-res  commands  in  immediate  mode  and  see  what  they  do  on 
the  screen.  There  is  another  way  of  getting  into  hi-res  graphics:  the  hgr2 
command.  The  most  obvious  difference  between  hgr  and  hgr2  is  that 
when  you  use  hgr2  it  doesn't  display  four  lines  of  text  at  the  bottom  of 
the  screen. 

The  more  obscure  difference  between  the  two  is  that  they  use  dif- 
ferent areas  of  memory.  All  of  the  display  modes  in  the  Apple  are 
memory-mapped.  That  means  each  text  character,  lo-res  block,  or  hi-res 
dot  corresponds  exactly  to  a  particular  unit  of  memory.  Hgr  and  hgr2  ac- 
tivate and  display  two  separate  pages  of  hi-res  memory.  This  fact  has  two 
major  implications:  Sometimes  we  will  choose  to  use  a  page  of  memory 
based  on  where  it  resides  in  memory.  Very  long  Applesoft  programs 
conflict  with  hi-res  page  one.  However,  a  program  will  conflict  with  hi- 
res page  two  only  if  it's  more  than  twice  as  long  as  one  that  conflicts  with 
page  one.  The  second  implication  is  that  separate  pictures  can  be  drawn 
on  the  two  pages. 

The  memory  conflicts  are  worth  discussing  now  because  they  can  be- 
come terribly  inconvenient  when  they  occur  unless  you  can  identify  and 
deal  with  them.  There  are  two  possible  symptoms: 

1.  After  turning  on  hi-res  display  mode  with  the  hgr  command,  the 
program  crashes  in  some  unusual  way.  When  you  list  the  program,  you 
discover  that  the  last  few  (or  several)  lines  of  the  program  have  vanished 

2.  As  you  are  drawing  on  the  hi-res  screen,  garbage  begins  to  appear 
in  addition  to  the  lines  your  program  is  drawing.  The  garbage  first  ap- 
pears in  the  upper  left  corner  of  the  screen  and  proceeds  in  a  perfect  hori- 
zontal line  to  the  right  side  of  the  screen.  Other  than  its  orderly  progres- 
sion, the  garbage  looks  like  random  dots — like  some  kind  of  Morse  code 
notation.  When  it  reaches  the  right  side  of  the  screen,  it  reappears  on  the 
left  side  about  a  third  of  the  way  down.  If  allowed  to  continue,  it  may 
cause  the  program  to  behave  unpredictably,  but  it  will  not  damage  the 
program  code  itself. 

The  first  symptom  is  caused  by  the  program  code's  using  space  in  the 
hi-res  memory  area.  Program  code  begins  at  decimal  address  2048  and 
proceeds  to  higher  addresses  as  the  program  gets  longer.  The  first  hi-res 
page  begins  at  8192.  The  first  thing  hgr  does  is  clear  the  screen  to  black, 
which  is  accomplished  by  clearing  the  hi-res  memory  area  to  all  zeros.  If 
the  program  goes  beyond  address  8192,  part  of  the  program  will  be 
cleared  to  all  zeros  as  well. 

The  second  symptom  is  caused  not  by  the  program  but  by  its  vari- 
ables, conflicting  with  hi-res  memory.  Variables  start  where  the  program 
ends  and  build  toward  higher  addresses.  Their  space  is  not  allocated  all  at 
once,  but  one  variable  at  a  time  as  the  program  encounters  them  while 

The  easiest  solution  to  either  of  these  problems  is  to  use  hi-res  page 
two  instead  of  page  one  by  substituting  hgr2  commands  for  all  the  hgr 
commands  in  the  program.  If  you  absolutely  have  to  have  four  lines  of 
text  at  the  bottom  of  the  screen,  there  are  other  solutions,  but  they  aren't 
simple.  We'll  look  at  them  in  the  months  ahead,  when  we  talk  about  ma- 
chine language  with  Applesoft  and  memory  use. 

A  Coordinated  Attack.  Let's  get  back  to  hgr,  hcolor,  and  hplot. 
These  commands  are  seen  most  easily  by  typing  them  from  the  key- 
board. Here's  a  quick  tour: 


When  you  typed  this,  most  or  all  of  the  screen  turned  black.  It  may 
have  looked  like  Venetian  blinds  closing.  If  the  cursor  was  near  the  top 
of  the  screen,  it  seemed  to  disappear.  It  is  actually  still  there,  but  it's  hid- 
den by  the  hi-res  display.  That  is,  it  still  exists  on  the  text  screen  memory 
map,  but  that  part  of  the  text  map  isn't  being  displayed  right  now.  To 
demonstrate  this,  hit  return  and  then  type  text.  When  the  screen  flips 
back  to  text  mode,  you'll  see  your  original  hgr  command,  a  bracket 
prompt  on  an  otherwise  blank  line  (where  you  hit  return),  and  the  text 
command.  You'll  also  see  that,  no  matter  where  all  this  occurred,  your 
cursor  is  now  at  the  bottom  of  the  screen.  This  is  a  side  effect  of  the  text 

MAY  1984 

S  0  F  T  A  L  k 


command.  Type  hgr  again  to  return  to  graphics  mode. 

Typing  this  will  have  no  effect  on  the  screen,  but  it  sets  the  color  of 
any  lines  you  draw  subsequently  to  white.  Figure  1  shows  a  list  of  the 
other  legal  values  for  the  hcolor  command  and  the  colors  they  result  in 
(or  should  result  in— sometimes  different  monitors  come  up  with  dif- 
ferent colors). 

HPLOT  0,0 

Like  lo-res  graphics,  hi-res  graphics  use  a  coordinate  system  with  its 
origin  at  the  upper  left  corner  of  the  screen.  The  X  coordinate  (the  arbi- 
trary name  we  will  use  from  now  on  to  discuss  horizontal  distance  in  dots 
from  the  left  edge  of  the  screen)  can  range  from  0  to  279.  The  Y  coordi- 
nate (ditto— the  vertical  distance  from  the  top  of  the  screen)  can  range 
from  0  to  191 .  If  the  four  lines  of  text  are  visible  at  the  bottom,  all  points 
with  a  Y  coordinate  greater  than  159  will  be  invisible.  Plotting  within 
that  region  will  not  cause  an  error  message,  but  plotting  outside  of  the  le- 
gal X  range  or  the  greater  legal  Y  range  will. 

Here's  where  hi-res  graphics  get  more  sophisticated  than  lo-res 

HPLOT  0,0  TO  279,159 

Diagonal  lines!  A  line  is  created  by  the  command  hplot  and  X,Y  co- 
ordinates for  a  starting  point,  followed  by  the  word  to  and  X,Y  coordi- 
nates for  the  ending  point.  Here's  another  surprise  hi-res  has  in  store: 

HPLOT  0,0  TO  279,0  TO  279,159  TO  0,159  TO  0,0 

You  can  keep  tacking  to  X,  Y  onto  the  end  of  hplot  statements  to  plot  a  se- 
ries of  continuous  lines.  Each  new  line  begins  where  the  last  one  ended. 
And  one  last  surprise,  for  this  month  anyway: 

HPLOT  TO  140,159 

That's  right,  you  can  begin  a  plotting  command  with  hplot  to  and  Apple- 
soft will  assume  that  the  last  point  plotted  is  the  starting  point. 

Plotting  on  Paper.  One  way  to  become  familiar  with  hi-res  graphics 
is  to  use  Applesoft  commands  and  programs  to  create  static  displays. 
Let's  start  to  design  a  logo  for  a  fictional  company,  Stellar  Software. 
Before  you  start  typing  commands  and  coordinates,  it's  a  good  idea  to 
sketch  on  paper  the  picture  you  want  to  draw.  Graph  paper  is  excellent 
for  this  because  you  can  set  up  a  grid  of  Cartesian  coordinates  and  trans- 
late the  lines  you  draw  directly  into  the  parameters  for  hplot  commands. 

Figure  2  shows  just  such  a  design  for  the  Stellar  logo.  After  getting 
the  parameters  from  this  design,  we're  ready  to  begin  plotting.  Let's 
start  a  program  with  the  proper  setup  commands  and  then  proceed  with 
the  S: 

10  HGR : HCOLOR =  3 

20  HPLOT  40,60  TO  30,50  TO  10,50  TO  0,60  TO  0,70  TO  10,80  TO 
30,80  TO  40,90  TO  40,100  TO  30,1 10  TO  10,1 10  TO  0,100 

When  you  run  the  program  as  it  is  so  far,  you  get  a  nice  big  S  on  the 
screen.  There  are  a  lot  of  numbers  in  this  program,  but  you  can  easily  see 
where  you  might  have  made  any  mistakes  just  by  running  it  and  seeing 
what  the  result  is.  To  continue: 

30  HPLOT  60,40  TO  60,100  TO  70,110  TO  80,110:  HPLOT  50,60  TO 

This  one  had  to  be  done  with  two  separate  hplot  commands  because  it 
isn't  composed  of  one  continuous  stroke.  Or,  more  simply,  if  you  have  to 
lift  your  pen  when  you  write  the  letter,  you  have  to  use  another  hplot 

Hcolor  Color 









command  when  you  plot  it. 

But  what  about  our  method?  Is  it  sufficiently  flexible?  What  if  we 
wanted  to  move  the  word?  What  if  we  wanted  it  to  come  out  a  different 
size?  Obviously,  we  would  have  to  go  through  and  change  a  lot  of  co- 
ordinates. To  scale  it  to  half  size,  for  example,  we  would  have  to  divide 
all  of  those  numbers  by  two.  To  move  it  to  the  right,  we  would  have  to 
add  some  constant  to  all  of  the  numbers.  Sounds  like  dull,  tedious  work. 
Sounds  like  the  kind  of  work  the  Apple  was  made  for. 

If  we  were  to  enter  the  numbers  needed  to  create  the  seven  letters  of 
the  word  stellar  into  data  statements  instead  of  hplot  statements,  we 
could  have  the  computer  manipulate  them  before  plotting,  saving  us  a  lot 
of  work.  First  we  should  do  some  translation  ourselves.  Since  all  of  these 
numbers  are  divisible  by  ten,  we  might  as  well  divide  them  so  that  our 
raw  data  holds  the  coordinates  for  as  small  a  picture  as  possible.  Also, 
since  our  lowest  Y  coordinate  is  thirty  (before  dividing  by  ten),  let's  sub- 
tract thirty  from  all  the  Y  coordinates  before  dividing  by  ten.  This  will 
make  it  simpler  to  put  the  picture  anywhere  on  the  screen  in  any  size. 
The  easiest  way  to  do  that  is  to  change  the  axis  numbers  on  the  graph  pa- 
per design  of  the  logo.  Starting  on  the  Y-axis  with  what  is  now  thirty, 
number  0,  1,2,  3,  and  so  on.  Then  just  cross  off  the  zero  at  the  end  of  all 
the  X  coordinates  and  you're  done. 

This  just  leaves  one  more  problem.  How  do  we  tell  the  computer,  in 
data  statements,  when  to  hplot  and  when  to  hplot  to!  And  how  do  we  tell 
it  we're  done?  Easy:  We  use  special  values  embedded  in  the  data  that  our 
data-reading  routine  will  understand  to  be  commands,  just  as  we  did  with 
the  lo-res  letter  data  last  month.  The  only  requirement  is  that  the  com- 
mands can't  be  numbers  we  would  use  for  coordinates.  How  about 
negative  numbers?  Okay,  - 1  means  new  penstroke,  -2  means  all  done. 
As  an  example,  here's  the  data  for  the  S: 

510  DATA  -1,  4,  3,  3,  2,  1, 
1,  8,  0,  7 

2,  0,  3,  0,  4,  1,  5,  3,  5,  4,  6,  4,  7,  3, 

Here's  a  routine  that  will  read  that  data  and  plot  it: 
20  HGR2  :  HCOLOR  =  3 

620  READ  X 

630  IFX  =  -2  THEN  680 

640  IF  X  =  - 1  THEN  READ  X,Y:  HPLOT  X,Y:  GOTO  620 

650  READY 

660  HPLOT  TO  X,Y 

670  GOTO  620 

680  RETURN 

The  restore  command  in  line  610  sets  the  data  pointer  to  the  first 
piece  of  data  in  the  program.  Normally,  it  starts  at  the  beginning  of  the 
data  and  reads  one  element  at  a  time;  and  when  it  runs  out,  it  runs  out. 
With  restore,  it  can  read  the  same  set  of  data  over  and  over  again  without 
having  to  read  it  into  an  array.  This  is  a  useful  way  of  storing  data  that 
doesn't  have  to  change  and  that  you  always  want  to  get  in  the  same  order. 






















Figure  1 .  Hi-res  colors. 

Figure  2.   Stellar  logo  design. 



MAY  1984 

If  you  run  the  program  now,  you'll  get  a  very  small  S  at  the  top  of  the 
screen  and  an  out-of-data  error.  The  out-of-data  error  can  be  avoided  by 
putting  a  —2  element  at  the  end  of  the  data.  But  we  don't  need  to  worry 
about  that  for  now.  The  real  problem  is  how  to  scale  and  relocate  the 

As  usual,  there  are  several  ways  to  do  this,  but  the  one  that  will  teach 
you  the  most  and  be  the  easiest  to  use  in  the  long  run  is  defined  functions . 
A  defined  function  works  like  this:  A  function  is  always  called  FN  some- 
thing. The  something  is  named  with  the  same  rules  as  a  variable  name,  so 
FN  X  is  a  legal  function  name,  as  is  FN  XI ;  but  FN  1  is  not.  You  define 
the  function  with  the  def  command: 

DEF  FN  Y(Y)  =  (Y  -  30)/ 10 

That  would  be  the  function  to  translate  our  old  Y  values  from  figure  2  to 
the  new  ones  we'll  use  in  the  data  statements.  The  arithmetic  expression 
on  the  right  of  the  equal  sign  usually  includes  the  variable  in  parentheses, 
called  the  function's  argument,  which  follows  the  function  name.  It  may 
also  contain  other  variables  or  constants.  When  you  use  this  function, 
you  can  use  a  constant  or  another  variable  as  the  argument,  such  as: 

]PRINT  FN  Y  (120) 

This  will  substitute  the  value  of  120  for  the  variable  Y  as  it  evaluates  the 
function,  but  it  will  not  change  the  value  of  Y  in  memory.  If  multiple 
variables  are  used  in  the  function  definition,  only  one  can  be  used  as  the 

Here's  how  we'll  use  two  functions  in  the  Stellar  program: 
10  DEF  FN  X(X)  =  XB  +  X  *  M:  DEF  FN  Y(Y)  =  YB  +  Y  *  M 

So  XB  and  YB  will  be  used  as  beginning  points— the  upper  left  corner 
of  the  shape— and  M  will  describe  the  size  of  the  shape.  If  we  wanted  to 
change  the  scale  of  the  X-axis  to  be  different  from  that  of  the  Y-axis,  we 
would  use  different  variables  for  magnitude,  say  MX  and  MY. 

Now  we  just  have  to  substitute  FN  X  (X)  for  the  Xs  and  FN  Y(Y)  for 
the  Ys  in  the  hplot  statements: 


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640  IF  X  =  - 1  THEN  READ  X,Y:  HPLOT  FN  X(X),  FN  Y(Y):  GOTO  620 
660  HPLOT  TO  FN  X(X),  FN  Y(Y) 

So,  try  this: 

30  M  =  20:XB  =  10:YB  =  10:  GOSUB  600 

You'll  still  get  an  out-of-data  error,  but  other  than  that,  what  appears 
on  the  screen  should  tell  you  how  you're  doing  so  far.  The  rest  of  the 
data,  ending  with  —2,  of  course,  will  get  rid  of  that  end-of-data  problem. 

520  DATA  - 1 ,  6,  1 ,  6,  7,  7,  8,  8,  8,  -1,5,  3,  7,  3 

530  DATA  -1,  9,  6,  13,  3,  12,  2,  10,  2,  9,  3,  9,  6,  11,  8,  12,  8,  13,  7 

540  DATA  -1,14,  0,  14,  8 

550  DATA  -1,  16,  0,  16,  8 

560  DATA  -1,  17,  3,  18,  2,  20,  2,  21,  3,  21,  7,  22,  8,-1,  21,  5,  18,  5, 

17,  6,  17,  7,  18,  8,  20,  8,  21,  7 
570  DATA  - 1 ,  22,  2,  23,  3,  23,  8,  -  1 ,  23,  3,  24,  2,  26,  2,  27,  3,-2 

For  some  fancier  logos,  try  looping  through  and  incrementing  the  XB 
and  YB  values,  like  this: 

30  M  =  10 

40  FOR  YB  =  OTO  12  STEP  3 
50  XB  =  2  *  YB  /  3 
60  GOSUB  600 
70  NEXT  YB 
80  END 

Lots  of  other  things  are  possible,  too.  If  you  don't  like  the  name 
Stellar,  try  putting  in  your  own  software  company  name.  Or  your  name. 
Try  looping  through  and  incrementing  M  as  well  as  XB  and  YB.  If 
you're  really  ambitious,  you  might  try  making  a  cross  between  this  pro- 
gram and  last  month's  lo-res  banner  to  make  a  hi-res  banner. 

Last  month's  banner  and  this  month's  logo  are  sort  of  examples  of 
shape  tables.  That  is,  they  use  a  collection  of  data  to  draw  a  picture.  Ap- 
plesoft has  a  facility  for  shape  tables  built  into  it.  It's  more  complicated 
than  the  ones  we've  looked  at,  but  more  powerful  as  well.  Among  other 
things,  it  allows  some  simple  animation.  And  that  will  be  the  topic  of 
next  month's  Follow  the  Floating  Point.  Hi 


DEF:  The  command  to  define  a  user-created  function. 
Followed  by  the  function  name,  an  argument,  an  equal 
sign,  and  the  expression  to  be  used  in  evaluating  the 

Defined  functions:  A  way  for  the  programmer  to  set  up 
equations  that  will  be  used  frequently  in  the  program  as 
functions.  They  make  it  easier  to  use  mathematical  transla- 
tions of  one  kind  of  data  to  another,  and  they  make  pro- 
grams easier  to  read  and  write. 

FN:  The  Applesoft  reserved  word  signifying  the  beginning  of 
a  function  name.  The  rules  for  a  legal  function  name  are 
the  same  as  the  rules  for  a  legal  variable  name.  It  must  start 
with  a  letter,  and  only  the  first  two  characters  after  the  FN 
are  significant. 

HCOLOR:  Sets  the  color  for  hi-res  plotting.  Although 
assigned  like  a  variable,  it  cannot  be  used  in  an  expres- 
sion. Its  legal  range  of  values  is  from  0  to  7. 

HGR:  Turns  on  hi-res  graphics  mode,  page  one,  and  clears 
the  screen.  Four  lines  of  text  are  displayed  at  the  bottom  of 
the  screen. 

HGR2:  Turns  on  hi-res  graphics  mode,  page  two,  and  clears 
the  screen. 

HPLOT:  Followed  by  a  coordinate  pair,  plots  a  point. 
Followed  by  a  coordinate  pair,  the  keyword  to,  and  an- 
other coordinate  pair,  draws  a  line.  Followed  by  the 
keyword  to  and  a  coordinate  pair,  draws  a  line  from  the  last 
point  hplotted. 

Memory-mapped  graphics:  The  graphics  system  used  by 
the  Apple  in  which  areas  of  memory  are  set  aside  to  repre- 
sent characters  on  the  text  screen,  blocks  on  the  lo-res 
screen,  or  dots  on  the  hi-res  screen. 

RESTORE:  Used  with  read  and  data,  this  command  sets  the 
data  pointer  to  the  first  element  of  data  in  the  program, 
allowing  data  to  be  read  more  than  once. 

System  Saver  didn't  become  the 
Apple's  number  one  selling* 
peripheral  by  being  just  a  fan. 

What  made  over  100,000  Apple  owners  fall  in 
love  with  System  Saver?  The  answer  is  simple. 
It's  the  most  versatile,  most  convenient,  most 
useful  peripheral  ever  made  for  the  Apple. 

System  Saver  niters  out  damaging  AC  line 
noise  and  power  surges. 

70-90%  of  all  microcomputer  malfunctions  can  be 
traced  to  power  line  problems**  Problems  your 
System  Saver  guards  against. 

Power  line  noise  can  often  be  interpreted  as  data. 
This  confuses  your  computer  and  produces  system 
errors.  Power  surges  and  spikes  can  cause  severe 
damage  to  your  Apple's  delicate  circuitry  and  lead 
to  costly  servicing. 

System  Saver  clips  surges  and 

spikes  at  a  130  Volts  RMS/175  —  

Volts  dc  level.  A  PI  type  filter 
attenuates  common  and 
transverse  mode  noise  by  a 
minimum  of  30  dB  from  600 
kHz  to  20  mHz  with  a  max- 
imum attenuation  of  50  dB. 
You  end  up  with  an  Apple 
that's  more  accurate,  more  ™ 
efficient  and  more  reliable. 


System  Saver  lets  your  Apple  keep  its  cool. 

Today's  advanced  peripheral  cards  generate  heat.  In 
addition,  the  cards  block  any  natural  air  flow  through 
the  Apple  He  creating  high  temperature  conditions 
that  shorten  the  life  of  the  Apple  and  peripheral  cards. 

System  Saver's  efficient,  quiet 
fan  draws  fresh  air  across 
the  mother  board,  over 
the  power  supply  and 
out  the  side  ventilation 

slots.  It  leaves  your  Apple  cool,  calm  and  running 

at  top  speed. 

System  Saver  makes  your  Apple  more 
convenient  to  use. 

No  more  reaching  around  to  the  back  of  your  Apple 
to  turn  it  on.  No  more  fumbling  for  outlets  and  cords 
to  plug  in  your  monitor  and  printer.  System  Saver 
organizes  all  your  power  needs. 

So  if  you  want  to  keep 
damaging  heat,  line  noise  and  power  surges  out  of 
your  system  for  good,  pick  up  the  only  peripheral 
that's  in  use  every  second  your  computer  is  in  use. 
The  System  Saver.  You'll  soon  come  to  think  of  it  as 
the  piece  Apple  forgot. 

Compatible  with  Apple  stand 

apple  n 

It  functions  as  a  multi-outlet  power  strip  with  two 
switched  outlets.  Plus  System  Saver  offers  the 
ultimate  convenience;  a  front  mounted  power  switch 
for  fingertip  control  of  your  entire  system. 

$89.95  at  Apple  dealers  everywhere. 


251  Park  Avenue  South,  New  York,  NY  10010 
(212)  475-  5200    Telex :  467383  KML  NY 

*Softsel  Computer  Products  Hot  List  **PC  Magazine  March  1983 

System  Saver  is  UL  Listed.  System  Saver's  surge  suppression  circuitry  conforms  System  Saver  is  a  registered  trademark  of  Kensington  Microware  Ltd. 

to  IEEE  specification  507 1980,  Category  A  Available  in  220/240  Volts,  50/60  Hz  ©  1983  Kensington  Microware  Ltd.   System  Saver  is  patent  pending. 


&y  CAM  (AfcLSTOM 

Anyone  who  knows  anything  about  the  Apple  computer 
knows  that  the  Apple  is  not  just  a  computer,  it's  a  culture.  A  cul- 
ture that  includes  bluejeans  and  Softalk  and  a  million  inventive 
people  with  a  common  bond.  Apple,  in  the  form  of  its  founders 
Steve  and  Steve,  spawned  the  US  Festival  and  assured  us  that 
1984  would  not  be  like  1984  and  .  .  .  wait  a  minute.  To  the  rest  of 
the  world  Apple  is  just  another  computer;  no  more.  It  is  not  a 
cross  of  silver  that  protects  the  user  from  totalitarianism  (the  head 
of  the  Argentine  prison  system  is  an  Apple  owner)  and  bad 
bigness  and  three-piece  suits.  So  when  one  is  in  the  business  of 
exporting  Apples  and  associated  products  one  needs  to  distin- 
guish the  mystique  from  the  computer.  Both  may  be  exportable, 
just  as  California  can  export  the  sunshine  that  goes  into  her 
agricultural  products  along  with  the  products  themselves,  but  the 
seller  should  not  be  confused  as  to  which  is  which. 

In  thinking  about  the  Apple  market  overseas,  it's  best  to  start 
by  putting  the  size  of  the  market  in  perspective. 

Japan  may  be  a  wonderful  place  to  sell  salmon  and  Douglas 
fir,  but  as  a  market  for  Apple  software  it  ranks  about  as  high  as 
the  Minneapolis  metropolitan  area.  And  the  rest  of  the  world, 
meaning  predominately  Europe  and  Australia,  has  about  as  big  an 
Apple  software  appetite  as  Chicago— certainly  not  insignificant, 
but  small  enough  that  any  company  wishing  to  export  needs  to 
give  considerable  thought  to  what  its  overall  goals  in  foreign  Ap- 
ple markets  might  be. 

These  conditions  may  very  well  change.  Apple  is  well  posi- 
tioned to  expand  greatly  its  market  share  overseas,  where  the 
name  IBM  doesn't  so  readily  stand  in  its  way;  although  illegal 
Apple  clones  may  offset  this. 

At  present,  the  problem  of  exporting  Apple  software  can  be 
expressed  fairly  simply:  Is  it  profitable?  American  distributors, 
taking  advantage  of  the  same  economies  of  scale  that  enable  them 
to  function  in  the  United  States,  already  sell  American  product 
overseas,  so  there  may  be  no  incentive  at  all  for  suppliers  to  make 
their  own  contacts.  Distribution  is,  after  all,  a  valuable  and  ex- 
pensive service,  so  why  duplicate  the  effort? 

One  reason  is  the  wish  to  enhance  the  distributors'  efforts, 
rather  than  duplicate  them— by  providing  software  and  documen- 
tation in  the  local  language,  for  example.  A  U.S.  company  may 
wish  to  expend  an  extra  effort  to  gain  a  greater  market  share  in 
the  face  of  the  foreign  domestic  competition,  which  is  often  pro- 
tected by  trade  barriers.  The  very  willingness  to  export  can  lead 
to  reciprocal  arrangements  that  provide  the  American  company 
with  foreign  products  for  the  American  market. 

Sayonara.  The  Apple  software  market  in  Japan  has  probably 
never  exceeded  five  hundred  units  of  any  given  package.  Heavily 
documented  software  is  very  difficult  for  the  Japanese  to  use  be- 
cause English  isn't  widely  understood. 

Over  the  past  few  years  many  companies  have  translated 
packages  into  Japanese,  which  can  increase  the  market  penetra- 
tion of  the  product,  provided  it  doesn't  increase  the  price  signifi- 
cantly. Fortunately  for  American  suppliers,  the  Japanese  remain 
infatuated  by  American  creativity,  so  American  software  can 
command  higher  prices  than  local  products.  This  is  somewhat 
ironic:  Japan  is  the  only  foreign  country  whose  quality  of  enter- 
tainment software  approaches  American  standards  and  whose 
many  programmers  have  had  success  selling  their  programs  in  the 
U.S.  (through  American  publishers). 

In  an  effort  to  spur  its  domestic  software  industry,  Japan  is 
formulating  tighter  copyright  laws  to  lessen  the  impact  of  piracy 
and  is  exploring  hardware  standards.  The  MSX,  an  eight-bit  stan- 
dard built  around  a  Z-80  and  the  Texas  International  graphics 
chip,  will  enable  Japanese  companies  to  cut  their  teeth  on  a 
sizable  domestic  market  before  venturing  into  the  volatile 
American  and  European  markets. 

146  mvm 

Why  Don't  the  English  Teach  Their  Children.  ...  In  con- 
trast to  Japan,  Great  Britain  has  always  been  a  good  market  for 
Apple  software  but  has  never  been  a  successful  producer  of  prod- 
ucts for  the  American  market.  Favored  by  a  common  language 
and  relatively  little  red  tape,  American  suppliers  and  distributors 
have  long  found  a  steady  market  for  products  in  England.  This 
has  slowed  in  the  past  year  or  so  because  the  strength  of  the 
American  dollar  makes  U.S.  products  sell  for  two  to  four  times 
the  price  of  domestic  software  products. 

As  a  result,  English  software  companies  have  thrived.  The 
price  differential  has  spared  British  producers  from  being  com- 
pared point  by  point  against  technically  more  refined  American 
Apple  software  products.  The  long-term  prognosis,  however, 
would  seem  to  indicate  that  domestic  competition  in  Great  Britain 
will  result  in  significantly  improved  software,  just  as  it  has  here, 
and  that  American  software  will  be  priced  out  of  the  British 
market  when  that  occurs. 

American  software  suppliers  would  look  very  favorably  at  a  de- 
cline in  the  strength  of  the  dollar.  An  increase  in  the  relative 
strength  of  the  pound  or  the  mark  means  that  American  goods 
priced  in  dollars  become  less  expensive  in  foreign  markets.  For  ex- 
ample, presently  an  American-made  game  for  the  Apple  computer 
costs  twenty-five  to  thirty-five  pounds  sterling  in  England,  com- 
pared to  eight  to  twelve  pounds  for  an  English-made  game.  Four 
years  ago,  when  the  dollar  was  not  so  strong,  that  same  American 
game  would  have  cost  ten  to  fifteen  pounds  sterling  while  the  Eng- 
lish game  would  still  have  cost  eight  to  twelve  pounds. 

It's  Very  Fancy,  the  Continental.  On  the  European  conti- 

A  L  K  MAY  1984 

nent,  many  software  vendors  are  looking  at  major  European  dis- 
tributors to  help  translate  and  sell  American  products.  France  has 
a  law  requiring  French  documentation  for  all  software  sold  there, 
and,  though  the  law  is  inconsistently  enforced,  it  creates  un- 
certainty around  American  products  that  don't  have  French 

In  addition,  the  role  of  the  distributor  in  Europe  is  different 
from  what  it  is  here.  Distributors  are  the  exclusive  representa- 
tives of  the  products  they  carry,  with  marketing  and  customer  ser- 
vice obligations  beyond  those  of  American  distribution  com- 
panies. The  person  on  the  street  in  Europe  tends  to  know  the 
names  of  the  major  product  distributors,  because  the  distributors 
are  contractually  bound  to  advertise  and  serve  the  products  of  the 
manufacturers  they  represent.  American  distributors  are  more 
geared  toward  serving  the  retailer,  usually  not  assuming  as  many 
marketing  and  service  responsibilities  for  the  manufacturer. 

A  major  part  of  any  business  transaction,  whether  it's  a  con- 
sumer buying  a  piece  of  software  or  a  store  agreeing  to  buy  the 
software  from  the  manufacturer,  is  confidence.  The  difficulty 
anyone  faces  in  doing  business  overseas  is  trying  to  establish  the 
same  confidence  in  a  short  series  of  meetings  that  they  have  been 
able  to  establish  at  home  over  a  period  of  years.  If  you  were  try- 
ing to  publish  your  products  in  Germany,  for  example,  and  you 
were  approached  by  someone  from  Bertelsmen  Publishing  and 
someone  from  KomputerGesellschaft  of  Berlin,  would  you  know 
that  the  former  is  a  $2.5-billion  company  and  the  latter  a  name 
made  up  for  this  article? 

Tales  of  the  South  Pacific.  Australia  has  proven  to  be  an  in- 
teresting challenge  for  American  producers.  The  Australian  mar- 
ket is  relatively  small  and  difficult  to  service  because  of  its  geo- 
graphical size.  In  addition,  the  Australian  business  environment 
is  untamed  and  very  competitive.  Interviewing  Australian 
distributors  is  similar  to  taking  part  in  small  talk  at  a  poolside 
party  at  J.R.  Ewing's  house.  Words  like  biggest,  richest,  and 
control  seem  to  fit  in  when  Australians  discuss  business.  But  the 
winner  of  the  shootout  at  the  Aussie  corral  seems  to  be  a  mild- 
mannered,  bespectacled  young  organization  named  Imagineer- 
ing.  American  companies  looking  for  a  partner  down  under  have 
reacted  positively  to  Imagineering's  management  style,  which 
favors  footwork  over  breast-beating. 

The  chances  of  getting  products  into  Australia  without  having 
to  pay  a  hefty  40  percent  customs  duty  depend  very  much  on 
whether  the  customs  agent  on  duty  on  a  given  day  thinks  that  soft- 
ware ought  to  be  classified  as  a  toy  or  as  stationery  or  plain 
doesn't  know  what  it  is. 

Because  of  the  customs  problem,  many  software  manufac- 
turers have  chosen  to  have  their  software  mastered  (duplicated  in 
quantity  from  a  master  disk)  in  overseas  locations.  This  practice 
enables  foreign  distributors  to  meet  demand  more  quickly  and 
cheaply,  which  is  a  major  key  to  preventing  pirated  software 
from  dominating  foreign  markets. 

Programmers  from  Australia  and  New  Zealand  have  had 
some  good  success  in  the  United  States  market.  Many  Apple 
owners  may  be  fans  of  Southern  Command,  Dragon 's  Eye,  or  the 
Zardax  word  processor  without  realizing  they're  contributing  to 
our  balance-of-payments  deficit. 

The  Apples  of  Babel.  Apple's  software  base  gives  Apple 
Computer  a  powerful  weapon  in  the  fight  for  new  foreign  hard- 
ware markets.  Purchasing  decisions  in  developing  nations  are 
likely  to  be  based  on  stability  and  support.  As  these  markets 
grow,  so  too  will  the  demand  for  software  in  ever-more-obscure 
languages,  and  the  challenge  to  understand  foreign  languages 
and  cultures  will  become  increasingly  important  in  the  software 

Translating  the  Apple  "culture"  into  foreign  environments 
may  be  one  of  the  most  interesting  parts  of  the  task.  9 


Years  ago,  we  collared  a  deal  with  Japan— eventually  worth  mil- 
lions—by leaving  a  copy  of  Harvard  magazine  on  the  coffee  table. 
Not  knowing  anything  about  Japan,  but  thinking  that  foreigners  often 
value  education  over  money,  our  company  officers  hoped  to  compen- 
sate for  their  lack  of  funds.  Upon  entering  die  office  (a  living  room), 
the  president  of  the  Japanese  company  saw  the  magazine  and  jumped 
into  a  three-day  conversation  on  world  history,  literature,  and  West- 
ern moral  thought.  At  the  end  of  the  three  days,  he  signed  a  deal  with 
us  without  ever  completing  his  itinerary  of  American  suitors. 


I  once  went  to  New  Zealand  at  the  request  of  a  distributor  who 
wanted  nationwide  rights  to  our  Apple  product.  When  I  got  there,  die 
New  Zealander  asked  me  to  help  him  set  up  the  Apple  because  he'd 
never  seen  one  before. 


Last  year  we  received  a  letter  from  England  that  began,  "Dear 
Sir,  we  are  probably  the  least  successful  software  publisher  in 
England,  with  die  worst  sales  force,  the  lousiest  typist,  and  the  most 
inept  board  of  directors  in  the  country.  ...  If  you  don't  want  our 
software,  we  can  live  with  it,  because  we  are  pigheaded  enough  to 
believe  that  this  computer  genius  we  have  locked  up  in  the  basement 
will  eventually  come  up  with  something  useful." 

Their  games  were  the  best  I  had  ever  seen  from  England. 


Just  before  the  British- Argentine  war  over  the  Falkland  Islands, 
we  had  a  regular  customer  in  the  Falklands  who  was  asking  for 
islandwide  rights.  We  didn't  ask  whether  he  wanted  both  English  and 
Spanish  rights. 


We've  had  requests  for  Lebanese  educational  rights,  rights  for  the 
South  African  "coloured"  market,  and  Polish  rights;  we've  even  had 
a  request  from  the  director  of  Argentinean  prisons — during  their  reign 
of  terror— for  more  combat  simulations.  The  lesson  seems  to  be  that, 
no  matter  what  goes  on  in  the  world,  people  want  software  and  wdl 
eventually  want  it  to  reflect  their  culture,  however  remote  from  the 
peaceful  traffic  jams  of  Silicon  Valley.  C(  31 


Centipede  $28.00 

Defender  $28.00 

Pac-Man  $28.00 

Robotron  2084  28.00 


T.A.C  $28.00 

Telengard  28.00 


Computer  Golf  2  $25.00 


Alpha  Plot  $28  00 

Apple  Mechanic   21.00 

Beagle  Bag  21.00 

Beagle  Basic   28.00 

DOS  Boss  20  00 

Double  Take   25.00 

Flex  Text/Type   21.00 

Frame  Up  21.00 

Pronto  DOS  21.00 

Tip  Disk  #1  15.00 

Typefaces  15.00 

Utility  City  21  00 


Baron  $42  00 

Millionaire  42.00 

Tycoon   42.00 


A.E  $25.00 

Bank  Street  Writer   48  00 

Choplifter  25  00 

Drol   25  00 

Gumball   21.00 

Lode  Runner  25.00 

Spare  Change  25.00 


Ultima/Akalabeth  $25.00 


Goren:  Learning  Bridge 

Made  Easy  $56.00 

Mastering  the  SAT  105.00 

Mystery  Master  25.00 

Success  With  Math  . .  .ea.  20.00 


Aztec  $28.00 

Bilestoad  28  00 

Casino  28.00 

Swashbuckler   25  00 

Theif   21.00 


Zaxxon   $28.00 


The  Accountant   $99.00 

Business  Accountant . .  .225.00 


Creature  Creator  $28.00 

Crypto-Cube  28.00 

Spellicopter  28.00 

Trap-A-Zoid  28,00 


Algebra  1-4  ea  $28.00 

Algebra  5  &  6  35.00 

Compu-Read  21.00 

Decimals  35.00 

Fractions  35  00 

Prisoner  2  25.00 

Rendezvous  28.00 


Einstein  Compiler  $99.00 

Memory  Trainer   68.00 


Archon   $28.00 

Axis  Assassin  25.00 

Dr.  J  &  Larry  Bird  Go 

One-on-One  26.00 

Hard  Hat  Mack   25.00 

Last  Gladiator   25.00 

Music  Construction 

Set  28.00 

Pinball  Construction 

Set  28.00 

Standing  Stones  28.00 


Super  Taxman  2  $20.00 

Vindicator  20.00 


Go   $25.00 

MicroMath   ea.  21.00 

ORCA/M  99.00 

Pie  Writer  2.2  112.00 

Sargon  III   35.00 


Tax  Preparer  1 983  ....$169.00 
Tax  Preparer  1 984   CALL 


Deadline  $35.00 

Enchanter  35.00 

Infidel   35.00 

Planetfall  35.00 

Starcross  28.00 

Suspended  35.00 

Witness  35.00 

Zork  I.  II,  III   ea  28.00 


Koala  Touch  Tablet  ....  $89.00 

Coloring  Book  21,99 

Spider  Eater  21.00 


Krell  Logo  $75.00 

Krell  SAT   249.00 


Crossword  Magic  $35.00 


Master  Type  $28.00 


Death  in  Carribean  $25.00 

Dino  Eggs  28.00 

Miner  2049er   28  00 


Cubit  $28.00 

(Call  for  pricing  on 
MICROMAX  hardware) 


MultiPlan  $175.00 

Olympic  Decathlon   21.00 

Typing  Tutor  II   20.00 


Dollars  &  Sense  $79.00 

No  Hidden  Charges 
No  Charge  for  Credit  Cards 
No  Shipping  Delay  for  Personal  Checks 


Advanced  Blackjack  $35.00 

Castle  Wolfenstein  21.00 

Caverns  of  Freitag   21  00 

Eating  Machine  35.00 

Robot  War   28.00 

Super  Text  79.00 


Chess  7.0   $49.00 

Checkers   35.00 

Odin  35.00 


Chart  Trader  +  $149.00 

Inspector  45.00 

Locksmith  5.0   75.00 

Watson   35.00 


Exodus:  Ultima  III  $40.00 



Hayes  Joysticks  . . .  CALL 

Kraft  Joystick  40.00 

Kraft  Paddles  35.00 


Apple  Cat  II  $295.00 

Apple  Cat  212   580.00 

Micromodem  lie  . .  259.00 
(Works  with  all  Apples) 


Grappler  +  $125.00 


buffer    199.00 

Orange  Interface  . .  75.00 


Ultraterm  $279.00 

Videoterm   CALL 

BLANK  DISKS  (box  of  10) 
Elephant  SS/SD  . .  $22.00 
Elephant  SS/DD  . . .  25.00 

Maxell  SS/DD  30.00 

Verbatim  SS/DD  . . .  28.00 
Disk  File  Box 

(holds  60)   20.00 


Alaska  Card  $99.00 


Softcard   225.00 

System  Saver   65.00 


Bouncing  Kamungas  . . .  $15  00 

Comp.  Graphics  Sys  49.00 

Coveted  Mirror   15.00 

Crime  Wave  15.00 

Graphics  Magacian   42.00 

Minit  Man  15.00 

Pensate  15.00 

Pie  Man  15.00 

Quest  15.00 

Short  Cuts   28.00 

Special  Effects  28.00 

Spy's  Demise  15.00 

Spy  Strikes  Back  15 .00 

Thunderbombs  15.00 

Transylvania  15.00 


Masquerde  $25.00 

Sherwood  Forest  25.00 


Ken  Uston's  Professional 
Blackjack   $49.00 


Bookends  $99.00 

Sensible  Speller   99.00 


Adv.  #0  Mission 

Asteroid   $15.00 

Adv.  #1  Mystery 

House   15.00 

Adv.  #2  Wizard  &  the 

Princess   25.00 

Adv.  #3Cranston 

Manor   25.00 

Adv.  #4  Ulysses  25.00 

Adv.  #5  Time  Zone  70.00 

Adv.  #6  Dark  Crystal  ....  28.00 

Dragon's  Keep  21.00 

Frogger  25.00 

Learning  W/Leeper  21.00 

Mr.  Cool   21.00 

Quest  for  Tires   25.00 

Sammy  Lightfoot   21.00 

Troll's  Tale  21 .00 

Ultima  II   42.00 

The  Artist  60.00 

Homeword  37.00 

Screenwriter  II  89.00 


Word  Handler   $45.00 

List  Handler  40.00 

Spell  Handler  45.00 

The  Handlers  Pkg  99.00 


Wizardry  $35.00 

Knight  of  Diamonds  25.00 

Legacy  of  LLylgamyn  . . .  28.00 
Wiziprint  20.00 

4200  PARK  BLVD. 
(415)  482-3391 

Ordering  Information:  We'll  accept  any  form  of  payment — cash,  personal  check,  money  order,  VISA/ 
MasterCard,  or  C  O  D.  Send  cash  at  your  own  risk.  Add  $2.00  for  UPS  shipping;  $3.00  for  Blue  Label 
Air.  California  residents  add  applicable  sales  tax.  ALL  orders  shipped  same  day  received.  If  we  are  out 
of  stock  on  a  particular  item  we  will  include  a  special  bonus  with  your  order  when  shipped. 

800-321-7770  (outside  California) 
800-321-7771  (inside  California) 


Critical  Mass   $28  00 

Gamma  Goblins  12  00 

Gorgon   20  00 

Gruds  in  Space  28  00 

Orbitron   12.00 

Repton  28  00 

Type  Attack  28  00 

Wayout   28  00 



Playground  $20  00 

Stellar  7  28  00 


PFS:  File  $95.00 

PFS:  Report  95  00 

PFS:  Graph  95.00 

PFS:  Write  95.00 

(Specify  for  II  or  lie) 


Alphabet  Zoo  $21.00 

Delta  Drawing   35.00 

Face  Maker  25.00 

Kindercomp  21.00 

Most  Amazing  Thing  ....  28  00 

Snooper  Troops   ea.  32.00 

Story  Machine  25.00 

Trains   28.00 


Bomb  Alley  $42  00 

Broadsides  28.00 

Carrier  Force  42  00 

Computer  Ambush  42.00 

Computer  Baseball  28.00 


Quarterback  28.00 

Cosmic  Balance  ea.  28.00 

Eagles  28.00 

Fighter  Command  42.00 

Fortress  25.00 

Galactic  Adventures  42.00 

Geopolitique  1990    28.00 

Germany  1985   42.00 

Knights  of  the  Desert  28.00 

North  Atlantic  '86   42.00 

Prof.  Tour  Golf   28.00 

RDF  1985   25.00 

Ringside  Seat  28.00 

Tigers  in  the  Snow  28.00 

Warp  Factor  28.00 


DB  Master  V.4  $279.00 


Flight  Simulator  II  $35.00 

Night  Mission  Pinball  21.00 

Saturn  Navigator  25.00 

Space  Vikings   35.00 


Essential  Data 
Duplicator  $60.00 


Mask  of  the  Sun   $28.00 

Serpent's  Star   28.00 


VisiCalc  $175.00 

VisiCalc  lie  175.00 

VisiCalc  Adv.  Me  220.00 

VisiFile  175.00 


Chivalry  $35.00 

Fat  City  28.00 

Old  Ironsides  28.00 

Stickybear  ABC  28.00 

Basketbounce  28.00 

Bop   28.00 

Numbers  28.00 

Opposites  28.00 

Shapes   28.00 

Apple  Mechanic's  hi-res  ) 
type  routines  and  fonts  are 
usable  in  your  programs 
FEE.  Just  give  Beagle  Bros 
credit  on  your  disk  and  . 
documentation.  J 



$29.50  Includes  Peeks/Pokes  Chart  &  Tip  Book  #5. 
SHAPE  EDITOR:  Keyboard-draw  hi-res  shapes 
foranimation  in  your  Applesoft  programs.  Access  & 
create  proportionally-spaced  hi-res  Typefaces  with 
each  character  re-definable  as  you  want.  Six  fonts 
are  included  on  the  disk.  Excellent  LISTable  Apple- 
soft demos  show  you  how  to  animate  graphics  and 
create  professional-looking  Charts  and  Graphs. 
BYTE-ZAP:  Rewrite  any  byte  on  a  disk  for  repair 
or  alteration  Load  entire  sectors  on  the  screen  for 
inspection,  Hex/Dec/Ascii  displays  and  input.  Edu- 
cational experiments  included  for  making  trick  file 
names,  restoring  deleted  files,  changing  DOS,  etc. 
MORE:  Useful  music,  text  and  hi-res  tricks  for  your 
programs  Clear  educational  documentation. 
_    AppLE  MEC||AN|C  — 



$20.00  Includes  Peeks  &  Pokes  Chart 
26  NEW  FONTS  for  use  with  Apple  Mechanic 
programs.  Many  different  sizes  and  typestyles.  both 
ordinary  and  c5\rtistic.  Every  character— from  A  to 
Z  to  "*"  to  "□"—of  every  typeface— from  "Ace"  to 
"Zooloo" — is  re-definable  to  suit  your  needs.  All 
typefaces  are  proportionally  spaced  for  a  more  pro- 
fessional appearance  People  do  notice  the  difference1 
BEAGLE  MENU:  Display  only  the  file  names  you 
want  from  your  disks  (for  example,  only  Applesoft 
or  only  Locked  files)  for  fast 
one-key  cursor  selection 




-^gVH  •    INCLUDING  TIP  DISK  #2 

$24.00  Includes  Peeks/Pokes  Chart  &  Tip  Book  #2. 
sages— "Catalog"  can  be  "Cat";  "Syntax  Error"  can 
be  "Oops"  or  almost  anything  you  want  it  to  be 
rized Save-attempt  can  produce  a  "Not  Copyable" 
message,  or  any  message  you  want.  Also  easy  List- 
Prevention  and  other  useful  Apple  tips  and  tricks. 
Plus  one-key  program-execution  from  catalog. 
CUSTOMIZE  DOS.  Change  the  catalog  Disk 
Volume  heading  to  your  message  or  title.  Omit  or 
alter  catalog  file  codes.  Fascinating  documentation, 
tips  and  educational  Apple  experiments 
ANYONE  USING  YOUR  DISKS  (booted  or 
not)  will  be  using  DOS  the  way  YOU  designed  it. 


GOTO  your 
Apple  Software 
Store  for  Beagle  Bros 
products.  If  he  is  out  of  a 
particular  disk,  get  on  his 
case.  He  can  have  any 
Beagle  Bros  disk  for  you 
within  a  couple  of  days  by  phoning  I 
ANY  Apple  Software  Distributor. 

RUSH  the  following  disks  by  First  Class  Mail  — 

(176)*256+36  TO  3072:  POKE  ZZ.216:  NEXT 

20  FOR  XXX  1  TO  2:  POKE-16299,0:  POKE 
-16300,0:  XXX  1:  NEXT:  REM  Experiment 
with  different  length  variable  names. 



$29.50:  Includes  Peeks  &  Pokes  Chart  ^. 
COMPARE  BEAGLE  BAG  with  any  single- 
game  Locked-Up  disk  on  the  market  today. 
^J^i  All  12  games  are  a  blast,  the  price  is  a  bar- 
%f  L  gain,  the  instructions  are  crystal  clear,  and 
the  disk  is  COPYABLE   You  can  even 
change  the  programs  or  list  them  to  learn 
)_Jx^  programming  tricks  by  seeing  how  they  work. 
TWELVE  GAMES  from  the  Applesoft  Ace,  Bert 
Kersey—  TextTram,  Wowzo,  Magic  Pack,  Buzz- 
word, Slippery  Digits,  and  many  many  more... 
EXCELLENT  REVIEWS-See  Jan-83  Softalk. 
p  148  Beagle  Menu  too:  see  Typefaces  description 

□  Apple  Mechanic 

□  AM  Typefaces  . 

□  Beagle  BASIC 


□  Frame-Up 

$29  50 

29  50 

□  GPLE  

49  95 


□  ProntoDOS 

29  50 

29  50 

□  Silicon  Salad  . 

.  .  24  95 


□  Tip  Disk  1*1 

20  00 

29  50 

□  Utility  City 

29  50 



34  95 

□  ADD  ME  to  mailing  list 

29  50 


mail  list 

□  Flex  Type  .  .  . 


Or  order  directly  from  Beagle  Bros — 

Visa  MasterCard  or  COD.  call  TOLL-FREE 
Orders  only  /  ALL  50  STATES  /  24  Hours  a  Day 

1 -800-2 2 7-3800  ext.  1  eo? 

OR  mail  U  S  Check.  Money-Order  or  Visa  MC» 

to  BEAGLE  BROS,  8th  Floor 
4315  SIERRA  VISTA.  SAN  DIEGO.  CA  92103 

Ailri  SI  50  Fust  Class  Shipping  Any-Si*e  Order 
Overseas  add  S4  00  COD  add  S3  00  Calilornia  add  6°o 

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APPLE  II,  11+  AND  He.* 
(Don't  Settle  for  Less!) 

•DISKQUIK  requires  Apple  lie. 
"APPLE"  is  a  Registered  Trade  Mark  of  You-Know-Who 

$24.95:  Includes  Peeks/Pokes  AND  Commands  Charts 

MANY  MINI-UTILITIES:  Disk  Scanner  finds 
bad  disk  sectors,  Key-Clicker  adds  subtle  sound  as 
you  type,  DOS-Killer  adds  two  tracks  of  space  to 
your  disks.  2-Track  Cat  allows  up  to  210  file  names 
per  disk,  Program  Splitter  makes  room  tor  hi-res  pix 
with  large  Applesoft  programs,  Text  Imprinter  trans- 
fers text  to  the  hi-res  screen,  OnerrTell  Me  prints  the 
appropriate  error  message  but  continues  program 
execution,  Text  Screen  Formatter  converts  text 
layouts  into  Print  statements  ,  plus  much  more 
Apple  wizardry  from  the  boys  at  Beagle  Bros. 
MORE  TIPS  ON  DISK:  Including  fantastic  pro- 
gramming tricks  from  Beagle  Bros  Tip  Books  5,  6 
and  7,  plus  programs  from  Tips/Tricks  Chart  #1. 

TWO-LINERS  TOO:  From  our  customers  around 
the  world — and  elsewhere.  Little  mind-blowers  that 
will  teach  your  old  Apple  some  new  tricks! 

TIP  DISK  #1 

 by  BERT  KERSEY  ( 

$20.00:  Includes  Peeks  &  Pokes  Chart 
100  LISTABLE  PROGRAMS  from  Beagle 
Bros  Tip  Books  1-4.  Make  your  Apple  do  things  it's 
never  done1  All  100  programs  are  LISTable  and 
changeable  for  Apple  experimentation. 
each  Tip  Disk;  an  1 1  x  17  poster  of  all  Applesoft. 
Integer  Basic  &  DOS  Commands  with  Descriptions' 





$29.50:  Includes  Peeks  &  Pokes  Chart 
res  screens  with  normal  Applesoft  commands 
(including  HTAB  1-70).  Normal,  expanded  &  com- 
pressed text  with  no  extra  hardware.  (70-column 
text  requires  a  monochrome  monitor,  not  a  tv) 
ADD  GRAPHICS  TO  TEXT  or  add  Text  to  hires 
graphics  Run  your  existing  Applesoft  programs 
under  Flex  Type  control.  Fast,  easy  to  use,  and 
Compatible  with  GPLE  and  Double-Take 
DOS  TOOL  KIT"  font  compatibility,  or  use  the 
supplied  Flex  Type  typefaces  Select  up  to  9  fonts 
with  control-key  commands  A  text  character  editor 
lets  you  redesign  any  Apple  text  character. 



$29.50:  Includes  Peeks  &  Pokes  Chart 

your  existing  Hi-Res,  Lo-Res  and  Text  frames  into 
attractive  Apple  "slide  shows".  FAST  hi-res  loads  in 
2'/?-secondsl  Paddle  or  Keyboard-advance  frames. 
UNATTENDED  SHOWS  are  optional,  with  each 
picture  arranged  and  pre-programmed  to  display 
on  the  screen  from  1  to  99  seconds  Custom  Text 
Screen  Editor  lets  you  create  black-and-white  text 
"slides"  and  add  type  "live"  from  the  keyboard  during 
shows.  Mail  copies  of  presentations  on  disk  to  your 
friends  and  associates  (or  home  to  Mom!). 

&  GPLE 


$49.95:  Includes  Peeks/Pokes  Chart  &  Tip  Book  #7. 

GPLE  lets  you  edit  Applesoft  program  lines  FAST 
without  awkward  cursor-tracing  and  "escape  editing". 
INSERT  &  DELETE:  GPLE  works  like  a  word 
processor  for  Applesoft  program  lines.  You  make 
changes  instantly  by  lumping  the  cursor  to  the 
change  point  and  inserting  or  deleting  text.  No  need 
to  trace  to  the  end  of  a  line  before  hitting  Return 
word  or  variable  in  your  programs,  FAST.  For 
example,  find  all  lines  containing  a  GOSUB,  or  edit 
or  delete  all  lines  with  REM  statements,  or  all  occur- 
rences of  any  variable  Replace  any  variable,  word 
or  character  with  any  other.  For  example,  change  all 
X's  to  ABC's,  or  all  "Horse"  strings  to  "Cow" 
80-COLUMN  COMPATIBILITY:  All  edit  &  glo- 
bal features  support  Apple  Me  80-column  cards  and 
most  80-column  cards  on  any  Apple  lie.  11+  or  II. 
plus  any  key  to  perform  any  task.  For  example. 
ESC-1  can  catalog  drive  1 ,  ESC-L  can  do  a  "HOME: 
LIST",  ESC-N  could  type  an  entire  subroutine.. 
Anything  you  want,  whenever  you  want. 
GPLE  DOS  MOVER:  Move  DOS  and  GPLE  to 
Language  Card  (or  lie  upper  16K)  for  an  EXTRA 
10,000  Bytes  (10K)  of  programmable  memory. 
Plus  APPLE  TIP  BOOK  #7:  Learn  more  about 
your  Apple!  Includes  all  new  GPLE  tips  and  tricks. 



$29.50:  Includes  Peeks/Pokes  Chart  &  Tip  Book  #3 
LIST  FORMATTER  prints  each  program  state- 
ment on  a  new  line.  Loops  indented  with  printer 
Page  Breaks.  A  great  Applesoft  program  de-bugger 
MULTI-COLUMN  CATALOGS,  with  or  without 
sector  and  file  codes.  Organize  your  disk  library. 
INVISIBLE  and  trick  catalog  file  names.  Invisible 
functioning  commands  in  Applesoft  programs  too. 
MUCH  MORE:  21  utilities,  including  auto-post 
Run-number  &  Date  in  programs,  alphabetize/store 
info  on  disk,  convert  dec  to  hex  or  Int  to  FP,  protect 
and  append  programs,  dump  text  to  printer... 
LEARN  PROGRAMMING:  List-able  programs 
and  informative  documentation.  Includes  Tip  Book 
#3.  Hours  of  good  reading  &  Applesoft  experiments. 



$39.50:  Includes  Peeks/Pokes  Chart  &  Tip  Book  #4. 
DRAW  IN  HI-RES  on  both  Apple  "pages"  using 
easy  keyboard  commands  OR  paddles/joystick. 
Pre-view  lines  before  plotting.  Solid  or  mixed  colors 
&  Reverse  (background-opposite)  drawing.  FAST 
one-keystroke  circles,  boxes  &  ellipses,  filled  or  out- 
lined. Add  text  for  graphs  &  charts.  All  pix  Save-able 
to  disk,  to  be  called  from  your  Applesoft  programs. 
COMPRESS  HI-RES  DATA  to  1/3  disk  space 
(average)  allowing  more  hi-res  pictures  per  disk. 
MANIPULATE  IMAGES:  Superimpose  any  two 
images,  or  RE-LOCATE  any  rectangular  section  of 
any  drawing  anywhere  on  either  hi-res  page. 
HI-RES  TYPE:  Add  text  to  your  pictures  with 
adjustable  character-size  and  large-character  color 
Type  anywhere  with  no  HtabA/tab  limits  Type 
sideways  too,  for  graphs.  Includes  Tip  Book  #4. 

4315  SIERRA  VISTA  /  SAN  DIEGO,  CA  92103 

APPLE  II,  11+  AND  lie.* 

(Don't  Settle  for  Less!) 

*  DISKQUIK  requires  Apple  lie 
"APPLE"  is  a  Registered  Trade  Mark  of  You-Know-Who 



$34.95:  Includes  Peeks/Pokes  Chart  &  Tip  Book  #6. 

Requires  Apple  lie  (OR  11/11+  with  RAM  Card) 

Error  Message  to  anything  you  want.  For  program 
clarification,  encryption/protection  or  even  foreign 
translation.  Plus  add  optional  NEW  COMMANDS: 
ELSE  follows  If-Then  statements,  like  this: 
HSCRN  reads  color  of  any  hi-res  dot  for  collision 
testing.  SWAP  X,Y  exchanges  2  variables'  values. 
New  TONE  command  writes  music  with  no  messy 
pokes  &  calls  SCRL  scrolls  text  in  either  direction 
TXT2  lets  Text  Page  2  act  exactly  like  Page  1. 
PLUS:  GOTO  &  GOSUB  may  precede  variables, 
as  in  "GOSUB  FIX"  or  "GOTO  4+X".  Escape-mode 
indicated  by  special  ESC  CURSOR.  Replace  awk- 
ward Graphics  screen-switch  pokes  with  1-word 
commands.  Change  ctrl-G  Beep  to  any  tone. 
INVERSE  REMS  tool  All  GPLE  compatible. 

1  FOR  S768  TO  773:  READ  A: 
POKE  S.A;  NEXT.  POKE  232,0: 
POKE  233,3:  DATA  1,0,4,0,5,0 

2  HGR2:  FOR  R  =  0  TO  192:  ROT  fl: 
SCALE-96:  XDRAW  1  AT  140,95: 
SCALE  =  30:  XDRAW  1  AT  140,95: 
S=PEEK(49200):  NEXT:  RUN 




$29.50  Includes  Peeks  &  Pokes  Chart 
Requires  Apple  lie  with  Extended  80-column  Card 
ACTS  LIKE  A  DISK  DRIVE  in  Slot  3.  but  much 
faster,  quieter,  more  reliable  and  $350+  cheaper1 
En|oy  the  benefits  of  a  2nd  (or  3rd  or  4th  )  drive  at 
less  than  1/10th  the  price.  Catalogs  normally  with 
"CATALOG,  S3"  command  Load  &  Save  any  kind 
of  files  into  RAM  with  normal  DOS  commands 
SILENT  AND  FAST:  Since  no  moving  parts  are 
involved.  DiskQuik  operates  silently  and  at  super- 
high speeds  See  it  to  believe  it  Your  Apple  lie's 
Extended  80-column  Card  (required)  can  hold 
about  half  the  amount  of  data  as  a  5  V  floppy  disk1 
MANY  USES:  For  example,  auto-load  often-used 
files  like  FID  etc  ,  etc.,  into  RAM  when  you  boot  up, 
so  they  are  always  available  when  you  need  them 
Copy  files  from  RAM  onto  disk  and  vice  versa,  just 
as  if  a  disk  drive  were  connected  to  slot  #3 
FRIENDLY  &  COMPATIBLE  with  80  column 
display,  GPLE,  ProntoDOS,  and  all  normal  Apple- 
soft and  DOS  commands  and  procedures  Will  not 
interfere  with  Apple  lie  "Double  Hi-Res"  graphics 

GOTO  any  Software  Store  for  Beagle  ESroj 
if  they  are  out  of  a  particular  disk, 
get  on  the  stick,  and^a 
619-296-6400  p 

our  di: 
to  Uncle 
are  unprot 
floppies  wj 



$34.95:  Includes  Peeks/Pokes  AND  Tips/Tricks  Charts 
2-WAY  SCROLLING:  Listings  &  Catalogs  scroll 
Up  AND  Down,  making  file  names  and  program 
lines  much  easier  to  access  Change  the  Catalog  or 
List  scroll-direction  at  will,  with  Apple's  Arrow  keys 
80-COLUMN  COMPATIBLE:  All  features  sup 
port  lie  and  most  other  80-column  cards. 
BETTER  LIST  FORMAT:  Each  program  state- 
ment lists  on  a  new  line  for  FAST  program  tracing  & 
de-bugging.  Printer-compatible;  any  column-width 
VARIABLE-DISPLAY:  Displays  all  of  a  pro- 
gram's strings  and  variables  with  current  values 
CROSS-REFERENCE:  Sorts  and  displays  line 
numbers  where  each  variable  &  string  appears 
AUTO-LINE-NUMBER.  Hex/Dec  Converter,  bet- 
ter Renumber/Append,  Program  Stats,  Change 
Cursor,  Space-On-Disk  GPLE/Pronto  compatible 

□  Alpha  Plot  S39  50 

□  Apple  Mechanic  .  .  .  29.50 

□  AM  Typefaces  ....  2000 

□  Beagle  Bag   29.50 

□  Beagle  BASIC  ....  34.95 

□  DiskQuik   29  50 

□  DOS  Boss   24.00 

□  Double-Take   34.95 

□  Flex  Type   29.50 

□  Frame-Up   S29  50 

□  GPLE   49  95 

□  ProntoDOS   29  50 

□  Silicon  Salad  ....  2495 

□  Tip  Disk  #1    20  00 

□  Utility  City   29  50 


□  ADD  ME  to  mailing  list 

□  ALREADY  ON  mail  list 


Or  order  directly  from  Beagle  Bros— 



$29.50:  Includes  Peeks  &  Pokes  Chart 
TRIPLES  THE  SPEED  of  disk  access  and  frees 
10,000  bytes  of  extra  memory  by  moving  DOS 
Function  Normal  Pronto 

BLOAD  HI-RES  IMAGE  10  sec.  3  sec. 

LOAD  60-SECTOR  PROGRAM  ...  16  sec.  4  sec. 
SAVE  60-SECTOR  PROGRAM  ...  24  sec.  9  sec. 

BLOAD  LANGUAGE  CARD   13  sec  4  sec. 

(Text  Files:  No  Change) 
Boot  the  Pronto  disk  or  your  updated  disks,  created 

with  the  normal  INIT  command.  Compatible  with  all   I  <    Visa/MasterCard  or  COD.  call  TOLL-FREE 
DOS  Commands,  GPLE,  Double-Take,  DOS  Boss,   |  <  Orders  only  /  ALL  50  STATES  /  24  Hours  a  Day 
DiskQuik  and  almost  all  unprotected  programs        m^M   OZ\/\  00/\S\ 
MOVE  DOS  to  your  Language  Card,  RAM  Card,  ■£  1"800-ZZ7-3o00  ext.  1607 

or  standard  Apple  lie  upper  16K,  freeing  up  10,000 
EXTRA  BYTES  of  memory  for  your  programs 
15  EXTRA  SECTORS  per  disk.  Catalog  Free- 
Space  displayed  every  time  you  catalog  a  disk 
TYPE-COMMAND  ("TYPE  filename")  prints  con- 
tents of  sequential  Text  Files  on  screen  or  printer. 

OR  mail  U  S  Check.  Money-Order  or  Visa  MC« 

to  BEAGLE  BROS  7th  Floor 
4315  SIERRA  VISTA.  SAN  DIEGO.  CA  92103 

Add  S1  50  First  Class  Shipping  Any-Size  Ordor 
Overseas  add  S4  00  COD  add  S3  00  California  add  6".. 



The  SWITCH-A-SLOT  is  an  expansion  chassis,  which 
allows  theusertopluginuptofourpenpheralcardsatone 
time  One  of  these  cards  is  selected  for  use,  and  only  that 
card  draws  power. 

This  product  is  especially  useful  where  the  software 
requires  the  printer  to  be  in  a  particular  slot,  and  the  user 
wishes  to  choose  between  two  or  more  printers. 

•  Allows  up  to  four  peripheral  cards  to  be  plugged  into  one 
peripheral  slot 

•  User  selects  desired  card  by  front  panel  rotary  switch 

•  Only  selected  card  draws  power 

•  Plugs  into  any  peripheral  slot, 

•  Saves  wear  and  tear  on  delicate  connectors 

•  18"  cable  connects  Switch-a-slot  to  computer 

New— resistive  terminations  lor  better  response 



36  "Cable  $189.50 

well  with  all  slow  to  medium  speed  cards, 
such  as  Modems,  Printers,  Clock,  80  Column, 
Music,  etc.  They  are  not  recommended  for 
high  speed  data  transfer  devices  such  as  disk 
drive  controllers,  alternate  processor,  and 
memory  cards.  These  products  maybe  incom- 
patible with  some  alternate  processor  cards. 


The  EXTEND-A-SLOT  brings  a  slot  outside  your 
APPLE1",  allowing  an  easy  change  of  cards  The  18"  flex 
cable  is  long  enough  to  allow  placement  of  the  card  in  a 
convenient  location  The  high  quality  connectors  are 
gold  plated  for  reliability. 

The  perfect  accessory  for: 
Owners  of  large  numbers  of  I/O  expansion  cards — 
keep  your  frequently  used  cards  installed  Use  the 
EXTEND-A-SLOT  for  the  others 
Technicians— easy  access  to  test  points  on  accessory 
cards  under  actual  operating  conditions 
Experimenters— make  easy  changes  to  cards  while 
card  is  installed 
EASY  TO  USE— just  plug  it  in  as  you  would  any 
expansion  card,  then  plug  your  card  in  When  you  want  to 
change  cards,  do  it  easily  outside  the  computer,  without 
the  wear  and  tear  on  the  computer  expansion  slot 




Designed  by  Jim  Sather 


The  quikLoader  is  the  fastest  way  to  load  programs. 
BAR  NONE!  Applesoft,  Integer,  or  machine  language 
programs  can  be  loaded  in  fractions  of  a  second. 
More  importantly,  DOS  is  instantly  loaded  every  time 
the  computer  is  turned  on.  Integer  is  even  loaded  in 
the  language  card.  This  process  takes  less  than  a 
second,  saving  valuabletimeThe  quikLoader  operat- 
ing system  can  keep  track  of  over  250  programs 
stored  in  PROMs  (Programmable  Read  Only  Memory). 
The  user  simply  transfers  any  of  these  programs  to 
PROM  using  the  instructions  packed  with  the  unit, 
and  any  PROM  programmer,  or  we  will  provide  this 


How  many  times  have  you  started  to  work  with  a 
frequently  used  program,  only  to  find  that  you  have 
misplaced  the  disk,  or  worse,  had  the  disk  damaged, 
or  the  dreaded  "I/O  ERROR"  message  flash  on  the 
screen.  With  the  quikLoader,  these  nightmares  can 
be  a  thing  of  the  past.  Frequently  used  programs  are 
available  instantly  when  you  need  them,  without 
having  to  look  for  the  disk,  or  hoping  that  the  lengthy 
disk  loading  procedure  goes  smoothly.  If  you  do  need 
to  use  standard  disks,  the  quikLoader  even  speeds  up 
that  process.  Forexample.  to  catalog  a  disk,  |ust  press 
ctrl-C  Reset.  To  run  the  "HELLO"  program,  press  crtl- 
H  Reset  Other  "one-key"  commands  include  entering 
the  monitor,  booting  the  disk,  calling  up  the  mini- 
assembler, etc.  The  major  difference  between  the 

quikLoader  and  the  other  ROM  cards  is  the  complete 
operating  system  (in  PROM).  This  enables  you  to  get 
the  quikLoader  catalog  on  the  screen  (by  pressing 
ctrl-Q  Reset),  allowing  you  to  see  what  programs  are 
available  Loading  or  running  of  the  desired  program 
requires  one  keypress.  Program  parameters,  such  as 
starting  address  and  length  of  machine  language 
programs  can  be  seen  on  the  catalog  screen,  if 

The  quikLoader  will  accept  any  of  the  popular  PROMS 
available  on  the  market.  2716.  2732,  2764,  27128 
and  27256.  These  types  may  be  freely  intermixed  on 
the  card.  Long  programs  can  take  up  more  than  one 
PROM,  or  several  short  prpgrams  may  be  stored  on 
one  PROM,  The  quikLoader  operating  system  even 
handles  multiple  cards,  so  you  can  easily  double  or 
triple  the  amount  of  PROM  memory  available.  The 
ultimate  memory  capacity  of  one  card  is  256K,  so 
many  frequently  used  programs  and  utilities  can  be 
stored.  We  even  start  your  library  of  programs  with 
the  most  popular  utilities  on  the  card,  FID  and 
COPYA.  Now,  if  you  have  to  copy  a  disk,  you  don't 
have  to  search  for  the  master  disk.  You  can  start 
copying  within  3  seconds  after  turning  on  the 


Since  DOS  is  loaded  from  the  quikLoader  every  time 
the  computer  is  turned  on.  it  is  not  necessary  to  take 
up  valuable  disk  space  with  DOS.  This  will  give  you 
more  than  10%  additional  space  for  programs  and 
data  on  your  disks. 

The  quikLoader  plugs  into  any  slot  of  the  APPLE  ]  (+ 
or  He.  If  used  in  a  )  [+,  a  slightly  modified  1  6K 
memory  card  is  required  in  slot  0.  A  disk  drive  is 
required  to  save  data. 


DOS.  INTEGER  BASIC,  FID  and  COPYA  are  copyrighted  programs  of  APPLE 
COMPUTER,  INC.  licensed  to  Southern  California  Research  Group  to 
distribute  for  use  only  in  combination  with  quikLoader 

NOW  AVAILABLE:  Beagle  Bros,  double-take  lor 
quikLoader.  More  programs  coming  toon.  



^  i        6       Psrjrjle  ArJspple 

Works  with  all  Apple  compatible  joysticks,  paddles  and 

other  I/O  devices 

Select  one  of  two  devices  or  . 

Use  4  paddles  simultaneously 

Unique  "Jumpers"  socket  allows  you  to  configure  to 
meet  your  needs 

BPI'"  users  can  have  BPI'"  device  and  paddles  plugged  in 
simultaneously  (Paddle-Adapple  and  Paddle-Adapple 
Combo  only) 

Gives  you  four  push-button  inputs 
Supports  shift  key  modification. 
Exchange  X  &  Y  |oystick  axis. 

Small  and  compact  —  adheres  to  computer  with 
supplied  foam  tape 

All  Strobes,  annunciators  and  power  available  on  all  16 
pin  connectors 


The  Paddle-Adapple  has  two  16  pin  sockets 

The  Paddle-Adapple  "D"  works  with  the  subminiature  D 


The  Paddle-Adapple  Combo  has  one  1 6  pin  socket  and 
one  subminiature  D  connector. 


D  MAnual  controller 

This  hardware  product  gives  the  user  complete  control  over  all  I/O 
functions  in  the  range  SCOOO  through  SCOFF  For  example,  you 
may  switch  between  text  and  graphics:  hi-res  and  low-res;  turn 
disk  drive  on  and  oH,  etc 

D  MAnual  controller  allows  all  this  while  programs  are  running. 
Commands  can  be  issued  (via  push-buttons)  m  the  middle  of  a 
program,  and  the  desired  result  occurs  immediately  The  process 
used  (known  as  CYCLE  STEALING}  allows  immediate  execution  of 
these  commands  without  interfering  with  the  normal  operation  of 
the  program  The  card  is  slot  independent,  and  is  connected  to  a 
control  panel  by  a  four  foot  cable 


See  us  at  Chicago  Userfest,  May  3-6,  and  Denver  Softwest,  May  22-24 

SIX  MONTH  WARRANTY  •  TEN  DAY  RETURN  PRIVILEGE  Available  at  your  local  dealer  or  direct  from: 


in  CA  (800)  821-0774  Post  Office  Box  2231 -S  Add  $2.50  for  shipping, 

(800)  635-8310  Goleta,  CA  93118 

all  other  states  (Including  AK.  HI.  VI.  &  PR) 
Information  &  technical  questions  (805)  685-1931 

$5.00  outside  U.S.A.  & 
(805)  685-1931  Canada,  CA  add  tax. 

VISA,  MASTERCARD  accepted  apple  is  a  traaemark  ot  apple  computer. inc 

1AY  1984 


Mac  Sits  Junior  in  the  Corner 

Mac  is  rather  upset  with  Lisa.  Seems  he 
thinks  she's  been  two-timing  him  .  .  . 
something  about  appearing  at  Maxwell's  Apple 
with  some  character  named  Unix. 

What?  Mac'n'Lisa's  not  a  soap  opera?  Real- 
ly must  change  that  title.  How  does  32-Bit 
sound?  (Just  don't  drop  the  "3,"  folks. 
Wouldn't  be  good  to  be  known  as  a  two-bit 

Actually,  Mac  should  be  pretty  happy.  He's 
been  absolutely  creaming  the  competition.  Of 
course,  when  the  press  sets  up  as  your  competi- 
tion a  sawed-off  chunk  of  metal  depending  on 
its  father's  reputation,  with  a  keyboard  that 
looks  like  someone  put  it  together  with  parts 
from  a  chewing  gum  box,  it's  no  real  achieve- 
ment to  knock  its  socks  off. 

Seriously,  though,  this  whole  routine  of  the 
press— and  here  we're  speaking  of  the  popular 
press,  meaning  Newsweek,  Time,  local 
newspapers,  and  the  like— setting  up  the  PCjr  as 
Mac's  competition  is  ...  a  little  odd.  In  terms 
of  both  capabilities  and  price,  the  reasonable 
comparison  is  between  Mac  and  the  full-size 
PC.  In  fact,  the  principal  reason  the  press  is 
stacking  Mac  up  against  Junior  is  that  the  two 
machines  were  introduced  at  approximately  the 
same  time. 

There  is,  however,  a  soupcon  of  sense  in 
comparing  Junior  with  Mac:  Both  machines 
have  as  one  of  their  marketing  targets  the  home 
user.  Junior,  which  has  been  highly— and 
somewhat  erroneously— touted  as  being  com- 
patible with  the  full-size  PC,  is  expected  to  be 
used  widely  by  businesspeople  working  at 
home.  Which  is  amusing,  considering  that  the 
business  types  have  been  passing  up  Junior 
because  it— and  its  keyboard— looks  (and  feels) 
like  a  toy.  On  the  other  hand,  early  indications 

are  that  the  Fortune  500  types— a  market  that 
Apple  professes  Mac  is  not  pursuing  at  this 
time— are  giving  Mac  serious  consideration. 
They're  even  buying  some.  Peat,  Marwick, 
Mitchell  and  Company,  a  nationwide  account- 
ing firm  (you  can't  get  any  more  pin-striped 
than  that),  has  ordered  3,500  machines; 
Businessland  (guess  what  market  they  concen- 
trate on)  is  adding  Mac  and  Lisa  to  its  catalog, 
as  is  Genra;  and  it  looks  as  though  Com- 
puterLand and  Sears  (the  two  prime  retailers  of 
the  IBM  PC)  may  be  joining  the  Mac  camp. 

If  you  haven't  guessed  it  by  now,  Mac  is 
selling  like  hot  cakes,  Junior  is  selling  like  flop 
cakes.  Many  Mac  dealers  are  quoting  four- 
month  delivery  times  and  have  back  orders  of 
close  to  a  hundred  machines,  which  makes  Ap- 
ple's projected  first-year  sales  of  350,000  to 
half  a  million  look  not  only  possible,  but  likely. 
(Especially  considering  that  those  early  sales 
are  coming  in  the  face  of  little  currently 
available  software,  no  second  disk,  and  only 
128K  of  memory.)  Mac's  popularity  is  already 
starting  to  buoy  Lisa  sales,  and  the  next  thing 
the  press  is  going  to  start  arguing  is  whether 
Mac  can  successfully  tackle  the  PC  itself.  A 
silly  question,  because  it's  already  doing  just 

Some  of  the  students  who've  been  fortunate 
enough  to  purchase  Macs  under  Apple's  Apple 
University  Consortium  plan,  which  lets  a  col- 
lege purchase  Macs  in  volume  at  deep  discounts 
for  resale  to  their  students  (or  faculty),  have 
been  causing  a  big  brouhaha  by  reselling  the 
machines  at  a  healthy  profit.  Some  of  the  buyers 
have  themselves  been  retailers.  It's  not  so  much 
that  the  machines  purchased  through  the  univer- 
sity connection  are  necessarily  cheaper  than  the 
dealers  can  get  them  from  Apple,  just  that  they 

are  available  now.  Both  Apple  and  the  colleges 
are  highly  unimpressed  with  this  ad  hoc  adven- 
ture in  capitalism,  so  it's  likely  that  the  practice 
will  at  least  go  underground,  if  it  can't  be 
stopped  altogether. 

Tech  Corner.  Don't  say  you  weren't  warned: 
Last  month's  Tech  Corner  started  with  the 
caveat:  for  pioneers  only— no  calls  if  it  doesn't 

Ah,  such  prescience.  If  you  tried  it — making  a 
cable  to  connect  your  Mac  to  a  standard  mo- 
dem— you  by  now  know  that  ...  it  didn't 
work.  Seems  the  polarity  of  the  data  was  re- 
versed: You  want  to  pick  off  pins  5  and  9  from 
the  Mac  phone  connector,  not  pins  4  and  8  as  in- 
dicated. With  that  done,  the  cable  will  work  just 
fine— we  actually  got  off  our  duffs  and  built 
one,  so  we  know  whereof  we  speak.  Incidental- 
ly, if  you've  purchased  one  of  the  new  Apple 
modems,  you  can  find  a  Mac -to- Apple  modem 
cable  diagram  in  the  May  issue  of  ST.  Mac,  Sof- 
talk's  sister  publication  dedicated  to  Mac 
and  Lisa. 

While  we're  on  the  subject  of  other  publica- 
tions about  Mac,  there  are  four  books  already 
out.  From  Doug  Clapp  has  come  Macintosh! 
Complete,  published  by  none  other  than  Softalk 
Books,  and  from  Cary  Lu,  via  Microsoft  Press, 
The  Apple  Macintosh  Book,  dilithium  Press  has 
chipped  in  with  Presenting  the  Mac,  by  Merl 
Miller  and  Mary  Myers,  and  Edward  Connolly 
and  Philip  Lieberman  have  put  together  In- 
troducing the  Apple  Macintosh,  from  Howard 
W.  Sams.  None  of  the  books  is  particularly 
technical,  but  all  should  appease  a  heavy  Mac 
attack  for  at  least  a  while.  Clapp's  book  is  of 
course  our  favorite,  but  then  we're  prejudiced. 
Maybe.  Lu's  is  also  excellent,  though  not  quite 
as  witty.  Buy  all  four  and  decide  for  yourself.  JM 

Go  From 


Screen  to  Faper 
She  Touch  of^ 

ai  ~  Button!  v" 

t.hle  ^  printer  ^^^een 
m  Apple*  -  compare % sy  printouts  °f  A^ 
Tne  new  ApPie  NLYwaytogetfast.     >  and 

ANY  program 

screen  -  te> >  ,  a  white.  ..jook-aWke' 

a  button-  ^e"', ructions,  OWJ,  screen  i 
^"^nSleCnt  printer  card. 

•  T??"^°rS  column  cards  printers, 

8  Biancnard  Hoad 

1  Tcow** products  ,na 

Subsidiary  of  Comp 

^  ,  rail  ToU  ^ee 

a  dip  switch  t  your  local 

.-App«e  Compote. 
..-D.g'ta'  "esea'c 



IT-m".  t 



<0  ^  s<v 

MAY  1984 




by  Greg  TSbbettsI 

......    .......  „t  

......Mem*  xi\  C:.*,:  == 

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The  File-Related  BDOS  Functions 

Welcome  to  the  May  edition  of  Softcard  Symposium.  In  March's  col- 
umn, we  set  the  stage  for  the  examination  of  the  final  set  of  BDOS  func- 
tion calls  by  discussing  the  structure  of  disk-file  access  under  CP/M.  We 
are  now,  therefore,  ready  to  proceed  with  the  BDOS  functions  related  to 
the  handling  of  disk  files.  In  February's  column  we  displayed  all  twenty- 
five  of  the  disk  functions  and  then  separated  out  those  that  were  not  file- 
related.  This  month,  we'll  display  only  the  sixteen  file-related  functions, 
as  shown  in  figure  1.  Note  that  they  are  not  in  numerical  order.  Also, 
since  most  of  those  functions  are  simple  to  implement,  we'll  hold  off  on 
showing  the  subroutine  library  additions  until  our  discussion  is  complete. 

The  first  function  in  our  list  is  set  DMA  address: 

BDOS  function  no: 
Function  name: 
Function  purpose: 
Entry  parameters: 

Exit  parameters: 


Set  DMA  address 

Set  the  memory  address  for  disk  I/O 

[C]  =  1AH 

[DE]  =  DMA  address 


To  refresh  our  memories  (no  pun  intended),  the  term  DMA  stands  for 
direct  memory  access.  It  usually  describes  hardware  that  can  fill  memory 
with  data  from  some  outside  source  (usually  a  disk)  or  take  data  direcdy 
from  memory  and  send  it  to  an  outside  source — all  this  without  involving 
the  processor  at  all.  The  hardware  technicalities  of  this  are  beyond  the 
scope  of  this  column;  suffice  it  to  say  that  DMA  hardware  allows  the 
processor  to  be  more  efficient,  since  it  frees  the  processor  to  carry  on 
other  activities  during  disk  or  peripheral  accesses. 

In  systems  without  DMA  hardware,  the  term  DMA  has  no  formal 
meaning.  However,  it  has  taken  on  a  slang  meaning  in  CP/M  that  has, 
over  time,  acquired  the  status  of  a  permanent  definition.  DMA  in  CP/M 
has  come  to  mean  the  starting  address  of  the  block  of  memory  that  will  be 
filled  with  data  from  disk,  or  from  which  data  is  taken  to  be  written  to 
disk.  Recognize  that  the  DMA  address  is  the  single  address  at  which  this 
process  will  start.  The  other  127  addresses  within  this  block  of  memory 
are  unimportant.  CP/M  (BDOS  and  BIOS)  will  take  care  of  any  incre- 
menting of  addresses  necessary  to  fill  the  entire  block. 

BDOS  keeps  track  of  the  current  DMA  address  using  a  memory  loca- 
tion inside  itself.  When  the  system  is  booted,  the  DMA  address  is  ini- 
tialized to  an  address  of  0080H  (the  location  of  the  default  buffer  in  the 
system  data  page).  The  DMA  address  is  changed  almost  constantiy  by 
the  CCP  and  other  utility  programs  as  they  fdl  and  copy  memory  with 
disk  reads  and  writes.  However,  it  is  usually  returned  to  the  default  loca- 
tion (0080H)  when  a  program  exits,  and  it  is  always  returned  there  at  the 
completion  of  any  operation  of  the  CCP. 

In  normal  operation,  function  26  is  only  used  when  reading  and  writ- 
ing large  blocks  of  data— such  as  are  present  when  a  fde  (or  large  portion 
of  a  fde)  is  being  moved  between  memory  and  the  disk.  The  standard 
practice  in  such  cases  is  to  initialize  the  DMA  address  to  the  starting  ad- 
dress of  your  memory  buffer  and  save  it.  Then,  at  the  completion  of  each 
successful  disk  read  or  write,  the  old  address  is  restored,  128  bytes  are 
added  to  increment  it  beyond  the  last  data  used,  and  function  26  is  called 
to  inform  BDOS.  This  is  required  no  matter  which  form  of  access- 
random  or  sequential— is  being  used. 

The  alternate  method  of  reading  or  writing  large  data  blocks  is  to  use 

the  default  DMA  buffer  (0080H)  for  all  reads  and  writes  and  simply  to 
move  the  data  between  the  default  DMA  buffer  and  your  own  memory 
buffer  128  bytes  at  a  time.  But  because  of  the  additional  work  this 
scheme  requires  of  the  processor  (in  moving  all  this  data),  this  method  is 
much  less  efficient. 

In  your  own  programming,  you  must  always  be  aware  of  the  current 
DMA  location.  Since  there's  no  function  to  inform  you  of  the  current 
location,  it's  always  advisable  to  take  the  safe  route — explicitly  setting 
the  DMA  address  before  performing  disk  access  and  then  keeping  track 
of  its  location  as  you  alter  it.  So  long  as  your  program  is  running  without 
interruption,  the  DMA  address  will  be  altered  only  if  your  program  calls 
function  26.  No  other  action  of  BDOS  or  your  program  can  reset  it. 

Function  Name 


26.  Set  DMA  address 

17.  Search  first 

18.  Search  next 

22.  Make  file 

1 9.  Delete  file 

23.  Rename  file 

30.  Set  attributes 

15.  Open  file 

16.  Close  file 

20.     Read  sequential 

21 .     Write  sequential 



Read  random 

Write  random 

Write  random 
with  zero  fill 

Compute  size 

Set  random  rec. 

Establishes  the  starting  address  in  memory 
from  which  the  next  record  will  be  written 
to  disk  or  to  which  the  next  sector  will  be 
read  from  disk 

Finds  a  directory  entry  corresponding  to 
the  specified  FCB 

Finds  subsequent  entries  corresponding  to 
the  specified  FCB 

Creates  a  new  disk  file  by  creating  a 
directory  entry  corresponding  to  the 
specified  FCB 

Deactivates  all  directory  entries 
corresponding  to  the  specified  FCB 
Changes  the  name  of  all  directory  entries 
corresponding  to  the  first  sixteen  bytes  of 
the  FCB  to  the  name  contained  in  the 
second  sixteen  bytes  of  the  FCB 
Sets  the  requested  attribute  (SYS-DIR 
and  R/O-R/W)  for  a  particular  file  (also 
changes  any  other  parity  bits  requested) 
Activates  an  FCB  for  the  disk  file 
Deactivates  an  FCB  for  a  previously  open 
disk  file 

Obtains  one  record  from  the  file  identified 
by  the  activated  FCB— record  is  CR  from 
extent  EX 

Sends  one  record  to  the  file  identified  by 
the  activated  FCB— record  is  CR  in  extent 

Obtains  one  record  from  the  file  identified 
by  the  activated  FCB— record  is  RL-RH 
Sends  one  record  to  the  file  identified  by 
the  activated  FCB— record  is  RL-RH 
Essentially  equivalent  to  function  34, 
except  that  unallocated  blocks  are  filled 
with  0s  prior  to  the  write 
Obtains  a  value  that  is  1  beyond  the  highest 
numbered  record  in  the  file 
Computes  the  random  record  number 
and  sets  it  in  RL-RH  in  the  FCB  for  the 
current  values  of  EX  and  CR  in  the  FCB 

Figure  1.  File-related  disk  functions. 


MAY  1984 

The  next  function  we'll  examine  is  search  for  first: 

BDOS  function  no: 
Function  name: 
Function  purpose: 

Entry  parameters: 

Exit  parameters: 


Search  for  first 

Find  the  first  directory  entry  matching 
the  specified  FCB 
[C]  =  11H 

[DE]  =  FCB  address 
[A]  =  directory  code 

This  function  is  the  means  by  which  the  directory  is  examined.  It  is 
used  by  the  CCP  and  by  any  CP/M  program  that  searches  for  directory 
entries.  In  response  to  this  call,  BDOS  scans  the  directory  of  a  disk, 
starting  with  the  first  directory  sector.  It  examines  each  entry  in  the  di- 
rectory to  find  a  match  with  the  FCB  whose  address  is  contained  in  the 
[DE]  register  pair.  (As  we  continue,  refer  to  the  March  column  for  a 
description  of  the  FCB  and  its  fields.) 

The  DR  field  of  the  FCB  is  not  used  for  matching  purposes,  but  in- 
stead determines  which  disk  is  to  be  searched.  A  drive  number  of  from  1 
to  16  (drives  A  through  P)  causes  that  disk  to  be  logged  in  and  searched. 
If  no  drive  is  specified  (a  DR  field  value  of  0),  the  currently  logged  disk 
is  searched. 

A  match  occurs  when  bytes  1  through  12  (the  F1-F8,  T1-T3,  and  EX 
fields)  and  byte  14  (DM)  of  the  directory  entry  are  equal  to  the  same 
bytes  in  the  FCB.  BDOS  continues  comparing  entries  to  the  FCB  until  a 
match  is  found  or  until  there  are  no  more  entries  to  be  compared.  Note 
that  byte  13  (SI)  is  not  used  for  comparison  purposes  and  that  BDOS 
automatically  zeros  the  DM  field  of  your  FCB  during  this  function.  A 
question  mark  in  any  character  position  of  the  F1-F8,  T1-T3,  or  EX 
fields  in  your  FCB  will  cause  an  automatic  match  with  any  value  in  that 
same  position  in  the  directory  entry. 

Normally,  only  active  (nondeleted)  directory  entries  that  are  in  the 
current  user  area  will  be  matched;  however,  a  question  mark  in  byte  0  of 
your  FCB  (the  DR  field)  will  remove  these  restrictions.  Setting  DR  to  a 
question  mark  also  disables  the  auto  disk  select  function  and  specifies 
that  only  the  currently  logged  drive  is  eligible  to  be  searched.  Further, 
when  DR  contains  a  question  mark,  the  DM  field  is  not  set  to  0.  Using 
the  wildcard  character  in  DR,  then,  has  the  effect  of  identifying  any  di- 
rectory entry  that  matches  the  remaining  fields,  including  deleted  files 
and  files  in  any  user  area.  This  capability  can  be  of  special  value  in  pro- 
grams that  create  disk  usage  maps  for  the  currently  logged  drive. 

Function  17  returns  a  OFFH  in  register  [AJ  if  no  match  was  made 
between  your  FCB  and  any  directory  entry.  If  there  was  a  match,  how- 
ever, BDOS  returns  a  value  from  0  to  3,  which  is  called  a  directory  code. 
The  directory  code  is  more  than  just  an  indication  that  a  match  occurred. 
It  is  used  to  access  the  actual  directory  information  in  the  matched  entry. 

When  a  match  is  made,  BDOS  places  the  logical  directory  sector  (128 
bytes)  in  which  the  entry  was  found  at  the  current  DMA  address.  The  di- 
rectory code  is  the  relative  position  of  the  directory  entry  within  that 
logical  sector— there  are  four  entries  in  each  sector  and  four  possible  di- 
rectory code  values.  A  code  of  0  indicates  the  first  entry,  a  1  means  the 
second  entry,  and  so  on.  Since  each  directory  entry  is  thirty-two  bytes 
long,  it  is  relatively  simple  to  locate  the  entry;  you  just  multiply  the  di- 
rectory code  by  32  and  add  the  result  to  the  current  DMA  address.  At 
that  point,  any  information  within  the  entry  can  be  extracted  and  put  to  use. 

The  next  function  to  look  at  is  search  for  next: 

BDOS  function  no: 
Function  name: 
Function  purpose: 

Entry  parameters: 

Exit  parameters: 


Search  for  next 

Find  any  subsequent  directory  entry 
matching  the  FCB 
[C]  =  12H 

[DE]  =  FCB  address 
[A]  =  directory  code 

This  function  is  identical  to  search  for  first  except  that  BDOS  starts 
with  the  directory  sector  in  which  the  last  match  was  found  and  continues 
to  search  for  further  matches.  As  a  result,  the  two  functions  are  always 
used  in  combination— function  17  to  have  BDOS  start  at  the  beginning  of 
the  directory  (or  find  a  single  file),  and  function  18  to  continue  to  search 
for  additional  files  matching  the  FCB. 

Most  general-purpose  directory  programs  use  a  file  reference  con- 
sisting entirely  of  wildcard  characters  (???????????),  with  EX  equal  to  0. 
In  this  way,  a  match  is  made  with  the  first  extent  of  any  file  encountered. 

Continuing  the  search  with  function  18  allows  a  complete  list  of  all  active 
files  in  a  given  user  area  to  be  made.  Directory  programs  that  calculate 
file  space  used  can  set  EX  to  a  question  mark  as  well  and  then  search  for 
all  extents  of  each  file.  When  the  list  is  complete,  the  extent  number  and 
the  RC  field  of  the  final  extent  can  be  used  to  calculate  the  record  count 
for  each  file. 

The  next  function  is  makefile: 

BDOS  function  no:  22 

Function  name:     Make  file 
Function  purpose:     Create  a  new  directory  entry  from  FCB 
Entry  parameters:     [C]  =  16H 

[DE]  =  FCB  address 

Exit  parameters:     [A]  =  directory  code 

This  function  is  used  to  create  a  new  file  on  disk.  Specifically,  BDOS 
uses  the  FCB,  whose  address  is  passed  in  the  [DE]  register  pair,  to  create 
a  directory  entry  on  the  drive  specified  or  on  the  logged  drive  if  none  is 
specified.  Since  the  directory  entry  is  being  created  strictly  from  the 
FCB,  no  wildcard  characters  (question  marks)  are  allowed  in  the  DR, 
F1-F8,  T1-T3,  or  EX  fields  for  this  function. 

During  the  performance  of  this  function,  BDOS  won't  exclude  dupli- 
cate entries.  Consequently,  the  programmer  must  make  sure  that  the  file 
being  created  does  not  duplicate  a  file  already  in  the  directory  of  the  disk. 
To  be  absolutely  safe,  a  delete-file  function  call  can  be  made  prior  to  the 
make-file  function  call  to  ensure  that  any  existing  file  with  these  at- 
tributes is  removed. 

Finally,  BDOS  initializes  all  values  in  the  new  entry  (and  the  FCB 
used  to  create  it)  to  those  of  an  empty  extent  (EX=0,  RC=0,  and  so 
on).  This  process  of  filling  in  the  FCB  from  the  directory  entry  is  iden- 
tical to  opening  the  file,  so  an  open-file  function  call  is  not  required  when 
the  make  file  function  is  used.  BDOS  returns  the  directory  code  of  from  0 
to  3  in  register  [A]  if  the  operation  is  successful,  or  a  value  of  OFFH  in 
[A]  if  no  more  directory  space  remained  on  the  disk. 

The  next  function  to  examine  is  delete  file: 

BDOS  function  no: 
Function  name: 
Function  purpose: 
Entry  parameters: 

Exit  parameters: 


Delete  file 

Deactivate  the  file  named  by  the  FCB 
[C]  =  13H 

[DE]  =  FCB  address 
[A]  =  directory  code 

Although  the  name  of  this  function  is  delete  file,  it  does  not  delete  the 
file  in  the  true  sense  of  the  word.  Instead,  it  deactivates  all  extents  of  the 
named  file  and  returns  the  space  they  occupy  to  unallocated  status.  In  this 
way,  the  space  is  made  available  for  new  storage. 

In  response  to  this  function,  BDOS  performs  a  search  of  the  directory 
of  the  drive  specified  in  the  FCB  or  of  the  logged  drive  if  none  is 
specified.  All  directory  entries  that  match  the  F1-F8  and  T1-T3  fields  of 
the  referenced  FCB  are  deactivated.  This  is  accomplished  by  setting  the 
first  byte  of  each  entry  (the  field  containing  the  user  number)  to  a  value 
of  0E5H.  Such  a  value  in  this  byte  of  any  directory  entry  causes  BDOS  to 
assume  the  entry  is  empty  in  any  future  access.  As  a  result,  BDOS  won't 
attempt  to  match  these  entries  in  any  future  directory  searches  and  will 
use  them  whenever  new  extents  must  be  created. 

The  FCB  used  for  function  19  may  have  wildcard  characters  in  any  of 
the  F1-F8  and  T1-T3  character  positions.  This  makes  it  possible  to 
delete  groups  of  files  with  a  single  function  call.  The  DR  field,  however, 
may  not  contain  a  question  mark  character  and  must  indicate  either  the 
drive  to  be  searched  or  the  logged  drive  (DR=0).  If  the  operation  is  suc- 
cessful, the  [A]  register  contains  the  standard  directory  code  seen  earlier. 
If  no  file  is  found  that  corresponds  to  the  referenced  FCB,  a  value  of 
OFFH  is  returned  in  [A]. 

The  next  function  we'll  examine  is  rename  file: 

BDOS  function  no: 
Function  name: 
Function  purpose: 
Entry  parameters: 

Exit  parameters: 


Rename  file 

Alter  the  name  of  a  referenced  file 

[C]  =  17H 

[DE]  =  FCB  address 

[A]  =  directory  code 

This  function  is  used  to  change  the  name  (fields  F1-F8  and  T1-T3)  of 
a  given  file.  To  accomplish  this,  function  23  uses  a  special  sort  of  FCB. 

MAY  1984 

WU  I  Al  V 


The  first  sixteen  bytes  of  the  FCB  contain  the  file's  current  name,  while 
the  second  sixteen  bytes  contain  the  name  your  program  is  changing  it  to. 
During  the  operation  of  this  function,  all  extents  in  the  directory  that 
match  the  current  name  fields  in  the  FCB  will  be  altered. 

The  DR  field  in  the  first  sixteen  bytes  specifies  the  drive  on  which  the 
action  is  to  take  place,  just  as  it  has  with  previous  functions.  The  DR 
field  in  the  second  sixteen  bytes  is  not  used,  however,  and  should  be  set 
to  0  by  your  program.  A  successful  rename  returns  the  standard  direc- 
tory code  in  [A],  while  a  OFFH  is  returned  in  [A]  if  no  occurrence  of  the 
original  file  could  be  found. 

The  next  function  to  examine  is  set  file  attributes  : 

BDOS  function  no: 
Function  name: 
Function  purpose: 
Entry  parameters: 

Exit  parameters: 


Set  file  attributes 

Set  R/O-R/W  and  DIR-SYS  status 

[C]  =  1  EH 

[DE]  =  FCB  address 

[A]  =  directory  code 

The  set  file  attributes  function  is  the  means  by  which  the  read/only  and 
read/write  attributes  are  set  or  cleared  for  a  particular  file.  As  we  dis- 
cussed last  time,  these  attributes  are  controlled  by  the  parity  bits  of  the 
filetype  characters  Tl  and  T2  respectively;  bit  7  is  set  if  the  attributes  are 
active  and  reset  if  the  attributes  are  inactive. 

To  use  this  function,  your  program  simply  creates  an  FCB  (no 
wildcard  characters  allowed),  with  the  desired  bits  set  or  reset  as  appro- 
priate, and  invokes  the  function.  BDOS  will  respond  by  searching  the  in- 
dicated disk  directory  for  matches  with  the  specified  FCB.  The  parity 
bits  of  the  characters,  however,  will  not  be  used  for  matching  purposes. 
As  each  match  is  found,  BDOS  copies  the  parity  bits  of  the  F1-F8  and 
T1-T3  fields  into  the  directory  entry  from  your  FCB.  Once  again,  a  di- 
rectory code  is  returned  in  [A]  if  the  operation  was  successful,  while  a 
OFFH  is  returned  if  the  referenced  file  could  not  be  found. 

Note  that  the  parity  bits  of  any  of  the  F1-F8  and  T1-T3  characters 
can  be  changed  using  this  function.  However,  only  the  first  four  charac- 
ters of  the  filename  and  the  first  two  characters  of  the  filetype  should  be 
altered.  Although  the  remaining  five  are  currently  undefined,  they  are 
used  by  BDOS  for  matching  purposes  during  directory  searches.  Conse- 
quently, since  standard  utilities  do  not  set  them,  the  result  of  changing 
these  characters  could  be  files  that  cannot  be  accessed  using  normal 

The  next  function  we'll  examine  is  open  file: 

BDOS  function  no: 
Function  name: 
Function  purpose: 
Entry  parameters: 

Exit  parameters: 


Open  file 

Activate  the  FCB  for  the  named  file 
[C]  =  OFH 

[DE]  =  FCB  address 
[A]  =  directory  code 

As  we  alluded  to  in  examining  the  make  file  function,  opening  a  file 
involves  activating  an  in-memory  FCB  describing  it.  Function  15, 
therefore,  first  causes  BDOS  to  attempt  to  find  a  directory  entry  on  the 
specified  or  logged  disk  that  matches  the  F1-F8,  T1-T3,  and  EX  fields 
of  the  referenced  FCB.  If  a  match  is  found,  BDOS  then  activates  the 
FCB  by  filling  in  its  missing  information  (DM,  RC,  and  BA-BP).  Once 
this  has  been  done,  BDOS  can  access  the  file  correctly  using  the  now  ac- 
tive FCB. 

Note  that  during  the  performance  of  this  function  the  extent  field  of 
the  FCB  is  used  for  matching  purposes,  making  it  possible  to  open  each 
extent  of  a  file  individually.  You'll  recall  from  our  discussion  in  the 
March  column  that  different  extents  of  a  file  are  almost  like  separate  files 
in  themselves.  Each  extent  must  be  opened  before  it  can  be  accessed. 
Under  normal  circumstances,  BDOS  itself  takes  care  of  closing  the  cur- 
rent extent  and  opening  a  new  one  automatically.  If,  however,  you're 
performing  some  or  all  of  these  operations  manually  in  your  program, 
you  must  be  constantly  aware  of  the  extent  in  use  and  perform  the 
necessary  open  and  close  operations. 

During  the  open  file  function,  wildcard  characters  are  allowed  in  the 
F1-F8,  T1-T3,  and  EX  fields  and  will  cause  the  first  matching  file  to  be 
opened.  It  is  difficult,  however,  to  see  the  value  in  opening  a  file  whose 
name  you  do  not  know.  In  such  a  case,  the  FCB  would  be  activated  from 
the  first  directory  entry  matching  the  partial  FCB.  Missing  informa- 
tion in  name  fields  would  be  filled  in  too.  Use  this  feature  with  caution. 

At  the  successful  completion  of  function  15,  the  directory  code  corre- 
sponding to  the  now  open  file  is  returned  in  register  [A].  If  no  matching 
file  exists  in  the  directory,  a  value  of  OFFH  is  returned  in  [A|  to  indicate 
the  error.  Of  course,  if  no  match  is  made,  no  alteration  of  the  FCB  fields 

It  cannot  be  stressed  too  often  that  a  file  must  not  be  accessed  for 
read/write  operations  until  either  a  successful  open  file  operation  or  a 
make  file  operation  has  been  performed  to  activate  the  FCB.  One  addi- 
tional word  of  warning:  BDOS  also  initializes  other  data  locations  within 
itself  in  response  to  the  open-file  and  make-file  function  calls.  Simply 
setting  up  the  FCB  with  all  information,  therefore,  is  not  sufficient  when 
you  wish  to  begin  read/ write  access. 

The  next  function  is  close  file  : 

BDOS  function  no: 
Function  name: 
Function  purpose: 
Entry  parameters: 

Exit  parameters: 


Close  file 

Deactivate  the  FCB  for  the  named  file 
[C]  =  10H 

[DE]  =  FCB  address 
[A]  =  directory  code 

The  close  file  function  is  the  opposite  of  the  open  function.  When  the 
close  file  function  is  issued,  the  referenced  FCB  is  used  to  update  the  ap- 
propriate directory  entry  on  the  disk  with  any  altered  information  and 
status.  The  FCB  must  have  been  activated  with  a  prior  open-file  or  make- 
file function  call.  As  was  so  with  the  open  function,  question  marks  may 
be  used  here  in  the  name  and  extent  fields.  The  returned  values  for  the 
close  file  function  are  the  same  as  most  that  we've  looked  at  so  far;  [A] 
contains  a  directory  code  if  the  operation  was  successful  or  a  OFFH  if  the 
referenced  file  could  not  be  found. 

Since  the  purpose  of  the  close  file  function  is  to  update  the  directory 
entry  from  the  FCB,  it's  mandatory  to  make  this  call  whenever  a  file  has 
been  written  to.  In  this  way,  new  blocks  that  have  been  allocated  in  the 
block  list  (the  BA-BP  fields)  and  new  records  added  to  the  record  count 
(the  RC  field)  will  be  permanently  recorded.  Although  Digital  Research 


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indicates  that  the  close  function  is  not  necessary  when  nothing  but  read 
operations  have  been  performed  on  the  file,  the  safest  way  to  handle  files 
in  your  programs  is  always  to  close  open  files,  regardless  of  what  action 
has  been  performed  on  them. 

The  next  function  to  look  at  is  read  sequential: 

BDOS  function  no:  20 

Function  name:     Read  sequential 
Function  purpose:     Read  CR  from  the  file  named  in  FCB 
Entry  parameters:     [C]  =  14H 

[DE]  =  FCB  address 
Exit  parameters:     [A]  =  error  code 

This  function  causes  a  128-byte  record  of  the  referenced  disk  file  to 
be  transferred  from  disk  to  memory  at  the  current  DMA  address.  The 
FCB  whose  address  is  passed  in  the  [DE]  register  pair  must  have  been 
activated  by  a  previous  make-file  or  open-file  function  call.  At  that  point, 
all  of  the  fields  of  the  FCB  except  the  record  number  fields  CR  (sequen- 
tial) and  RL-RH  (random)  will  have  been  initialized  to  the  proper  values 
for  this  extent  of  the  file.  All  that  remains,  then,  is  for  the  record  number 
field  to  be  set  to  the  required  value  and  the  function  initiated.  In  response 
to  function  20,  BDOS  will  read  the  single  128-byte  sector  (CR)  from  the 
current  extent  number  (EX)  shown  in  the  FCB. 

As  we  mentioned  in  March,  this  function  is  normally  used  to  access  a 
file  sector-by-sector  from  the  beginning.  To  use  the  function  in  this  fash- 
ion, the  programmer  need  only  set  the  CR  field  to  0  before  the  first  call. 
From  then  on,  BDOS  will  automatically  increment  the  CR  field  at  the 
completion  of  each  successful  call  to  this  function.  If  during  this  incre- 
menting process  the  CR  field  exceeds  the  total  record  count  (RC),  BDOS 
will  close  the  current  extent,  increment  the  extent  number  (EX),  and 
open  the  next  extent. 

Since  CR  and  EX  are  automatically  updated  after  each  read,  function 
20  may  be  called  repeatedly  to  read  the  remainder  of  the  file  with  no  fur- 
ther manipulation  of  the  FCB.  Since  BDOS  does  not  automatically  adjust 
the  DMA  address  the  way  it  does  CR  and  EX,  if  no  other  BDOS  func- 
tions are  used,  then  each  logical  sector  that  is  read  will  overwrite  in 

memory  the  sector  previously  read.  This  approach  gives  the  program  ac- 
cess to  each  new  sector  at  the  same  memory  address. 

If,  on  the  other  hand,  it's  necessary  for  more  than  one  sector  to  reside 
in  memory  at  the  same  time — as  it  is  when  an  entire  file  is  being  read  in, 
for  example — the  DMA  address  must  be  set  to  a  value  128  bytes  beyond 
its  current  value,  using  the  set  DMA  function  (see  function  26). 

Function  20  informs  the  program  of  a  successful  read  operation  by 
returning  a  0  value  in  the  [A]  register.  If,  however,  the  end-of-file  was 
encountered  before  the  read  could  begin,  or  if  some  type  of  fatal  disk  er- 
ror (bad  sector,  bad  seek,  or  whatever)  took  place,  then  a  nonzero  value 
will  be  returned  in  register  [A]  to  inform  the  program  that  no  valid  data 
was  transferred  during  this  function  call. 

The  next  function  we'll  examine  is  write  sequential: 

BDOS  function  no:  21 

Function  name:     Write  sequential 
Function  purpose:     Write  CR  to  the  file  named  in  FCB 
Entry  parameters:     [C]  =  15H 

[DE]  =  FCB  address 
Exit  parameters:     [A]  =  error  code 

This  function  is  very  similar  to  read  sequential,  except  that  data  is  be- 
ing transferred  in  the  opposite  direction— from  memory  to  disk.  Just  as 
with  the  read  function,  the  FCB  must  be  activated  by  an  open-file  or 
make-file  function  call  and  the  CR  field  must  be  set  to  the  required  rec- 
ord number  before  the  function  is  initiated.  When  called  to  perform  func- 
tion 21,  BDOS  will  transfer  a  single  128-byte  record  from  the  current 
DMA  address  to  disk  as  record  number  CR  in  extent  number  EX  of  the 
file  referenced  in  the  FCB.  If  the  file,  extent,  and  record  already  exist  on 
the  disk,  the  new  data  taken  from  memory  will  simply  overwrite  the  old 
data  at  that  record  position. 

Since  it  is  a  sequential  operation,  function  21  is  normally  used  to 
write  records  in  numerical  order  from  the  beginning  of  the  file.  To  aid 
this  process,  CR  and  EX  are  automatically  updated  and  extents  closed 
and  opened  as  necessary  at  the  successful  completion  of  this  call.  To 
write  sequential  records  repeatedly  from  the  same  memory  area,  there- 
fore, requires  only  that  the  program  repeatedly  call  this  function,  ensur- 
ing that  the  correct  data  to  be  written  is  in  the  memory  area  at  the  current 
DMA  address  before  each  call.  Neither  further  manipulation  of  the  FCB 
nor  additional  BDOS  function  calls  are  required. 

Alternately,  when  large  blocks  of  data  that  exist  contiguously  in 
memory  are  to  be  written,  the  DMA  address  may  be  set  to  the  start  of  the 
block  before  the  first  write  and  then  adjusted  by  128  bytes  prior  to  each 
new  write  (see  function  26). 

The  function  informs  the  program  of  a  successful  write  by  returning  a 
0  in  register  [A].  An  error  condition,  such  as  a  full  disk  or  a  physical  disk 
error,  is  reported  by  returning  a  nonzero  value  in  [A] .  It  is  very  impor- 
tant to  remember  that  regardless  of  the  sequence  of  events,  the  close  file 
function  must  be  called  when  your  program  has  completed  its  write  oper- 
ations so  that  the  directory  will  be  properly  updated. 

The  next  function  we'll  examine  is  read  random: 

BDOS  function  no:  33 

Function  name:     Read  random 
Function  purpose:     Read  RCR  from  the  file  named  in  FCB 
Entry  parameters:     [C]  =  21 H 

[DE]  =  FCB  address 
Exit  parameters:     [A]  =  error  code 

The  read  random  function  causes  BDOS  to  transfer  a  single  128-byte 
record  from  disk  to  memory.  The  data  comes  from  the  file  named  in  the 
activated  FCB  referenced  by  [DE]  and  is  placed  in  memory  starting  at 
the  current  DMA  address.  So  far,  it  appears  that  this  function  is  very 
similar  to  read  sequential,  but  here's  where  the  similarity  ends. 

The  record  that  is  brought  from  disk  during  this  function  is  no  longer 
identified  by  the  program  using  CR  and  EX.  Rather,  it  is  established  by 
the  three  bytes  of  the  FCB  specified  as  the  RL,  RM,  and  RH  fields.  Dur- 
ing normal  access,  only  fields  RL  and  RM  are  used,  since  all  random 
record  numbers  from  the  smallest  (0)  to  the  largest  (65535)  can  be  repre- 
sented in  just  two  bytes.  RH,  therefore,  indicates  overflow  beyond  the 
highest  valid  record,  and  as  such  is  reserved  as  an  error  flag  for  BDOS 
(and  occasionally  even  for  our  programs,  as  we'll  see  when  we  discuss 
function  35). 

As  reflected  by  the  fact  that  CR  and  EX  are  no  longer  used  by  the 




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MAY  1984 

New  Apple  Portfolio  Management  System! 

How  to  Invest 
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coupon  today.  Or,  call  800-468-8324.  In  Mass.  617-722-7928. 

□ YES!  Please  tell  me  more  about  turning  my  Apple 
into  a  powerful  investment  tool  with  Micro  PMS. 
Mail  today  to:  Boston  Safe  Deposit  and  Trust  Company 
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The  Boston  Company 

A  subsidiary  of  Shearson/Amencan  Express,  Inc 
Apple  is  a  registered  trademark  of  Apple  Computer  Inc.  ©  1983  The  Boston  Company 

program,  random  access  of  the  file  requires  no  reference  to  extents, 
records  within  extents,  and  so  on.  Instead,  the  file  is  treated  as  one  large 
collection  of  records  and  the  program  simply  calculates  the  record 
number  to  read  from  among  the  65,535  possible.  This  difference  in  access 
method  allows  complete  freedom  in  file  access— any  record  in  the  file 
may  be  accessed  in  any  order  whatsoever  simply  by  setting  RL  and  RM 
to  the  record  number  and  calling  this  function.  All  calculation  and  search 
is  handled  by  BDOS. 

It  should  be  pointed  out  that  random  access  of  a  file  using  system  calls 
is  not  the  same  as  random  access  in  a  high-level  language  such  as  Basic. 
There  is,  for  example,  no  difference  in  the  length  and  format  of  in- 
dividual file  records.  File  records  are  still  128  bytes  in  length  and  still 
have  an  associated  extent  number  (EX)  and  record  number  within  the  ex- 
tent (CR).  The  only  difference  between  random  and  sequential  usage 
with  system  calls  is  strictly  in  the  method  of  access— records  that  have 
been  written  randomly  may  be  read  sequentially  and  vice  versa. 

In  actuality,  BDOS  eventually  operates  in  sequential  mode  when  per- 
forming this  function.  It  uses  the  value  supplied  in  RL  and  RM  to  calcu- 
late EX  and  CR  values  for  this  record.  Using  these,  it  can  open  the  prop- 
er extent  and  read  the  record  number  within  that  extent  that  corresponds 
to  the  random  record  number  requested.  It  would  be  possible  for  a  pro- 
grammer to  duplicate  the  actions  of  BDOS  in  this  case,  performing  the 
calculations  of  EX  and  CR  and  the  opening  and  closing  of  various  extents 
manually.  This  would  produce  the  same  random-access  effect,  but  since 
BDOS  is  willing  to  do  all  this  automatically  there  isn't  much  advantage  in 
doing  it  yourself. 

Although  a  successful  random  read  is  reported  by  returning  a  0  in  the 
[A]  register  (just  the  way  it's  done  with  sequential  reads),  BDOS  reports 
errors  that  occur  during  random  access  differently  than  it  reports  sequen- 
tial access  errors— the  main  difference  being  that  there  are  several  more 
error  codes.  In  the  interest  of  completeness,  we  will  show  the  extra  error 
codes  here,  but  in  reality,  your  programs  can  treat  any  nonzero  returned 
value  as  an  unwritten  record  error  and  still  be  ninety-nine  percent  accu- 
rate most  of  the  time.  In  any  case,  there  are  four  possible  codes  that  can 
be  returned  if  an  error  is  encountered  during  random  read  operations: 

01— Reading  unwritten  data 

03—  Cannot  close  current  extent 

04—  Seek  requested  to  unwritten  extent 
06— Seek  requested  past  physical  end  of  disk 

These  codes  are  fairly  straightforward.  An  error  code  of  01  is 
returned  when  the  extent  calculated  from  RL-RM  exists  but  the  specific 
record  calculated  within  that  extent  was  never  written  to  the  file.  In 
short,  this  means  that  the  program  tried  to  read  one  of  the  empty  records 
that  can  exist  in  a  file  created  by  random  access.  This  is  the  most  com- 
mon of  the  possible  errors,  and  the  one  that  your  program  can  probably 
assume  for  any  nonzero  value.  Error  code  04,  on  the  other  hand,  in- 
dicates that  even  the  extent  calculated  from  RL-RM  has  never  been 
created  in  this  file.  Although  it  is  a  different  type  of  error,  in  almost 
every  sense,  it  means  the  same  thing— no  such  record  was  ever  written  in 
this  file. 

Error  code  03  does  not  result  from  a  problem  with  the  record  request- 
ed. Instead,  it  deals  with  a  previous  operation.  It  results  from  the  fact  that 
BDOS  had  to  close  an  existing  open  extent  (perhaps  updating  the  direc- 
tory) before  it  could  open  the  new  extent  requested.  Sometime  during  the 
process  of  closing  the  extent  an  error,  usually  a  physical  disk  error,  oc- 
curred. Since  data  may  have  been  lost,  and  since  something  is  obviously 
wrong,  BDOS  proceeds  no  further  with  the  new  operation  and  returns  an 
error  code  to  indicate  trouble. 

Last  we  have  error  code  06,  shown  as  "seek  requested  past  physical 
end  of  disk."  That  description  is  somewhat  misleading  when  applied  to 
random  reads  because  it's  practically  impossible  to  attempt  a  read 
beyond  the  end  of  the  disk.  This  is  so  because  the  read  operation  uses 
only  the  information  compiled  during  writes  to  calculate  disk  sectors  to 
read.  Consequently,  the  read  operation  will  never  try  to  read  something 
that  was  not  previously  written.  Since  no  write  will  have  taken  place  be- 
yond the  physical  end  of  disk,  there  is  no  way  to  get  this  type  of  error 
during  reads.  Instead,  error  code  06  is  used  during  reads  to  show  that  the 
RH  field  of  the  FCB  is  nonzero,  meaning  that  a  random  record  that  ex- 
ceeds the  maximum  allowed  (65,535)  has  been  requested.  This  usually 
means  the  programmer  was  not  careful  about  always  setting  this  field  of 
the  FCB  to  0. 

MAY  1984 



A  final  point— although  as  mentioned  earlier,  BDOS  calculates  and 
sets  the  values  of  EX  and  CR  in  the  FCB,  it  does  not  increment  them  at 
the  end  of  successful  random  reads  the  way  it  does  at  the  end  of  success- 
ful sequential  reads.  Neither  does  it  increment  the  values  of  RL-RM. 
Reading  a  series  of  records  in  random  mode,  then,  means  that  you  must 
manually  increment  the  random  record  number  and  place  the  new  values 
into  RL  and  RM  yourself. 

Also,  when  switching  from  random  mode  to  sequential  mode,  the 
program  should  repeat  the  last  read  in  sequential  mode  so  that  CR  (and, 
if  necessary,  EX)  are  automatically  incremented  before  proceeding.  Al- 
though you  can  increment  CR  manually  before  proceeding  with  sequen- 
tial access,  you  must  recognize  that  this  will  not  tell  you  if  the  current  ex- 
tent has  been  exceeded.  You  will,  therefore,  have  to  test  CR  to  see  if  it 
has  exceeded  7FH;  and  if  it  has,  you  will  have  to  handle  the  closing  of 
the  current  extent,  incrementing  EX,  and  opening  the  new  extent 
yourself.  It  is  simplest  just  to  repeat  the  read  and  let  BDOS  handle  the  rest. 

The  next  function  to  look  at  is  write  random: 

BDOS  function  no:  34 

Function  name:     Write  random 
Function  purpose:     Write  RCR  from  the  file  named  in  the  FCB 
Entry  parameters:     [C]  =  22H 

[DE]  =  FCB  address 

Exit  parameters:     [A]  =  error  code 

This  function  is  exactly  like  read  random  except  that  the  data  is  being 
written  to  disk  from  the  current  DMA  address.  Once  again,  BDOS  uses 
the  value  contained  in  RL  and  RM  to  calculate  the  EX  and  CR  values  for 
this  record.  BDOS  handles  all  closing  and  opening  of  extents  required 
and,  in  addition,  takes  care  of  allocating  new  blocks  to  the  file  as  needed. 

Like  read  random,  BDOS  sets  the  EX  and  CR  fields  in  the  FCB  to 
new  values  each  time  this  function  is  called,  but  no  incrementing  of  these 
or  the  RL-RM  values  takes  place.  Therefore,  all  the  important  points 
discussed  under  read  random  apply  here  as  well. 

If  the  write  is  successful,  a  0  is  returned  in  register  [A],  while  an  un- 
successful write  returns  an  error  code.  The  possible  error  codes  for  ran- 
dom write  are  03,  05,  and  06.  The  03  and  06  codes  have  the  same  mean- 
ing as  they  do  in  random  read  operations,  while  code  05  indicates  that  a 
new  extent  cannot  be  created  because  the  disk  directory  is  full. 

The  next  function  is  write  random  with  zero  fill: 

BDOS  function  no:  40 

Function  name:     Write  random  with  zero  fill 
Function  purpose:     Write  RCR  from  the  file  named  in  the  FCB  and  fill 

unallocated  blocks  with  zeros 
Entry  parameters:     [C]  =  28H 

[DE]  =  FCB  address 
Exit  parameters:     [A]  =  error  code 

This  function  is  identical  to  the  standard  write  random  function  ex- 
cept in  one  aspect.  In  cases  where  a  new  disk  block  is  being  allocated  for 
the  file,  the  entire  block  is  filled  with  0s  before  the  record  is  written.  This 
has  the  effect  of  eliminating  old  data  that  may  have  been  left  in  these  disk 
sectors.  While  on  the  surface  this  may  not  seem  important,  anyone  who 
has  had  to  reconstruct  a  file  or  otherwise  manipulate  one  without  know- 
ing exactly  what  valid  data  it  contains  will  appreciate  the  idea  of  not  hav- 
ing a  collection  of  invalid  leftover  data  mixed  in  with  the  good  stuff. 

The  next  function  is  compute  size: 

BDOS  function  no:  35 

Function  name:     Compute  size  of  file 
Function  purpose:     Obtain  highest  record  + 1  of  the  file 
Entry  parameters:     [C]  =  23H 

[DE]  =  FCB  address 

Exit  parameters:     RCR  is  set  in  FCB 

This  function  is  used  to  find  the  size  of  a  previously  opened  file  on 
disk.  The  FCB  referenced  in  the  [DE]  register  pair  specifies  the  disk  (0 
or  1  through  16)  and  the  file  name  to  be  tested.  No  wildcard  characters 
may  be  used  in  the  FCB  and  the  random  record  fields  (RL-RH)  must  be 
set  to  0.  BDOS  locates  all  extents  of  the  file  and  returns  a  value  that  is 
equal  to  the  last  valid  record  in  the  file  plus  1 .  (Note  that  since  record 
numbers  start  with  0,  this  is  the  actual  record  count  for  the  file.) 

The  value  returned  by  the  compute  size  function  is  placed  in  the  RL- 
RH  fields.  If  field  RH  is  nonzero  after  the  completion  of  the  function, 

this  indicates  that  the  highest  possible  record  number  (65,535)  has  already 
been  written  in  this  file.  In  such  cases,  the  other  two  random  record  num- 
ber fields  are  meaningless.  If,  on  the  other  hand,  the  RH  field  is  0  at  the 
completion  of  the  function,  then  the  fields  RL  and  RM  contain  a  valid 
sixteen-bit  record  number  indicating  the  next  available  (unwritten)  rec- 
ord of  the  file. 

Although  the  function  may  be  used  on  any  file,  it  has  its  greatest 
value  with  files  created  sequentially— that  is,  files  that  have  all  records 
from  beginning  to  end  filled  with  data.  With  these  files,  the  value 
returned  is  the  correct  size  of  the  file  in  records.  As  we've  seen,  how- 
ever, files  that  have  been  created  randomly  may  have  gaps  throughout. 
Indeed,  it  is  even  possible  to  write  a  file  on  an  Apple  disk  that  contains 
record  65535,  provided  that  only  a  few  records  are  written.  This  function 
is  unable  to  tell  whether  the  file  contains  gaps  or  is  complete;  conse- 
quently, the  value  reported  for  files  with  gaps  won't  be  accurate.  Instead, 
the  value  returned  will  be  the  number  of  records  the  file  would  contain  if 
it  were  completely  full. 

The  compute  size  function  is  used  for  another  purpose  besides  file- 
size  calculation.  Programmers  often  call  it  to  find  the  end  of  a  file  in 
preparation  for  adding  more  material.  Since  the  value  returned  by 
the  function  is  the  next  available  record,  and  since  the  RL-RH  fields  are 
set  by  BDOS,  a  random  write  operation  can  be  performed  immediately 
without  altering  the  FCB  at  all. 

Using  function  35  to  extend  a  file  in  this  manner  is  relatively  simple. 
The  first  record  to  be  added  to  the  end  of  the  file  is  moved  into  the  DMA 
memory  area  (or  the  DMA  address  is  altered  to  point  to  the  data),  and  a 
random  write  function  is  called.  Without  altering  the  data  (or  the  DMA 
address),  the  write  is  then  repeated  in  sequential  mode  to  adjust  CR  and 
EX  automatically.  From  that  point,  any  number  of  additional  sequential 
writes  may  be  made  to  complete  the  extension  of  the  file. 

Obviously,  using  function  35  for  this  purpose  is  most  useful  with  files 
created  sequentially,  since  new  records  will  usually  be  added  at  the  end 
of  the  file.  With  random  files,  the  programmer  is  nearly  always  follow- 
ing a  numbering  scheme  of  some  kind  that  determines  where  additional 
records  will  be  added;  and  these  records  usually  won't  be  in  sequence. 

The  final  function  to  be  examined  is  set  random  record: 

BDOS  function  no:  36 

Function  name:     Set  random  record 
Function  purpose:     Compute  RCR  for  given  CR  and  EX 
Entry  parameters:     [C]  =  24H 

[DE]  =  FCB  address 

Exit  parameters:     RCR  is  set  in  FCB 

This  function's  purpose  is  to  obtain  the  random  record  number  for  a 
given  sequential  record  number  (CR)  and  extent  (EX)  of  the  file.  The 
standard  practice  is  to  perform  sequential  reads  or  writes  of  the  file  until 
the  desired  position  is  reached  and  then  to  call  this  function.  When  the 
function  is  complete,  the  RL  and  RM  fields  of  the  FCB  will  be  set  to  the 
correct  random  record  number  for  this  CR  and  EX.  Since  this  function 
only  converts  successfully  read  sequential  record  and  extent  numbers, 
there  will  never  be  a  case  when  an  invalid  random  record  number  (RH 
nonzero)  is  returned. 

According  to  Digital  Research,  the  primary  use  of  this  function  is 
with  random  files  that  are  based  on  some  type  of  key  system.  Such  files 
contain  easily  recognizable  key  data  at  strategic  points  to  separate  one 
part  of  the  file  from  another.  To  use  the  function  with  such  files,  one  sup- 
posedly scans  the  entire  file  searching  for  the  various  keys.  As  each  is  found, 
function  36  is  used  to  obtain  the  correct  random  record  position  corre- 
sponding to  that  key.  Then  when  all  keys  have  been  identified,  the  pro- 
gram can  go  on  to  do  all  of  its  actual  work  on  the  file  in  random-access 
mode.  This  is  certainly  a  valid  way  to  use  this  function,  but  it  is  not  the 
most  efficient  form  of  random  access  file  usage. 

This  completes  our  discussion  of  the  functions.  Now  it  is  time  to 
move  on  and  incorporate  these  new  system  calls  into  our  subroutine 
library.  Figure  2  shows  the  new  subroutines  by  themselves.  As  you 
can  see,  we  have  again  made  use  of  the  skipping  effect  of  the 
LD  HL,nnnn  opcode  to  preserve  the  [C]  register  as  we  cascade  down 
the  chain  from  whichever  entry  point  we  select. 

Since  all  the  file  functions  but  one  (function  26)  require  that  [DE] 
contain  the  address  of  an  FCB,  we  have  placed  an  instruction  to  load 
[DE]  with  the  default  FCB  address  (005CH)  at  the  end  of  that  group  of 
functions.  By  placing  function  26  after  that  point,  we  avoid  destroying 

Three  good  reaso 


Encore  diskettes  meet  the  same  high  stan- 
dards as  the  more  expensive  brands.  In  fact, 
Encore  actually  exceeds  system 

Yet  you  can  buy  Encore  disks  for  Vz  the 
price  of  the  high-priced  diskettes,  (only 
$1.59  for  single-sided,  single-density  51/4" 
diskettes,  when  you  purchase  4  or  more 
boxes,  ten  diskettes  to  a  box.) 

A  diskette  intended  for  a 
wide  range  of  uses. 

Whether  you  use  a  lot  of  diskettes  or  only  a 
few,  you  need  something  more  than  guar- 
anteed accuracy  and  reliability.  You  need 

Encore  was  designed  to  meet  the  de- 
mand for  a  reliable,  low-cost  diskette. 

At  Encore's  low  price,  it's  ideal  for  memos, 
rough  drafts,  spreadsheets,  reports,  even 
scratchpad-type  uses. 


Encore  is  guaranteed  for  one  full  year,  or 
Inmac  will  replace  it,  free. 

Inmac's  Quality  Assurance  Department 
requires  that  Encore  meet  the  media  spe- 
cifications for  the  most  popular  systems  - 
Apple,  Commodore,  IBM,  and  Radio  Shack 
-  exactly.  So  you  can  rely  on  Encore  disk- 
ettes in  your  system.  They  won't  lose  infor- 
mation or  cause  read/write  errors. 

45-day  money-back  trial. 

We're  backing  our  Encore  diskettes  with  a 
45-day  money  back  trial  because  we're  pos- 
itive you'll  be  delighted  with  Encore's  quality 
and  performance. 

And  we're  sure  that  once  you  try  Encore, 
you'll  agree  that  it's  the  most  reliable  econ- 
omy floppy  available. 

If  you  don't  agree  for  any  reason,  just 
return  the  three  diskettes  for  a  full  refund. 

Designed  for  all  major 
personal  computers. 

IBM9  #iPi*r  Radio9 

commodore*  /llclGk 

Encore  was  specifically  designed  to  provide 
optimum  performance  and  reliability  on  the 
four  leading  computer  systems.  Inmac's  Quality 
Assurance  Department  constantly  monitors  all 
Encore  diskettes  to  ensure  they  meet  or  exceed 
the  media  specifications  for  these  systems. 

Our  on-going  testing  program  guarantees 
that  the  Encore  diskette  you  buy  tomorrow  will 
be  as  good  as  the  one  you  buy  today. 

3.  And  you  can 
get  one,  free. 

For  a  limited  time  only,  we're  offering  a  spe- 
cial trial  pack  of  three  51/4"  Encore  diskettes. 
You  pay  the  regular  price  for  two  of  the  disk- 
ettes, but  the  third  one  is  free. 

We'll  send  you  3  single-sided,  single- 
density  51/4"  diskettes  for  only  $5.19. 
(Single-sided,  double-density  for  $5.99. 
Double-sided,  double-density  for  $8.79.) 
Use  all  three  Encore  diskettes  for  45  days. 

Then,  if  you're  not  completely  satisfied, 
return  the  three  diskettes  for  a  full  refund. 

Here's  how  it  works. 

Simply  mail  the  attached  postage-paid 
card,  or  phone  our  toll-free  number, 


extension  987  In  California,  1-800-672- 
3470,  extension  987. 

For  this  special  offer,  please  include 
payment  with  your  order.  You  may  send  a 
check,  money  order,  or  bill  it  to  your  Master- 
card or  Visa  account.  Company  PO's  ac- 
cepted with  verification. 

Offer  is  limited  to  one  trial  pack  per  cus- 
tomer. Good  only  in  U.S.  Customer  must  be 
18  years  or  older  to  order. 

Offer  expires  September  30, 1984. 

Remember  to  ask  for  your  free  Inmac 
catalog.  It  contains  over  2,500  computer 
supplies  and  accessories,  many  not  avail- 
able anywhere  except  through  the  Inmac 
catalog  or  special  offers  like  this  one. 

i  signifies  manufacturer's  registered  trademark 

2465  Augustine  Dr.,  Santa  Clara,  CA  95051 

Rush  nw 
FREE  Encore  ^ 
diskette  ^ 

/pay  for  two  and  get  one  free!  Trial  Pack  Price 

□  Send  me  the  single-sided  single  density  (SSSD) 
5V4"  Encore  trial  pack.  P/N  7973 

□  Send  me  the  single-sided  double  density  (SSDD) 
5V4"  Encore  trial  pack.  P/N  7975 

□  Send  me  the  double-sided  double  density  (DSDD) 
5Vt"  Encore  trial  pack.  P/N  7974 

□  Send  me  a  free  Inmac  Catalog. 

Sales  Tax* 

Payment  Options  Total 

U  I  am  enclosing  check  for  the  total  amount. 

□  Please  charge  the  total  amount  to  my  credit  card . 

□  Visa    □  Mastercard 




Account  # 
Signature  _ 

Expiration  date . 

□  Bill  Company 

My  computer  system  is  a 

RO.  Number 

Model  No. 

Must  be  18  years  or  older  to  order. 
Allow  one  to  two  weeks  for  delivery 

•Customers  in  AZ,  CA,  CO,  FL,  GA,  IL,  MA,  MD, 
Ml,  MO,  NJ,  OH,  PA,  TX.VA.WA  please  add 
applicable  sales  tax.  Offer  good  only  in 
U.S.  Offer  expires  September  30, 1984. 

Fill  out  name  and  address 
on  reverse  side 


Rush  my 
FREE  Encore 

I  pay  for  two  and  get  one  free!  Trial  Pack  Price 

□  Send  me  the  single-sided  single  density  (SSSD) 
51/i"  Encore  trial  pack.  P/N  7973 

□  Send  me  the  single-sided  double  density  (SSDD) 
5V»"  Encore  trial  pack.  P/N  7975 

□  Send  me  the  double-sided  double  density  (DSDD) 
5V4"  Encore  trial  pack.  P/N  7974 

□  Send  me  a  free  Inmac  Catalog. 

Sales  Tax* 

Payment  Options  Total 

□  I  am  enclosing  check  for  the  total  amount. 

□  Please  charge  the  total  amount  to  my  credit  card. 

□  Visa     □  Mastercard 


$5  99 


Account  # 
Signature  . 

Expiration  date . 

P.O.  Number 
 Model  No 

□  Bill  Company 
My  computer  system  is  a  

Must  be  18  years  or  older  to  order. 
Allow  one  to  two  weeks  for  delivery 

•Customers  in  AZ,  CA,  CO,  FL,  GA,  IL,  MA,  MD, 
Ml,  MO,  NJ,  OH,  PA.TX,  VA.WA  please  add 
applicable  sales  tax.  Offer  good  only  in 
U.S.  Offer  expires  September  30, 1984. 

Fill  out  name  and  address 
on  reverse  side 

MAY  1984 






21 H 



































21 H 










21 H 





21 H 










21 H 












21 H 






Search  for  first 
Skip  2  bytes 
Search  for  next 
Skip  2  bytes 
Make  file 
Skip  2  bytes 
Delete  file 
Skip  2  bytes 
Rename  file 
Skip  2  bytes 
Set  file  attributes 
Skip  2  bytes 
Open  file 
Skip  2  bytes 
Close  file 
Skip  2  bytes 
Read  sequential 
Skip  2  bytes 
Write  sequential 
Skip  2  bytes 
Compute  file  size 
Skip  2  bytes 
Set  random  record 
Skip  2  bytes 
Read  random 
Skip  2  bytes 
Write  random 
Skip  2  bytes 

Write  random  with  zero  fill 
Point  [DE]  to  FCB 
Skip  2  bytes 

Set  current  DMA  address 
Go  BDOS  ret  to  caller 




[L]  =  1BH,  [H]  =  "*" 



Print  them 




[L]  =  1BH,  [H]  =  "Y" 



Print  it 




Carriage  return 



Go  to  start  of  line 




[L]  =  1BH,  [H]  =  "T" 



Print  them 




[L]  =  1BH,[H]  =  'r 



Print  them 




[L]  =  1BH,[H]  =  "(" 



Print  them 




[H]  =  single  char  home 



Skip  2  bytes 




[H]  =  single  char  up 


21 H 

Skip  2  bytes 




[H]  =  single  char  forward 



Print  only  one 




Get  first  character 



Save  second  character 



Send  first 



Restore  second 




Get  second 



Send  it 


Figure  2.  File-related  function  subroutines. 

the  new  DMA  address;  we  manage  this  by  loading  [DE]  with  the  FCB  if 
function  26  is  called. 

Because  we  are  loading  [DE]  automatically  with  the  FCB  address, 
programs  that  use  the  library  in  this  form  will  have  to  use  the  default 
FCB  area  for  file  access.  To  eliminate  this  restriction,  you  can  remove 
the  instruction  that  loads  [DE]  and  simply  make  sure  that  your  program 
always  loads  the  correct  FCB  address  before  calling  the  necessary  sub- 
routine. Another  method  would  be  to  duplicate  the  subroutine  calls  both 
before  and  after  the  instruction  to  load  [DE],  thereby  giving  yourself  the 
option  to  use  either  the  default  FCB  or  one  of  your  own. 

Now  that  we've  completed  the  subroutines  for  file-related  functions, 
we  can  incorporate  them  into  our  overall  subroutine  library.  The  library 
is  shown  in  total  in  figure  3,  with  all  available  BDOS  functions  installed. 



Save  buffer  address 



Set  maximum  characters 



Get  input 



[DE]  =  buffer  address 



[DE]  ->  chars  received 



[A]  =  chars  received 



[DE]  ->  first  character 



Set  Z80  zero  flag 


Return  to  caller 


















Reinsert  system  disk  message 
Inform  him 

Get  ack,  any  char  will  do 
Go  warm  boot 





OR  A 



OR  A 



DB  00 

'Place  System  Disk  in  Drive  A:  and  ' 
'Hit  RETURN.  .  .  $' 




Bottom  left  of  screen 



Save  position 



[L]  =  1BH,  [H]  =  "  =  " 



Print  them 



Restore  position 



Line  position 



Add  offset  value 



Back  to  [L] 



Horizontal  position 



Add  offset  value 



Back  to  [H] 



Print  them 


CP  61 H 


CP  7BH 



CTRL?:       PUSH  AF 

CP  20H 


CP  03 



LD  A.5EH 



ADD  A.40H 


Print  leading  CRLF 
Print  string 

Print  leading  CRLF 
Print  string 

Save  possible  string  address 
[DE]  ->  return  and  line  feed 
Go  print  them 
Restore  any  string  address 
Return  to  caller 

CR,  LF,  and  termination 

Direct  console  input  entry 
Get  character  from  keyboard 
Get  one? 

Yep,  go  process  it 
No,  get  loop  flag 
Keep  looping? 
No,  return  now 
Yes,  go  try  again 
Z  =  one  pass,  NZ  =  loop 

Yes,  strip  any  high  bit 
Is  it  L/C? 

No,  skip  conversion 
Maybe,  is  less  than  'z'  +  1? 
No,  skip  conversion 
Yes,  convert  to  U/C 
Save  it  for  caller 
Is  it  printable? 
Yes,  go  echo  it 
No,  is  it  control-C? 
Yes,  then  abort 
Save  it  again  and  .  .  . 
.  .  .  replace  it  with  'a' 
Print  'a' 

Get  ong  char  instead  of  'a' 
Make  it  U/C  ASCII  and  .  .  . 
...  go  print  it 


MAY  1984 



LD  E.A 




I  nit  stack  with  dummy  value 
Into  [E]  for  DIROUT 
Send  character  to  screen 
Restore  char  or  dummy  value 





Console  status  function 



Call  BDOS 



00  ->  01,  OFFH  ->  00 



NZ  =  no  character,  so  return 




Console  input  function 


21 H 

Skip  2  bytes 




Console  output  function 



Skip  2  bytes 




Reader  input  function 



Skip  2  bytes 




Punch  output  function 


21  H 

Skip  2  bytes 




List  output  function 


21  H 

Skip  2  bytes 




Direct  I/O  function 


21  H 

Skip  2  bytes 




String  output  function 



Skip  2  bytes 




Read  buffer  function 


21 H 

Skip  2  bytes 




Get  IOBYTE  function 



Skip  2  bytes 




Set  IOBYTE  function 



Skip  2  bytes 

The  Easy  way  To 
Plan  Great  Dinners 

Let  us  send  you  our  exciting 
meal  planning  system.  Try  it  for  2 
weeks  free  with  no  cost  or  obli- 

Because  our  ad  manager  has  a 
small  weakness  for  pizza,  we  call  it 
The  Pizza  Program.  Actually,  it's  a 
complete  meal  planning  system.  It 
generates  delicious  dinner  menus 
and  shopping  lists  according  to 
your  tastes,  your  diet,  and  your 

It  is  a  great  time  saver  for  anyone 
who  cooks.  You  can  quickly  print 
out  a  new  menu  or  shopping  list  for 
a  day,  a  week,  or  any  period  up  to 
42  days  at  a  time.  It  can  even  re- 
mind you  when  it's  time  to  go  out  to 

your  favorite  restaurant.  Plus,  it  can 
arrange  your  shopping  list  in  se- 
quence according  to  the  isles  at 
your  local  store. 

Accept  our  2  week  free  trial. 
There's  no  need  to  send  any  money 
now.  Just  send  the  coupon.  We'll 
bill  you  later.  If  you're  not  satisfied 
for  any  reason,  just  return  it  and 
write  cancel  on  the  invoice.  What 
could  be  more  fair? 


Gourmet  Software,  Dept.  S-10 
3583  Barley  Ct.,  San  Jose,  CA  95127 

OK.  Rush  me  The  Pizza  Program  to  try  for  2  weeks  and  bill  me  later  for  just 
$34  50  plus  $2  shipping.  (Sales  tax  added  in  California)  I  understand  I  can 
return  It  within  21  days  if  not  satisfied  and  owe  nothing.  My  PC  is  an  □  Apple  II 

Plus  or  lie  □  IBM  PC  or  XT  □  Other  (Needs  to  run  Apple  or 

IBM  software).' 






In  case  we  have  a  problem  with 
your  order  and  need  to  call  you. 

P  S  For  faster  service  call  our  ad  manager.  Rich  Smith  at  (408)  866-0887 

'Apple  and  IBM  are  registered  trademarks  ot  Apple  Computer  and  International  Business  Machines 






21  H 
21  H 

Reset  system  function 
Skip  2  bytes 

Get  version  number  function 
Skip  2  bytes 
Get/set  user  function 
Go  BDOS  ret  to  caller 





Search  for  first 


21 H 

Skip  2  bytes 




Search  for  next 



Skip  2  bytes 




Make  file 


21 H 

Skip  2  bytes 




Delete  file 


21 H 

Skip  2  bytes 




Rename  file 


21 H 

Skip  2  bytes 




Set  file  attributes 


-  21 H 

Skip  2  bytes 




Open  file 



Skip  2  bytes 




Close  file 


21 H 

Skip  2  bytes 




Read  sequential 



Skip  2  bytes 




Write  sequential 



Skip  2  bytes 




Compute  file  size 



Skip  2  bytes 




Set  random  record 



Skip  2  bytes 




Read  random 


21 H 

Skip  2  bytes 




Write  random 



Skip  2  bytes 




Write  random  with  zero  fil 



Point  [DE]  to  FCB 



Skip  2  bytes 




Set  current  DMA  address 


21 H 

Skip  2  bytes 





Select  disk  function 



Skip  2  bytes 




Reset  single  disk  function 


21 H 

Skip  2  bytes 




Reset  all  disks 



Skip  2  bytes 




Get  current  disk  function 



Skip  2  bytes 




Get  login  vector  function 



Skip  2  bytes 




Get  alloc  vector  function 



Skip  2  bytes 




Write  protect  disk  function 


21 H 

Skip  2  bytes 




Get  R/O  vector  function 


21 H 

Skip  2  bytes 




Get  DPB  address  function 



Go  BDOS,  RET  to  caller 




E  is  flag  for  BDOS 



Go  via  SETUSR  call 

Figure  3.  The  complete  subroutine  library. 

As  you  can  see,  since  the  file-related  functions  do  smash  the  [DE] 
register  pair,  we  have  had  to  separate  the  character  I/O  and 
miscellaneous  functions  from  the  disk  functions  by  placing  a 
JP  0005H  instruction  at  the  end  of  the  miscellaneous  function  calls. 
This  costs  two  bytes,  but  it  is  probably  the  optimum  way  of  ac- 
complishing the  task. 

This  completes  our  study  of  the  BDOS  functions  themselves.  Until 
next  month ....  31 

Graph  your  Savings 

Specials  Of  The  Month 

Micromodem  He  w/Smartcom  $259 

Volksmodem  $  64 

Grappler  +  $129 

Koala  Touch  Tablet  $  89 

Chalkboard  Power  Pad  w/Starter  Kit  $109 

Apple  II  Computer  Cover  $  6.50 

Flip  &  File  (holds  50)  $22.50 

Verbatim  Disks  S/D   $26.00 

Verbatim  Twin  Pack   $  6.00 

Wico  Analog  Joystick   $39.00 




8510  Prowriter  


F10  Starwriter  


F10  Prinlmaster  



MI. 82 A   













Amdek  Color  I  +  



Amdck  310A  Amber.  .  . 


Leading  Edge  Gorilla 

Hi-Res  Green/ 

,$  89 


Information  and  Inquiries: 
(702)796-0296  Order 
Status:  (702)  369-5523. 


Creature  Creator  $  29 

Sargon  III   $  36 

Witness  $  36 

Planetfall  $  36 

Starcross   $  29 

Zork  I,  II,  III   Ea.  $  29 

Enchanter  $  36 

Deadline  $  36 

Suspended  $  36 

The  Quest   $  17 

Zero  Gravity  Pinball  $  22 

Sammy  Lightfoot  $  29 

Apple  Cider  Spider  $  25 

Sargon  II  $  25 

Crypt  of  Medea  $  25 

Knight  of  Diamonds  $  25 

Wizardry  $  35 

Legacy  of  Llylgamyn  $  29 

Lode  Runner  $  25 

Choplifter  $  25 

Temple  of  Apshai   $  29 

Castle  of  Wolfenstein  $  29 

Spare  Change  $  29 

Tigers  in  The  Snow  $  29 

I  light  Simulator  II   $-12 

Geopolitique  1990   S29 

J-Bird  S27 

Broadsides  $29 

Eagles  S29 

Oil  Barons  S39 


Sticky  Bear  Numbers  . . . 



Sticky  Bear  ABC/  



In  Search  of  the 

Most  Amazing  Thing  .  .  . 



Hey  Diddle  Diddle/ 



Snooper  Troops  #1/ 



Snooper  Troops  #2/ 



Delta  Drawing/ 



Story  Machine/Spinnaker  $ 


[.         \  i  otpr  /  Sninnakpr 

.  $ 


Rhvmes  &  Riddles/ 



PLATO  Whole  Numbers 



PLATO  Decimals  



PLATO  Fractions  



Alien  Counter/ 



Gulp  &  Arrow 



Juggles  Rainbow/ 



Bumble  Games/ 



Bumble  Plot/ 



Gertrudes  Secrets/ 



Gertrudes  Puzzles/ 



Rocky's  Boots/ 

Learning  Co  



Compu- Read/  Ed  u- Ware 



Spelling  Bee  w/ 

Reading  Primer  



Algebra  I/Edu-Ware 



Fractions/Ed  u-Ware 






Master  Type/ Lightning  . 

.  $ 




New  Step  by  Step/PDI.  . 



Word  Attack/Davidson 



Math  Blaster/Davidson  . 



Speed  Reader  II/Davidson$ 


Spellicopter/ Design  w  are 



Micro  Multiplication/ 




Songwriter/ Sea  rborough 



Picturewriter/Scarborough  $ 


Koalagrams  Spelling  I  .  . 



Spidereater/ Koala  



Mathmaze/Designware  . 



SAT/Hzrcourt  Brace  .  .  . 





The  Bank  Street  Writer  . 

S  49 

The  Bank  Street  Speller  . 

$  49 


The  Home  Accountant  . . 

$  48 


$  62 

G/L,  A/R,  A/P, 

Payroll                      Ea.  $159 

CPA  Module  No.  5- 



Creative  Financing  


Real  Estate  Analyzer  II. . 


Tax  Preparer  1983   



Professional  Easywriter. . 


$  72 

Pro.  Easywriter/ 


Orig.  Easywriter/ 

$  99 


$  72 


The  Tax  Manager  1983  . . 



Payroll  Manager  


MICRO  PRO  (All  Reg.  Z-80) 




4  Pak  Word-Mail- 




$  48 

$  95 

$  72 

Screenwriter  Professional 


The  General  Manager  II 



Personal  Investor   



Word  Handler  II  

$  45 

$  39 

$  85 


PFS:  File  

$  85 

PFS:  Report   

$  85 

PFS:  Graph  

$  85 

Computer  Outlet 

1 095  East  Twain,  Las  Vegas,  NV  891 09    Mon.-Fri.  8  a.m.  to  6  p.m.,  Sat.  9  a.m.  to  5  p.m. 


ORDERING  INFORMATION  AND  TERMS:  Far  fast  delivery  send  cashier  checks,  money  orders  or  direct  bank  wire  transfers  Personal  and  company  checks  allow  3  weeks  to  clear 
Charges  for  C00  orders  are  S3.00  minimum  or  1%  for  orders  over  S300.  School  purchase  orders  welcomed.  Prices  reflect  a  cash  discount  only  and  are  sub)ect  to  change  without 
notice.  Please  enclose  your  phone  number  with  any  orders  SHIPPING:  —  Software:  S3  00  minimum.  SHIPPING  —  Hardware:  (Please  call)  SHIPPING  —  Foretgn  Orders:  AP0  & 
FP0  orders:  S10  minimum  and  15%  of  all  orders  over  SI  00.  Nevada  residents  add  5^%  sales  tax.  All  goods  are  new  and  include  factory  warranty.  Due  to  our  low  prices,  all  sales  are 
final.  Al  returns  must  be  accompanied  by  a  return  authorization  number.  Call  702-369-5523  to  obtain  one  before  returning  goods  for  replacement 
Catalogs:  50c  U.S.,  $1.00  foreign. 

DOS's  New  Type  Command 

One  of  the  biggest  problems  with  Apple  text  files  is  that  there's  no 
easy  way  to  see  what's  in  them.  This  month  we're  going  to  solve  that 
problem  once  and  for  all  by  adding  to  DOS  a  new  command,  called  type, 
that  will  display  any  text  file  on  your  screen  or  printer  (or  send  it  through 
your  modem,  for  that  matter).  In  addition  to  gaining  this  very  handy 
command,  you'll  learn  some  interesting  details  about  what  text  files  look 
like  on  the  inside  and  what's  involved  in  adding  commands  to  DOS  3.3. 

Text  File  Fundamentals.  For  the  sake  of  those  of  you  who  are  new 
around  here,  we'll  start  this  discussion  in  very  shallow  water.  We'll 
slowly  wade  in  deeper— feel  free  to  get  out  and  dry  off  when  you  can't 
hold  your  breath  any  longer.  Now  don't  be  afraid. 

Text  files  are  almost  always  used  to  hold  data  rather  than  programs. 
When  you  catalog  your  disk,  text  files  are  the  ones  that  have  a  t  in  front 
of  them  (DOS  3.3)  or  txt  in  the  type  column  (ProDOS).  Sample  catalogs 
are  shown  in  figure  1 . 

There  are  two  kinds  of  text  files,  sequential  and  random  access.  Se- 
quential files  consist  of  one  long  stream  of  ASCII  characters  (letters, 
numbers,  symbols,  and  control  characters).  DOS  3.3  sequential  files  end 
with  a  special  marker,  control-®  (hex  $00).  The  stream  has  no  other  es- 
sential characteristics.  If  you  want  to  read  a  file  by  using  standard  Apple- 
soft input  statements,  there  must  be  at  least  one  return  character  in  the 
file  every  256  characters— but  this  is  an  Applesoft  requirement;  DOS 
doesn't  care. 

Random  access  files  also  consist  of  streams  of  characters,  but  the 
characters  are  arranged  in  a  more  orderly  fashion.  Random  access  files 
consist  of  a  series  of  records  all  having  the  same  length.  The  records  in  a 
random  file  can  be  as  long  as  32,767  characters  (DOS  3.3)  or  65,535 
characters  (ProDOS).  But  as  a  practical  matter,  random  files  usually 
have  a  record  length  of  between  ten  and  a  couple  of  hundred  characters. 

You  assign  the  record  length  you  want  a  file  to  have  when  you  open 
it.  If  you  assign  a  file  a  record  length  of  fifty,  for  example,  the  first  fifty 
characters  in  the  file  belong  to  the  first  record,  the  next  fifty  to  the  sec- 
ond record,  and  so  on.  (Incidentally,  the  first  record  is  always  referred  to 
as  record  zero,  the  second  as  record  one,  and  so  on.) 

In  each  of  the  catalogs  in  figure  1 ,  one  of  the  files  is  sequential  and 






(DOS  3  3) 






1  3-APR-84  11  10  3APR-84  1109 
9   12-MAY-84  9  33    12MAY-84  9  15 

155  R=  0 
4096    R=  100 


Figure  1 .  Catalogs  holding  text  files. 

one  is  random  access.  No  matter  how  long  you  study  the  DOS  3.3  cata- 
log, you'll  never  figure  out  which  is  which.  The  information  isn't  there. 
Nor  is  there  anything  about  how  long  the  records  of  the  random  access 
file  are.  You  have  to  remember  those  details  yourself  (you  say  you 
bought  a  computer  to  remember  things  for  you?). 

With  ProDOS,  on  the  other  hand,  this  information  is  kept  in  the  di- 
rectory with  other  details  about  a  file.  Look  at  the  last  column  of  the 
ProDOS  catalog.  The  parameter  R  indicates  record  length.  Text  files  that 
have  a  record  length  of  zero  are  sequential  files.  Any  other  record  length 
indicates  a  random  file  and  the  length  of  its  records. 

The  next  to  the  last  column  of  the  ProDOS  catalog,  the  one  headed 
endfile,  tells  you  the  length  of  the  file  in  characters.  ProDOS  always 
saves  a  file's  true  length  in  the  file  directory.  DOS  3.3,  on  the  other 
hand,  doesn't  know  a  file's  current  length.  The  numbers  in  DOS  catalogs 
indicate  how  many  disk  sectors  have  been  allocated  to  a  file  but  are  often 
not  related  to  the  file's  actual  length.  For  example,  when  a  file  gets 
smaller,  sectors  are  not  automatically  deallocated.  Thus,  a  file  that  was 
once  100  sectors  long,  but  is  now  only  22  sectors  long,  will  still  display 
a  "file  length"  of  100  sectors. 

So  where  do  DOS  3.3's  end  of  data  messages  come  from?  DOS  3.3 
returns  an  end-of-data  error  whenever  it  encounters  an  end-of-data 
marker.  As  noted  earlier,  this  marker  is  a  zero  byte— hex  $00  or  ASCII 

Biting  Off  the  Zero  Byte.  Let's  take  a  look  at  the  end-of-data  mark- 
ers in  a  DOS  3.3  file.  A  very  interesting  little  text  file  we  can  look  at  is 
called  Apple  Proms— you'll  find  it  on  old  DOS  3.3  System  Master  disks 
and  new  DOS  3.3  Sample  Programs  disks.  Make  a  copy  of  your  Apple 
Proms  disk,  boot  the  copy,  enter  this  program,  save  it,  and  run  it  (a  mis- 
take could  damage  your  disk — use  an  expendable  backup  until  you  have 
tested  the  program): 


10  C$  =  "9D54:DE  BC" 

15  GOSUB  500  :  REM  change  command  jump  table 

20  C$  =  "A902:54  59  50  C5  00" 

25  GOSUB  500  :  REM  change  command  name  table 

30  C$="A940:74" 

35  GOSUB  500  :  REM  change  syntax  table 

40  C$  =  "BCDF:20  C6  A5  A9  8D  20  ED  FD  20  EF  BC  90  F8  4C  EA  A2' 
45  GOSUB  500  :  REM  install  first  part  of  patch 

50  C$="BCEF:AD00C0C9  9B  F0  03  4C  8C  A6  8D  10 

CO  A9  00  38  60" 
55  GOSUB  500  :  REM  install  last  part  of  patch 

60  C$  =  "A631:EF  BC" 

65  GOSUB  500  :  REM  Exec  Killer  (optional— see  Dec  '83  DOStalk) 

MAY  1984  S  Q  P  J  A  L  K  m  165 

70  END 

500  C$  =  C$  +  "N  D9C6G" 

510  FOR  1  =  1  TO  LEN  (C$)  :  POKE  511+1, 

ASC(MID$(C$,I,1))+128  :  NEXT 
520  POKE  72,0  :  CALL  -144 
530  RETURN 

After  running  the  program,  enter  type  apple  proms  on  your  keyboard. 
If  you've  entered  the  program  correctly,  the  contents  of  Apple  Proms 
will  quickly  scroll  by  on  your  screen.  Press  control-S  to  stop  and  restart 
the  scrolling;  press  escape  to  exit  the  display  completely.  The  display 
will  look  something  like  this  (the  @  signs  will  be  in  inverse  type): 



DEL  1000,1250 

©©PARALLEL  PRINT,256,8,500 

@@@@@@@@@@@@@@(NOT  AVAILABLE),256,8,0 
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@(NOT  AVAILABLE),256,8,0 
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@DISK  BOOT.256,8,432 
@@@@@  .  .  .  and  so  on 

Apple  Proms  is  a  data  file  for  the  DOS  3.3  demonstration  program 
called  Random.  Random  is  a  simple  inventory-control  program  de- 
scribed on  page  77  of  the  DOS  Programmer's  Manual. 

Since  it's  a  data  file  for  Random,  it  would  be  reasonable  to  assume 
that  Apple  Proms  is  a  random  access  file.  It  is.  Look  at  the  part  of  the  file 
that  begins  with  the  word  "communications"  and  ends  with  the  open 
parenthesis  of  the  first  "(not  available)."  This  is  the  third  record  in  the 
file  (but  remember  that  it's  officially  called  record  2). 

This  record  describes  a  single  item  in  a  hypothetical  inventory.  The 
item  is  a  communications  PROM  (a  PROM  is  a  programmable  ROM— 
an  electronic  chip).  The  "256"  indicates  its  size,  and  the  "1250"  indi- 
cates the  quantity  on  hand.  You  can  confirm  this  by  entering  run  Ran- 
dom. The  "8"  is  apparently  Random's  programmer's  lucky  number  and 
nothing  more;  Random  reads  and  writes  that  portion  of  the  record  but 
never  uses  it. 

The  record  length  of  Apple  Proms  is  forty.  Count  the  characters,  in- 
cluding the  ending  @  signs,  in  the  communications  record.  Don't  forget  to 
count  the  invisible  carriage  return  after  "1250."  Exactly  forty  charac- 
ters, right? 

Count  the  other  records  if  you  like.  They're  all  forty  characters  long. 
You  can  confirm  this  by  looking  at  line  70  of  Random,  where  the  file  is 
opened  with  the  L  parameter  set  to  40. 

You've  no  doubt  noticed  that  record  zero  is  completely  different  from 
the  others.  Record  zero,  in  fact,  holds  a  small  sequential  file.  The  file 
consists  of  a  series  of  Basic  commands  meant  to  be  executed  with  the 
exec  command. 

The  original  version  of  Random  wouldn't  run  while  on  the  write-pro- 
tected  System  Master  disk.  This  small  exec  file  was  a  part  of  a  command 
sequence  used  to  modify  the  original  program  and  save  it  on  a  non-write- 
protected  disk.  The  modifications  the  exec  file  makes  (deleting  lines  75 
and  1000  through  1250)  remove  the  rest  of  the  self-modifying  command 
sequence  from  the  program  before  saving  it. 

Nowadays  Random  comes  on  the  non-write-protected  Sample  Pro- 
grams disk,  so  the  self-modifying  command  sequence  isn't  included  in 
the  program.  Nonetheless,  Apple  Proms  still  contains  this  small,  sequen- 
tial, exec-able  file  within  record  zero. 

If  you  try  to  load  Apple  Proms  into  a  text-file-compatible  word  proc- 
essor, or  if  you  try  to  read  it  with  sequential  text  file  commands,  it  will 
appear  that  the  file  ends  right  after  this  section.  When  DOS  encounters 
the  first  @  sign,  it  assumes  it  has  reached  the  end  of  the  file.  It  is  ex- 
tremely difficult  to  fish  anything  out  of  a  file  beyond  that  first  @  sign  un- 
less you  are  dealing  with  a  random  access  file  of  known  record  length,  or 
unless  you  have  the  help  of  our  new  type  command  or  a  disk  sector 
read/write  utility. 

The  type  command  will  always  show  you  everything  in  all  of  the  sec- 
tors allocated  to  a  file.  If  you  have  a  file  that  contains  nothing  but  the 
word  help!  and  a  carriage  return,  type  will  display  those  six  characters 
and  the  250  @  signs  that  make  up  the  rest  of  the  sector  (each  sector  holds 
exactly  256  characters;  character  positions  that  have  never  had  anything 

else  stored  in  them  hold  @  signs). 

Sizing  Up  Text  Files.  If  you  look  at  a  catalog  display  to  find  out  the 
number  of  sectors  allocated  to  a  very  short  text  file  like  Help!,  it  will 
show  that  the  file  has  two  sectors.  Yet  type  displays  only  256 
characters — one  sector's  worth.  What  happened  to  the  other  sector? 

At  least  one  sector  of  every  DOS  3.3  file  is  used  to  hold  the  file's 
track/sector  list.  T/S  lists  are  small  databases  Uncle  DOS  creates  for 
each  file  on  a  disk.  A  file's  T/S  list  points  to  the  disk  sectors  in  which  the 
file's  data  has  been  stored.  The  smallest  legitimate  DOS  3.3  file  you  will 
ever  see  has  two  sectors— a  T/S  list  sector  and  a  data  sector. 

Occasionally  you  will  see  files  in  your  catalog  that  show  a  sector 
length  of  one.  These  are  files  that  were  opened  but  never  closed.  They 
are  empty,  useless  files,  and  you  might  as  well  delete  them.  Do  all  you 
can  to  avoid  creating  them  in  the  first  place.  When  DOS  opens  a  new 
file,  it  allocates  an  entire  disk  track  in  the  disk  free-space  map  for  it. 
When  the  file  is  closed,  DOS  goes  back  and  corrects  the  free-space  map. 

When  an  opened  file  is  never  closed— say  you  turn  off  your  computer 
or  reboot  before  closing  or  deleting  the  one  sector  file— the  disk's  free- 
space  map  doesn't  get  corrected.  What's  worse,  it  can't  be  corrected 
later  either— not  even  if  you  delete  the  file.  Thus  a  disk  with  several  one- 
sector  files  on  it  will  appear  to  DOS  to  have  far  fewer  free  sectors  than  it 
really  has.  The  only  way  to  recover  this  space,  short  of  special  disk  re- 
covery utilities,  is  to  use  fid  to  move  any  good  files  to  some  other  disk 
and  reinitialize. 

A  single  T/S  list  can  point  to  122  data  sectors.  If  a  file  has  more  data 
sectors  than  that,  a  second  T/S  list  sector  is  allocated,  and  so  on. 

Open,  Delete,  Open,  Write.  Whenever  you  open  a  new  text  file,  it 
contains,  as  far  as  the  eye  can  see,  a  stream  of  @  signs.  Just  as  astrono- 
mers can  detect  background  radiation  that  echoes  the  big  bang  that  cre- 
ated the  universe,  all  those  @  signs  you  find  in  your  text  files  are  rem- 
nants of  the  file's  creation.  DOS  never  puts  an  end-of-data  marker  in  a 
file.  Instead,  files  begin  life  as  a  stream  of  end-of-data  markers— data 
replaces  the  markers  until  the  data  ends  and  the  markers  begin  again. 

This  has  an  important  ramification.  It's  hard  to  make  an  existing  se- 
quential file  or  random  access  record  shorter  than  it  was  before.  If  we 
changed  the  contents  of  Help!,  for  example,  to  "ok!"  and  used  the  type 
command  to  display  it,  we  would  find  "ok!",  a  return,  "!",  a  return, 
and  the  same  old  250  @  signs  in  the  file.  The  second  exclamation  point 
and  return  would  always  mysteriously  be  tacked  onto  the  end  of  our  file. 

There  is  no  straightforward  way  to  tell  DOS  to  end  the  file  after  the 
first  return.  You  might  think  you  could  do  it  by  writing  a  control-® 
(print  CHR$(0))  to  the  file,  but  not  even  this  works.  Basic  sends  the 
control-®  to  DOS  just  like  all  other  characters— in  the  high-value  ASCII 
format.  DOS  receives  a  128  (hex  $80)  rather  than  a  data-ending  zero. 
Therefore,  it  has  become  common  practice  when  working  with  sequen- 
tial files  to  delete  old  files  before  saving  new  information  in  them.  Here's 
the  standard  sequence  of  instructions  used  for  doing  this: 

400  PRINT  D$;"OPEN  INDY  500" 
410  PRINT  D$;"DELETE  INDY  500" 
420  PRINT  D$;"OPEN  INDY  500" 
430  PRINT  D$;"WRITE  INDY  500" 

The  lines  make  precious  little  sense  until  someone  explains  them  to 
you.  The  idea  is  to  delete  a  preexisting  file  called  Indy  500.  If  the  file 
didn't  exist  yet,  however,  line  410  would  return  a  "file  not  found"  er- 
ror. Just  to  make  sure  there's  a  file  around  to  delete,  we  open  it  first. 
This  will  create  a  file  called  Indy  500  if  there's  not  one  already  on  the 

Interestingly,  this  technique  has  to  be  modified  slightly  to  work  with 
ProDOS.  ProDOS  won't  allow  you  to  delete  an  open  file.  When  convert- 
ing programs  to  ProDOS,  you  have  to  add  a  line  like  405: 

400  PRINT  D$;"OPEN  INDY  500" 
405  PRINT  D$;"CLOSE  INDY  500" 
410  PRINT  D$;"DELETE  INDY  500" 
420  PRINT  D$;"OPEN  INDY  500" 
430  PRINT  D$;"WRITE  INDY  500" 

With  This  Zero  I  Thee  End.  The  difficulty  with  deleting  the  file 
first  is  that  this  takes  a  few  seconds.  In  addition,  it  takes  longer  to  save 
data  in  a  brand-new  file  than  in  a  preexisting  one  (DOS  doesn't  have  to 
search  for  free  sectors  when  using  a  preexisting  file).  Luckily,  there  are 
ways  to  avoid  this  awkwardness. 



MAY  1984 

If  you  still  have  the  Random  demo  program  around,  run  it  and  call 
upon  its  powers  to  change  the  name  of  the  "communications"  PROM 
(#2)  to  "com".  Then  exit  the  program  and  give  the  command  type  apple 
proms.  Here's  what  you  might  expect  to  see,  given  what  we've  discussed 
so  far,  and  what  you  actually  will  see: 

Original  file: 


Expected  contents  after  changing  "communications"  to  "com": 
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@COM, 256,8,1 250 

Actual  contents  after  change: 



When  Random  updates  the  record  for  the  communications  PROM,  it 
writes  the  new  name,  "com",  in  the  record,  followed  by  ",256,8,1250" 
and  a  return.  It  would  be  reasonable  to  expect  that  the  next  few  bytes 
of  the  file  would  contain  whatever  they  held  before  the  change  was 
made.  Instead,  the  record  holds  an  @  sign  and  two  invisible  carriage 
returns  (detectable  by  the  new  lines  they  create).  Where  did  that  @  sign 
come  from? 

The  humble  little  Random  demo  program  includes  an  undocumented 
DOS  programming  trick.  Here  are  the  lines  of  Random  that  write  the  up- 
dated record  into  the  file.  When  these  lines  are  executed, 
WR$  =  D$  + "write";  FL$  =  "apple  proms";  R  =  2;  N$  =  "com"; 
BL=256;  BW  =  8;  and  ST  =  1250. 

290  PRINT  WR$;  FL$;",R' 
294  CALL  768  :  PRINT 
300  PRINT  D$ 

R  :  PRINT  N$;",";  BL;",";  BW;",";  ST 

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Line  290  writes  the  updated  data  into  record  2.  Since  there  is  no 
return-suppressing  semicolon  at  the  end  of  the  second  print  statement, 
print  puts  a  return  after  "1250." 

The  next  line  begins  with  a  call  to  a  machine  language  routine  at  loca- 
tion 768  ($300).  What's  this?  The  call  is  followed  by  a  print  statement 
and,  in  line  300,  by  a  simple  print  D$,  which  turns  the  write  command 
off.  Studying  random  further,  we  find  a  statement  at  line  74,  during  the 
program's  initialization  sequence,  that  calls  a  subroutine  at  line  9000. 
This  subroutine  looks  like  this: 

9000  FOR  I  =  768  TO  775  :  READ  J  :  POKE  I, J  :  NEXT 
9010  RETURN 

9100  DATA  169,0,32,237,253,76,142,253 

The  subroutine  pokes  a  short  machine  language  subroutine  at  location 
768.  This  subroutine  is: 

0300-    A9    00  LDA    #$00       load  A  with  zero 

0302-    20    ED   FD        JSR    $FDED    print  it 

0305-    4C   8E    FD       JMP   $FD8E     print  a  carriage  return 

So  .  .  .  it  is  that  call  768  that  manages  to  put  an  end-of-data  marker  in 
record  2!  The  call  also  puts  the  first  carriage  return  after  the  @  sign  into 
the  file— the  print  statement  in  line  294  puts  in  the  second  one. 

You  can  use  this  trick  to  put  end-of-data  markers  in  your  own  files.  If 
you  do,  you  no  longer  need  to  delete  preexisting  data  files.  The  trick 
doesn't  work  with  ProDOS,  however.  Remember,  ProDOS  doesn't  use 
end-of-data  markers. 

All  about  Type.  The  type  command  is  very  useful  for  finding  out 
what's  actually  in  a  text  file.  It's  also  handy  for  dumping  files  to  printers 
or  other  devices.  Simply  enter  pr#\,  or  whatever,  before  entering  the 
type  command.  In  this  case,  you  probably  don't  want  to  send  that  final 
string  of  end-of-data  markers  to  your  printer— it  may  choke  on  all  those 
control-@s.  You  can  fix  type  very  easily  by  poking  a  different  value  into 
memory  location  48362.  If  you  poke  in  208,  type  stops  at  the  first  end- 
of-data  marker.  To  reset  it  so  that  type  stops  at  the  end  of  the  last  sector, 
the  normal  setup,  poke  48362,144. 

If  you'd  like  to  make  the  type  command  a  permanent  part  of  DOS, 
simply  initialize  a  new  disk  after  installing  the  command.  Whenever  that 
disk  is  booted,  you'll  have  a  type  command. 

When  using  type  to  display  random  access  files  with  lots  of  unused 
records,  you  may  occasionally  get  a  display  that  is  clearly  wrong.  For 
example,  imagine  you  create  a  random  file  with  a  record  length  of  256 
(the  size  of  one  sector).  Store  "spring  fever"  in  records  0  and  5.  When 
you  type  this  file  you  will  see  record  0's  "spring  fever",  return,  and  243 
@  signs,  but  that's  all.  You  won't  see  the  1 ,024  @  signs  that  should  be  in 
records  1  through  4  or  any  part  of  record  5. 

This  is  because  DOS  doesn't  allocate  data  sectors  to  random  files  un- 
til something  is  actually  stored  in  them.  Check  out  the  sector  length  of 
this  imaginary  file.  It's  only  three.  When  type  goes  to  get  Spring  Fever's 
record  1 ,  DOS  looks  in  the  T/S  list  and  finds  that  no  data  sector  has  ever 
been  allocated  for  that  file  position.  DOS  assumes  that  the  end  of  the  file 
has  been  reached,  tells  type  about  it,  and  type  halts  execution. 

When  working  with  DOS  3.3  random  files,  it's  best  to  initialize  all 
the  file's  records  with  some  kind  of  data — just  blank  spaces  will  work 
fine.  Then  type  will  display  the  whole  file  every  time.  This  trick  isn't 
necessary  with  ProDOS. 

A  potential  problem  with  type  that  you  should  be  aware  of  is  that  it 
uses  the  DOS  free  space  at  48351  ($BCDF).  The  type  installation  pro- 
gram given  here  doesn't  check  to  see  whether  this  free  space  is  truly  free 
or  if  some  other  patch  has  already  been  installed  there.  Should  type  over- 
write another  patch,  the  previous  patch  will  be  destroyed.  Likewise,  if 
you  or  one  of  your  programs  should  install  a  second  patch  at  this  loca- 
tion, type  itself  will  be  destroyed  and  cease  to  function. 

Another  problem  with  type  is  that  it  deletes  the  DOS  verify  command. 
In  order  to  add  new  commands  to  DOS  3.3,  one  of  the  old  commands  has 
to  be  deleted  (this  is  not  true  with  ProDOS,  as  we'll  see  next  month). 
Verify  was  chosen  partly  because  it  is  not  a  widely  used  command,  but 
mostly  because  it  is  by  far  the  easiest  command  to  usurp. 

Adding  Commands  to  DOS  3.3.  There  are  three  tables  deep  within 
the  genetic  structure  of  Uncle  DOS  that  you  must  make  adjustments  to  if 
you'd  like  him  to  respond  to  your  own  special  commands.  These  are  the 
command  name  table,  the  command  syntax  table,  and  the  command 
jump  table. 

MAY  1984 



Whenever  you  send  a  command  to  Uncle  DOS,  he  studies  it  carefully 
to  determine  whether  he  can  beep  you  with  a  syntax  error  rather  than 
executing  it.  This  process  is  called  parsing.  First  DOS  looks  at  your 
command  and  tries  to  match  it  with  one  of  the  words  in  his  command 
name  table.  This  table  was  examined  at  length  in  DOStalk  in  April  and 
May  1982. 

Here's  a  quick  summary.  The  command  name  table  lives  inside  DOS 
between  bytes  43140  and  43272  ($A884-$A908).  The  initial  letters  of 
each  command  are  in  low-value  ASCII;  the  last  letter  of  each  is  in  high- 
value  ASCII.  The  final  byte  of  the  table  holds  a  zero.  As  Uncle  DOS  zips 
through  this  table  looking  for  a  match  with  your  command,  he  counts  the 
number  of  high-value  ASCII  characters  that  pass  by.  If  he  gets  to  the 
zero — which  indicates  no  match  was  found— he  passes  the  command  on 
to  Dr.  Basic. 

If  a  match  is  found,  on  the  other  hand,  all  further  actions  DOS  takes 
are  based  on  that  count  of  high-value  ASCII  characters  he  has  been  keep- 
ing. The  count  is  used  to  create  an  index  into  the  two  other  command- 
oriented  tables. 

If  you  decide  to  make  changes  to  the  command  name  table,  it's  easiest 
if  you  replace  an  existing  command  with  another  of  the  same  length.  If 
you  use  a  command  name  with  fewer  letters,  you  have  to  slide  all  the 
other  commands  down  to  take  up  the  unused  space.  If  you  make  a  com- 
mand longer,  you  have  to  find  some  other  command  you  can  make 

The  nice  thing  about  verify  is  that  it  is  the  last  command  in  the  table. 
Thus  there's  no  big  problem  with  replacing  its  six  letters  with  the  four 
letters  of  type  and  moving  the  table-ending  zero  down  two. 

Once  Uncle  DOS  has  found  a  command  in  the  name  table  and 
calculated  an  index,  he  immediately  uses  the  index  and  the  command  syn- 
tax table  to  determine  what  parameters  are  required  and  what  parameters 
are  optionally  allowed  with  the  command.  The  command  syntax  table  is 
at  bytes  43273  through  43328  ($A909-$A940) .  Each  command  has  two 
bytes  in  the  table.  The  first  two  bytes  are  associated  with  the  first  com- 
mand in  the  name  table  (init);  the  second  two  bytes  with  the  second  com- 
mand (load);  and  so  on. 

Each  bit  inside  the  two  bytes  has  a  specific  meaning.  They  are  shown 
in  figure  2. 

first  byte: 
if  bit  =  1  then. 

send  cmd  to  Basic  if  required  tile  name  is  missing  (load,  run.  save) 
execute  cmd  even  if  file  name  is  missing  (close) 
file  name  required 

second  file  name  fequired  (rename} 
pr#/m#  value  required 
maxfiles  value  required 
I  not  direct  command 
I  may  create  new  file 

bit  7      6     5     4  3     2  10 

second  byte: 

if  bit  =  1 ,  the  command  line  may  include  the  shown  parameter 
if  bit  =  0.  the  parameter  is  not  allowed  with  this  command 


C.I.0    V     D     S  L     R     B  A 

bit  7     6     5     4  3     2     1  0 

Figure  2.  Command  syntax  table  bits. 

Exec,  for  example,  has  the  hex  values  $20  and  $74  stored  in  its  two 
bytes.  In  $20,  only  bit  5  is  set— a  file  name  is  required.  In  $74,  bits  6,  5, 
4,  and  2  are  set.  This  means  the  Volume,  Drive,  Slot,  and  Relative  posi- 
tion parameters  are  allowed  with  this  command.  The  type  command,  in- 
cidentally, allows  the  same  parameters  as  exec. 

There  are  more  beautiful  examples  of  assembly  language  program- 
ming than  the  DOS  command  parser  (many  of  them  within  DOS  itself). 
The  section  of  DOS  that  uses  the  command  syntax  table  is  what's  known 
as  a  hacker's  delight.  It  is  extremely  complex  and  far  from  perfect.  Load 
1  more  file  or  load  (control-P)Program  or  load  program,  a$800  should 
return  syntax  errors,  for  example.  Instead,  they  will  all  hang  up  your 
system.  They  send  control  to  Applesoft's  load  cassette  tape  routine, 
where  it  stays  until  you  press  control-reset  (or  until  you  load  a  cas- 
sette tape). 

Feel  free  to  change  the  syntax  table  to  fit  your  needs — with  two  excep- 
tions. Always  make  sure  that  the  first  command  in  the  table  (usually  init) 

is  allowed  to  create  new  files  and  that  the  second  command  isn't.  Break- 
ing this  rule  causes  a  strange  bug  that  takes  weeks  to  find. 

Once  all  your  command's  parameters  have  been  parsed  with  no  er- 
rors, DOS  uses  the  command  index  to  select  an  address  from  the  com- 
mand jump  table  and  jump  to  it.  This  table  is  at  bytes  40222  to  40277 
($9D1E-$9D55).  The  addresses  in  this  table  are  "pushed,"  which 
means  they  are  one  less  than  the  true  beginning  of  the  routine  they  point 
to.  Assembly  language  programmers  may  recognize  the  following  sec- 
tion of  instructions,  which  demonstrates  how  DOS  passes  control  to  the 
routines  that  actually  execute  the  various  commands: 

LDX    CMDINDX  command  number  *  2 

LDA   CMDJUMPS  +  1  ,X   get  high  byte  of  jump  address  -  1 

PHA  push  it  onto  stack 

LDA    CMDJUMPS.X        get  low  bye  of  address  -  1 

PHA  push  it  onto  stack 

RTS  jump  to  address  via  rts 

(rts  pulls  address  off  stack,  adds  one, 
and  jumps  to  the  resulting  location) 

Now  comes  the  hard  part  of  creating  new  DOS  commands.  Once 
your  command  has  been  successfully  parsed,  what  is  it  going  to  do? 
Here's  what  the  type  command  does: 






1 100 









open  &  position  file 







load  A  with  a  return 









print  it 








load  A  with  next  character 







continue  until  no  more  sectors 








close  file 









peek  at  keyboard 







escape  key  pressed7 







yes— stop  execution 








no— get  next  char  from  file 








SC0 10 

clear  keyboard  strobe 







pass  back  a  zero 





and  set  the  carry  bit 





First  let's  look  at  the  last  half  of  the  routine,  nextchr.  This  routine  is 
called  every  time  a  character  is  to  be  pulled  from  the  file.  It  takes  a  peek 
at  the  keyboard  to  see  if  the  escape  key  has  been  pressed.  If  so,  execution 
passes  to  the  halt  sequence,  which  clears  the  keyboard  strobe,  loads  the 
A  register  with  zero  and  sets  the  carry  (to  simulate  an  encounter  with  a 
file-ending  zero  and  with  the  end  of  the  last  sector  in  the  file),  and 
returns  to  the  caller. 

This  same  routine,  installed  in  the  same  location,  was  used  in  the  exec 
killer  program  presented  in  DOStalk  in  December.  There  it  caused  a 
press  of  the  escape  key  to  halt  runaway  exec  files  and  the  reading  of  text 
files.  Here  it  has  the  same  halting  effect  on  type.  You  can  easily  activate 
the  routine  for  exec  and  read  too  if  you  like— see  lines  60  and  65  of  the 
type  installation  program. 

The  top  half  of  our  patch  begins  with  a  subroutine  jump  to  $A5C6. 
This  is  the  section  of  DOS  that  opens  exec  files.  It  works  beautifully 
here.  The  only  problem  with  it  is  that  if  you  try  to  stop  type  by  pressing 
control-reset,  DOS  will  stop  typing  and  start  execking.  You're  not  sup- 
posed to  press  control-reset  while  DOS  is  working;  but  never  press  it 
while  type  is  active. 

Next  we  print  a  return  and  enter  a  tight  loop  that  simply  gets 
characters  from  the  file  and  prints  them.  We  continue  through  this  loop 
until  our  call  returns  with  the  carry  (a  flag  within  the  Apple's 
microprocessor)  set.  This  indicates  that  either  the  end  of  the  last  sector  in 
the  file  has  been  reached,  or  somebody  pressed  the  escape  key.  At  that 
point  we  jump  to  $A2EA,  which  is  a  routine  that  will  close  the  file  for  us. 

Earlier  we  discussed  poke  48362,208,  which  stops  all  those  @  signs 
from  appearing  at  the  end  of  typed  files.  What  this  poke  actually  does  is 
change  the  branch  on  carry  clear  at  $BCEA  to  a  branch  on  not  equal. 
Thus,  whenever  a  control-®  (hex  $00)  is  encountered  in  a  file,  the  test 
will  fail  and  we'll  fall  through  to  the  instruction  that  closes  the  file.  33 

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"Thanks  for  the  prompt  reply.  Sure 
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MAY  1984 


Working  on  a  Phone  Line,  Avoiding  Downtown 

Another  working  day  is  ended 

Only  the  rush  hour  hell  to  face 

Packed  like  lemmings  into  shiny  metal  boxes 

Contestants  in  a  suicidal  race. 

—Sting ,  ' '  Sy nchronicity  II . " 

Picture  this:  Each  weekday  between  the 
hours  of  six  and  nine  in  the  morning,  millions  of 
people  hop  into  their  cars,  drive  to  a  freeway, 
and  merge  themselves  with  a  whole  bunch  of 
other  cars,  producing  one  of  the  ugliest  sights  in 
the  civilized  world— the  traffic  jam.  The  num- 
ber of  man-hours  spent  in  traffic  jams  each  day 
is  mind-blowing.  After  they  reach  their  respec- 
tive destinations,  these  people  go  into  different 
buildings,  where  most  of  them  sit  down  at  a 

Now  picture  this:  The  same  millions  of  peo- 
ple, instead  of  going  to  their  cars,  walk  across 
the  room  to  a  computer.  When  they  get  there, 
they  sit  down  and  begin  doing  the  same  work  as 
the  people  who  jumped  into  their  cars.  It's 
called  telecommuting— doing  one's  work  by 
home  computer  instead  of  having  to  go  to  an  of- 

The  advantages  to  telecommuting  are  obvi- 
ous: Traffic  jams,  fuel  costs,  and  getting 
dressed  for  work  would  no  longer  be  a  problem. 
Given  the  opportunity,  a  lot  of  us  would  prefer 
to  work  at  home  and  avoid  the  inconveniences 
of  the  daily  commute. 

Maybe  telecommuting  isn't  quite  the  right 
term  to  describe  the  above  scenario;  the  word 
sounds  like  it  means  people  travel  to  work  via 
telephone  lines — a  concept  that's  more  amusing 
than  it  is  viable.  It's  more  accurate  to  define 
telecommuting  as  doing  office  work  at  home 
and  sending  in  the  finished  product  by  phone. 
It's  convenient,  but  just  because  you  have  a  per- 
sonal computer  doesn't  necessarily  mean  it's 
time  to  tell  the  boss  you  won't  be  coming  into 
work  anymore  and  are  setting  up  your  office  in 
the  countryside  instead. 

Who's  It  For?  In  order  to  be  able  to  take  ad- 
vantage of  telecommuting,  a  person's  job  must 

involve  handling,  creating,  or  retrieving  infor- 
mation. That  is,  it  must  be  work  that  can  be 
done  on  a  computer,  such  as  word  processing, 
number  crunching,  or  information  processing. 
It's  possible  that  the  work  isn't  being  done  on  a 
computer  yet;  what's  important  is  that  it  could 
be.  Once  the  job  is  computerized,  it  shouldn't 
make  much  difference  where  the  computer  ter- 
minal is  as  long  as  you  can  connect  a  modem  to 
it  and  send  in  completed  work  by  phone. 

A  typical  example  of  telecommuting  in- 
volves the  executive  whose  daily  drudgery  in- 
cludes gathering  data,  analyzing  it,  making  pro- 
posals, and  distributing  information  in  the  form 
of  reports.  Of  course,  he  or  she  will  have  to 
show  up  at  the  office  for  meetings,  but  it  doesn't 
make  too  much  sense  to  don  a  suit,  hop  in  the 
car,  and  drive  downtown  to  do  other  things  easi- 
ly done  at  home  or  at  a  cabin  in  the  mountains. 

From  that  description,  telecommuting  looks 
like  the  way  of  the  future.  It's  a  convenient  and 
economical  solution  to  one  of  the  biggest  has- 
sles of  the  country's  work  force — commuting. 
However,  whether  it  will  catch  on  soon  or  catch 
on  at  all  is  questionable. 

For  telecommuting  to  be  viable,  managers 
will  have  to  realize  that  it  will  improve  produc- 
tivity, and  costs  of  transportation  will  have  to 
remain  high.  There  are  problems  with  each  of 
these  conditions.  First,  managers  can  only  un- 
derstand that  telecommuting  will  benefit  busi- 
ness if  someone  has  tried  it;  and  second,  no  one 
wants  to  see  gasoline  prices  rise. 

So,  despite  the  popularity  of  personal  com- 
puters, telecommuting  is  still  just  an  idea  and 
not  a  common  practice.  However,  there  are 
people  working  on  computers  out  of  their 
homes.  Professional  writers,  entrepreneurs,  pro- 
grammers, and  consultants  have  been  doing  it 
for  years.  But  that's  not  telecommuting,  since 
most  of  them  are  self-employed  and  normally 
wouldn't  be  commuting  to  work. 

It  would  be  very  procomputer  to  say  that  the 
benefits  of  telecommuting  far  outweigh  the  dis- 
advantages; the  trouble  is  that  the  benefits  are 

economic  and  can  be  measured,  while  the  disad- 
vantages are  social  and  are  harder  to  measure. 
Let's  look  at  the  benefits  first. 

Life  without  Three-Piece  Suits.  Assuming 
that  everyone  who  could  telecommute  did  so, 
traffic  jams  and  child  care  centers  would  be 
things  of  the  past.  We  wouldn't  have  to  worry 
about  lousy  weather  making  commuting  a  prob- 
lem, nor  would  we  worry  about  what  to  wear  to 
work.  Hours  would  likely  be  more  flexible,  al- 
lowing people  to  work  at  their  convenience. 
Less  office  space  would  be  necessary. 

Well,  it  certainly  seems  like  telecommuting 
would  be  the  solution  to  a  lot  of  problems,  but  it 
would  also  present  some  of  its  own.  The  biggest 
disadvantage  is  that  social  relations  would  be 
reduced  significantly.  Here  are  some  things  that 
are  likely  to  disappear:  company  bowling  night, 
coffee-break  gossip,  office  politics  (for  better  or 
worse),  lunch  with  co-workers,  and  activities  in 
general  that  could  be  totally  unrelated  to  work 
but  essential  to  job  satisfaction.  Heck,  telling 
jokes  at  the  coffee  machine  is  the  most  fun  some 
people  have  all  day!  From  this  angle,  telecom- 
muting is  purely  goal-oriented;  its  purpose  is  to 
increase  productivity. 

There  is  also  the  question  of  self-discipline. 
Face  it,  there  are  scores  of  other  things  we'd 
rather  be  doing  than  working.  Outside  of  an  of- 
fice environment,  it's  sometimes  difficult  to  con- 
centrate on  work.  Granted,  some  people  are 
pretty  good  at  getting  their  work  done  under  any 
circumstances.  For  the  rest  of  us,  the  refrigera- 
tor, couch,  backyard,  and  television  can  be  ter- 
ribly distracting.  Even  for  those  who  have  no 
trouble  keeping  their  minds  on  work,  keeping 
others  away  (especially  the  kids)  from  the  com- 
puter can  be  a  challenge. 

With  these  problems  in  mind,  it  seems  that 
the  person  who  would  be  perfect  for  telecom- 
muting is  Bernice  Bromfield,  a  self-motivated 
product  development  manager  for  AgriDentu- 
tek,  a  manufacturer  of  dental  equipment  for 
farm  animals.  Bromfield  lives  alone  and  has  an 
Apple  at  home;  Dentutek  has  a  mainframe, 


MAY  1984 


The  war  against  dust  and  dirt 
never  ends.  So  before  you  boot 
up  your  equipment,  and 
everytime  you  replace  a 
cassette,  disk  or  drive 
filter,  be  sure  to  use  Dust-Off  II ; 
it  counteracts  dust,  grit  and  lint. 
Otherwise  you're  flirting  with 
costly  dropouts,  head  crashes 
and  downtime. 

Dust-Off  II  is  most  effective 
when  used  with  Stat-Off  II.  Stat- 
Off  II  neutralizes  dust-holding 
static  electricity  while  Dust-Off  II 
blasts  loose  dust  away.  There's 
also  the  Dual  Extender  and  Mini- 
Vac  for  vacuuming  dust  out  of 
hard-to-reach  places. 

Photographic  professionals 
have  used  Dust-Off  brand 
products  consistently  on 
their  delicate  lenses  and 
expensive  cameras  for 
over  ten  years.  They 
know  it's  the  safe,  dry 
efficient  way  to  contami- 
nant-free cleaning. 

Cleaning  not  provided  by  liquid 

Dust-Off  II 's  remarkable 
pinpoint  accuracy  zeros  in  on  the 
precise  area  being  dusted.  And 
you  have  total  control — every- 
thing from  a  gentle  breeze  for 

Stat-Off  II  neutralizes  dust-holding 
static  electricity  from  media  and 

delicate  computer  mechanisms 
to  a  heavy  blast  for  grimy  dirt. 
Don '  t  let  contamination  dis- 
rupt your  computer  operation. 
Stock  up  on  Dust-Off  II — the  ad- 
vanced dry  cleaning  system, 
at  your  local  computer  or 
office  supply  dealer. 

Or  send  $1.00  (for 
postage  and  handling) 
for  a  3  oz.  trial  size  and 
literature  today. 

Dust-Off  II 

The  safe  dry  cleaning  system 

Falcon  Safety  Products.  Inc  .  106b  Bristol  Road,  Mountainside.  NJ  07092 

which  Bromfield  used  to  work  with  from  a  ter- 
minal at  her  desk.  She  convinced  her  boss  that 
she  could  probably  be  more  productive  at  home, 
and  the  boss,  not  being  one  to  argue,  agreed. 

The  first  thing  Bromfield  had  to  do  was  fig- 
ure out  how  to  make  her  Apple  talk  to  a  main- 
frame. Unlike  consumer-oriented  systems  like 
CompuServe,  business  mainframes  don't  expect 
computers,  as  opposed  to  mainframe  dumb  ter- 
minals, to  be  coming  to  them  for  information. 
As  a  result,  different  mainframes  sometimes 
have  different  protocols  that  must  be  met  before 
data  can  be  transferred  without  errors.  Brom- 
field isn't  a  technical  whiz,  so  the  best  thing  for 
her  to  do  was  to  get  someone  familiar  with  the 
business 's  computer  to  help  her  get  set  up. 

(A  common  misconception  is  that  having  a 
microcomputer  at  home  automatically  means 
you  can  use  it  like  a  terminal  to  work  with  any 
mainframe  host  computer.  Using  a  microcom- 
puter to  function  like  a  mainframe  terminal  so 
that  the  mainframe  "thinks"  the  microcom- 
puter is  one  of  its  terminals  is  called  terminal 
emulation;  the  micro  is  emulating,  or  acting  as, 
a  mainframe  terminal.  Purists  feel  that  sixteen- 
bit  micros  are  better  suited  than  eight-bit  micros 
for  terminal  emulation  because  they  can  adapt 
more  easily  to  various  communications  proto- 
cols. Unfortunately,  the  Apple  is  an  eight-bit 
computer.  In  layman's  terms,  that  means  it  will 
be  harder  to  use  an  Apple  for  terminal  emula- 
tion than  it  is  to  use  a  sixteen-bit  machine  for  the 
job.  Harder,  but  not  impossible.) 

New  Office  Tools.  A  few  words  about 
Bromfield's  setup:  An  eighty-column  card  is  al- 
most always  necessary,  since  most  mainframes 
format  displays  in  eighty  columns,  rather  than 
in  the  Apple's  forty.  Trying  to  read  eighty-col- 
umn displays  on  a  forty-column  monitor  is  like 
listening  to  Paul  Simon  and  Art  Garfunkel  one 
at  a  time  and  then  trying  to  imagine  what  they 
would  sound  like  together;  you  can  get  a 
general  idea,  but  it's  not  the  same  as  hearing  it 
as  it  was  originally  intended.  Solution?  Invest  in 
an  eighty-column  card. 

Modems  come  in  various  sizes,  prices,  and 
speeds.  For  working  with  mainframes,  speed  is 
important.  Currently,  300  baud  is  the  most 
common  speed  for  microcomputer  modems,  but 
the  big  computers  are  accustomed  to  communi- 
cating much  faster  than  that.  As  the  prices  of 
1200-baud  modems  drop  to  a  level  that's  afford- 
able to  consumers,  1200  baud  will  likely  be- 
come more  popular.  There  are  a  lucky  few  out 
there  who  are  using  modems  that  work  faster 
(2400-,  4800-,  9600-baud),  but  for  purposes  of 
transferring  data  files,  1200  is  good  enough. 

With  all  the  hardware  set  up,  the  next  thing 
Bromfield  had  to  take  care  of  was  software. 

Remember,  because  the  Apple  is  a  computer 
(not  just  a  terminal),  it  needs  help  communicat- 
ing with  a  host.  Additional  peripheral  boards 
are  one  solution,  albeit  an  expensive  one.  An- 
other way  to  make  the  Apple  function  like  a 
mainframe  terminal  is  through  software.  A 
popular  program  that  does  that  is  Softerm  2, 
from  Softronics  (this  is  not  an  endorsement;  a 
review  of  Softerm  2  appears  in  Marketalk 
Reviews  this  month). 

Softerm  2  is  oriented  more  toward  transfer- 
ring files  than  capturing  data.  Its  main  feature  is 
that  it  provides  exact  terminal  emulation  for 

MAY  1984 



twenty  popular  mainframes.  Transfer  methods 
include  character  protocol  for  text  file  transfers, 
the  popular  xmodem  protocol  for  transferring 
binary  files  to  or  from  CP/M  systems,  and  Sof- 
tronics's  Softrans  protocol,  which  transfers  any 
type  of  file  and  provides  binary  encoding  and 
decoding,  cyclic  redundancy  check  (CRC)  error 
detection  and  automatic  retransmission,  and 
data  compression. 

As  unique  as  Softerm  2  sounds,  it  isn't  the 
only  program  that  provides  terminal 
emulation— it's  just  currently  the  most  com- 
prehensive. The  Professional  series  (ASCII  Ex- 
press, Z-Term,  and  P-Term,  which  used  to  be 
published  by  Southwestern  Data  Systems),  from 
United  Software  Industries,  offers  terminal 
emulation  in  the  form  of  prefix  keys.  Prefix 
keys  are  those  that  can  be  modified  to  produce 
characters  not  available  on  the  Apple  keyboard. 

Life  without  Square  Brackets.  Especially 
true  of  the  Apple  II  and  II  Plus,  some  keys,  such 
as  underscore,  backslash,  vertical  line,  and 
square  and  curly  brackets,  just  aren't  there. 
When  using  the  Apple  by  itself,  not  having 
those  keys  isn't  usually  a  problem;  programs 
written  for  the  Apple  don't  require  them.  But 
some  corporate  systems,  like  the  one  at  Brom- 
field's  office,  use  those  special  characters  for 
important  functions. 

Customizing  prefix  keys  is  simple.  Here's 
what  it  looks  like  in  ASCII  Express: 

Prefixed  Terminal  Keys 

Prefixed  Key  Output  Character 
,     ($2C)  [  ($5B) 

($2E)  ]  ($5D) 

aO($0F)  a_($1F) 

aQ  ($11) 


aQ  ($11) 

The  characters  in  the  "Prefixed  Key"  col- 
umn are  what  you  press  on  the  Apple  keyboard, 
and  the  characters  in  the  "Output  Character" 
column  are  sent  to  the  host  when  prefix  keys  are 
pressed.  Let's  say  we  want  to  add  a  prefix  key 
that  will  transmit  the  backslash  character. 

After  selecting  the  "Add"  option,  ASCII 
Express  will  ask  us  which  key  we  want  as  the 
prefix  key  (which  key  we  want  to  press  to  gen- 
erate the  backslash  character).  Any  key  will  do; 
let's  choose  control-U.  Then  it  will  ask  us  what 
output  character  we  want  (what  character  to 
send  to  the  host  when  the  prefix  key  is  pressed). 
Since  there  isn't  a  backslash  key  on  the  II  or  II 
Plus  keyboard,  we  can  type  in  the  ASCII  value 
of  the  backslash  character,  which  is  $5C  (in 
hexadecimal).  Obviously,  it  helps  to  have  a 
chart  of  ASCII  characters  and  their  respective 

Now  when  we  want  to  send  a  backslash  to 
the  host,  we  can  just  type  a  control-U,  and  the 
host  sees  it  as  a  backslash  character.  Looking  at 
the  table  of  prefixed  terminal  keys,  we  notice  a 
problem.  What  if  we  want  to  type  a  comma? 
The  table  shows  that  typing  a  comma  will  send  a 
left  square  bracket.  ASCII  Express  takes  care  of 
that  by  requiring  a  special  character  (control- 
W)  to  be  typed  just  before  prefix  keys.  Thus, 
special  characters  require  two  keys  to  be 
pressed;  to  send  a  left  square  bracket,  you 
would  type  control-W  and  then  a  comma.  Con- 

trol-W  tells  ASCII  Express  that  the  next  charac- 
ter (the  comma)  is  a  prefix  key  and  to  send  the 
corresponding  output  character  (left  square 
bracket)  instead  of  the  comma. 

Again,  we  can't  say  this  enough  times: 
ASCII  Express  is  used  as  an  example  only. 

As  we  can  see,  the  technology  for  telecom- 
muting is  available,  but  the  question  of  whether 
it's  practical  is  still  unanswered. 

Big  Boss  Is  Watching.  Monitoring  how 
well  a  telecommuter  works  isn't  any  trouble.  If 
necessary,  a  person's  boss  need  only  check  with 
the  office  computer  to  see  how  things  are  going. 
The  only  problem  with  that  kind  of  monitoring 
is  that  it  approaches  a  fine  line  between  moni- 
toring and  invading  privacy.  Where  does  moni- 
toring end  and  going  through  a  person's  "desk 
drawers"  begin?  It's  hard  to  tell,  which  is  why 
telecommuting  will  have  to  be  based  on  a  work 
supervisor's  confidence  in  workers.  The  whole 
point  of  telecommuting  is  to  let  people  work  on 
their  own  without  someone  looking  over  their 
shoulder  all  the  time. 

From  this  point  of  view,  telecommuters  will 
be  people  whose  bosses  don't  care  how  much 
time  is  spent  working,  as  long  as  the  job  gets 
done.  That  might  sound  like  "telecommuters 
will  be  people  in  whom  the  boss  has  a  lot  of  con- 
fidence." But  another  way  to  translate  it  is 
"telecommuters  will  be  people  who  the  boss 
sees  only  in  terms  of  their  work,  not  as  peo- 
ple," which  implies  that  telecommuters  will  be 
noticed  more  when  they're  not  working  rather 
than  when  they  do  something  exceptionally 
well.  At  promotion  time,  who  will  come  to 
mind  first,  the  person  whose  face  you  see  in  the 
office  and  with  whom  you  talk  each  day,  or  the 
invisible  soul  whose  work  appears  by  modem? 

Anyone  in  a  position  to  promote  workers 
won't  likely  have  to  make  a  decision  under  such 
circumstances.  Chances  are  that  two  people  in 
contention  for  a  position  would  be  working 
under  similar  conditions;  both  would  be 
telecommuting,  or  both  would  be  in  the  office. 
Even  if  one  telecommuted  while  the  other 
worked  in  the  office,  the  one  telecommuting 
would  probably  be  in  touch  with  the  office  occa- 
sionally at  least. 

Does  Human  Rights  Cover  This?  It's  diffi- 
cult to  imagine  a  society  in  which  people 
worked  almost  exclusively  from  their  homes. 
The  image  of  millions  of  people  sitting  in  front 
of  computer  terminals  instead  of  at  desks 
sounds  more  like  the  stuff  of  science  fiction 
stories  than  the  way  of  the  1980s  or  even  the 
'90s.  Telecommuting  could  mean  the  extinction 
of  personal  communication.  We  can't  ignore 
that  we're  social  animals  who  demand  interac- 
tion. We  are  the  species  whose  daily  activities 
(in  American  society,  at  least)  produced  such 
terms  as  rush  hour,  take  a  meeting,  let's  have 
lunch,  coffee  break,  happy  hour,  discuss  it  over 
dinner,  let's  party,  and  meet  me  at  the  Hilton. 

In  our  discussion  of  teleconferencing  by 
computer  last  month,  we  mentioned  some  of  the 
negative  aspects  of  not  being  in  the  presence  of 
someone  with  whom  you're  communicating; 
eye  contact,  visual  cues,  body  language,  hand 
gestures,  smiles,  and  even  the  rolling  of 
eyeballs  are  lost.  Most  of  us  communicate  more 
effectively  when  we  can  see  who  we're  talking 
to  and  they  can  see  us. 

Also,  an  office  environment  includes  much 
more  than  just  walls,  lights,  and  furniture.  Oc- 
casional positive  words  from  co-workers  or  su- 
pervisors can  be  especially  conducive  to  work 
(anything  from  "I  like  how  you  handled  the 
Clark  account;  keep  up  the  good  work"  to 
"Gosh  darn,  those  are  nice  shoes").  Except  for 
shut-ins  and  hermits,  we  generally  like  being 
around  people,  and  they  sometimes  like  being 
around  us. 

Because  we  thrive  on  interaction,  telecom- 
muting will  probably  become  a  part  of  the 
working  world,  not  a  replacement  for  the  busi- 
ness office.  There's  nothing  too  strange  about 
making  a  living  out  of  one's  home;  lots  of  en- 
trepreneurs do  it.  Before  centralized  cities, 
working  from  the  home  was  commonplace. 

Telecommuting  has  something  for 
everybody.  If  you  want  to  work  at  home,  the 
technology  is  here;  if  interacting  with  fellow 
workers  is  worth  fighting  traffic  and  paying  for 
expensive  gasoline,  rest  assured  that  the  tradi- 
tional office  will  be  around  for  a  while. 

Computers  are  tools.  Telecommuting  is  one 
way  to  use  those  tools,  and  so  far  we've 
managed  not  to  let  them  control  or  use  us.  It 
would  take  an  incredibly  incompetent  society  to 
rely  on  computers  to  keep  it  running.  As 
sophisticated  as  our  technology  is,  we're 
nowhere  near  incompetence.  Well,  complete  in- 
competence, anyway. 

If  you  know  of  any  good  terminal  emulator 
hardware  for  the  Apple,  please  send  the  info  to 
Softalk  Terminal  Illness,  Box  7039,  North 
Hollywood,  CA  91605.  31 

We  Help  Bring 
Your  Family  Together 

6  Types  of  Charts  and  Sheets 
User  Fields 
Notes,  Footnotes  and  Sources 
No  Limits 
Adapts  to  Your  Hardware 
Easy  to  Use 

And  Much,  Much  More 

Send  for  brochure  and  sample  printouts. 

Family  Roots  includes  detailed  manual  and  2  full  diskettes 
of  programs  for  your  Apple  II  *  or  IBM  PC  ** 

Other  genealogy  software  also  available. 
Price:  $185  plus  $3.50  Postage 

American  Express.  Visa  &  Mastercard  Accepted 

%l  ^9  A  '  TM  Apple  Compuler.  Inc 

I^^B  ■ 1  TM  Inlernalional 




P.O.  Box  216,  Lexington,  MA  02173 
(617)  862-0404 






Now  the  most  effective  way  to  pre- 
pare for  the  SATs  is  the  easiest,  too. 
Because  now  there's  the  new  Owlcat 
S.A.T  computer  course. 


Owlcat  was  conceived  by  top  educa- 
tors. Developed  by  expert  communi 
cators.  And  tested  by  students 
Nothing  else  is  anything  like 


The  60-hour  course  is  made 
up  of  four  programs,  each 
with  an  accompanying  man- 
ual. And  every  program  has  three  lev- 
els of  difficulty  Which  means  students 
can  push  themselves  just  as  far  as  they 
want  to  go. 

S.A.T.  Verbal -includes  2 
vocabulary  discs,  1  sentence 
completion  disc  and  1  reading 
comprehension/analogies  disc. 
S.A.T.  Math -consists  of  2  discs 
for  algebra  and  1  for  geometry. 
Test  of  Standard  Written 

RS-A.T.  Diagnostic  Pre-Test 

The  Owlcat  S.A.T  programs  can  also 
be  purchased  as  a  15-hour  course  for 
students  with  limited  time  to  study 
(Check  price  listing  on  this  page.) 


Even  the  very  reluctant  student 
enjoys  boning  up  with  Owlcat.  The 
language  is  contemporary  The  sound 
effects  stimulating.  The  graphics  fresh 
and  exciting.  What's  more,  there's  a 
buddy  study  so  students  can  practice 
with  a  friend  if  they  like.  In  fact,  it's 
sometimes  hard  to  believe  that  some- 
thing that's  so  easy  is  such  an  excep- 
tional learning  tool.  Except  for  the 




Owlcat  teaches  students  to  follow 
instructions.  It  familiarizes  them  with 
the  kinds  of  questions  they'll  face  on 
the  S.A.Ts.  And  it  helps  diagnose  and 
strengthen  areas  of  weakness  by 
reviewing  and  correcting  wrong 
answers  at  the  end  of  every  section. 
That's  not  all,  either.  The  verbal  discs 
include  an  Owlcat  Dictionary  for 
instant  definitions.  And  all  the 
discs  have  special  "cheers"  mes- 
sages to  provide  encourage- 
ment. Plus  a  unique  audio-visual 
clock  that  trains  students  to  work 
within  tight  time  restrictions - 
just  as  they  will  on  the  actual 

No  wonder  the  Owlcat  S.A.T  Pre- 
paratory Course  makes  for  a  more 
relaxed,  confident  and  knowledge- 
able S.A.T-taker.  Which,  of  course,  is 
what  makes  for  a  nice,  high  score. 


S.A.T  15-hour  course 
4  discs  and  1  manual 


S.A.T  60-hour  course 

9  discs  and  4  manuals   $249.95 

P S.A.T  Diagnostic  Pre-Test  . . .  $19.95 

Available  for  IBM®  PC  &  PCjr, 
Apple,®  and  Commodore  64.' M 
In  color  or  monochrome. 

To  order  or  learn  more  about  the 
Owlcat  S.A.T  Preparatory  Course,  dial 
800-227-1617  ext.  400  (in  California, 
800-772-3545  ext.  400)  toll  free 

Whether  you're  getting  ready  to  take 
the  S.A.Ts  yourself- or  care  about 
someone  who  is -it  could  be  the 
wisest  move  you'll  ever  make. 








Introducing  TIME  IS  MONEY.7 

A  simpler,  faster,  more  flexible 
personal  accounting  software 

While  people  have  been  over- 
joyed by  the  prospect  of  having  their 
very  own  personal  computer 
accountant,  so  far  they've  been 
underwhelmed  by  the  products. 
Some  are  too  complicated;  others 
are  little  more  than  toys;  still  others 
are  too  slow  and  rigid  in  format. 

Finally  what  you  hoped  for  in 
a  personal  computer  accounting 
package,  TIME  IS  MONEY  delivers. 


TIME  IS  MONEY  uses  no  codes 
and  no  special  accounting  termi- 
nology. Simple  checkbook  balancing 
with  a  full  statement  on-screen. 


TIME  IS  MONEY  runs  with 
machine  language  speed  so  there's 
instant  access  to  any  transaction 
or  balance.  No  complex  or  tedious 
setup  prior  to  use. 


TIME  IS  MONEY  defines,  changes 
or  deletes  categories  and  accounts 
at  any  time.  It  grows  as  your  needs 


Tracks  up  to  240  separate  assets 
and  liabilities.  240  types  of  income 
from  240  different  sources. 
240  expense  categories  with 
tax  deductions. 

And  all  you  need  is  an  Apple  II, 
II  +  ,  He,  or  compatible  computer. 

Find  out  why  TIME  IS  MONEY  is 
the  best  personal  accounting  soft- 
ware package  on  the  market.  Call  or 
write  for  a  data  sheet  today.  Even 
better,  visit  your  dealer  and  try  it 
out  for  yourself. 

If  you  have  a  spare  5  minutes. 

11 A  Main  Street,  Watertown,  MA  02172  (617)923-4441 

©Copyright  1983  Turning  Point  Software,  Incorporated 
Apple  is  the  registered  trademark  of  Apple  Computer,  Inc. 


Paris  is  a  long  way  from  the  Third  World— 
the  countless  small  fanning  villages  of  India, 
the  rugged  mountains  of  Chad,  the  tropical 
rain  forests  of  Africa.  Likewise,  computers 
seem  far  removed  from  the  parts  of  the  world 
where  food,  electricity,  and  roads  are  scarce, 
and  where  most  people  are  illiterate,  never 
drink  pure  water,  and  never  see  a  physician. 

So  how  is  it  that  a  group  who  expressly 
means  to  find  and  nurture  the  Bill  Budges  and 
Mitch  Kapors  of  the  Third  World  comes  to 
hail  from  the  City  of  Lights? 

Paris  is  a  hub  of  modern  civilization,  a  liv- 
ing record  of  the  forward  march  of  culture, 
society,  and  technology.  And  Paris  is  fast 
becoming  a  major  center  for  advancement  of 
the  computer  arts  and  sciences.  When  these 
things  are  taken  into  account,  the  fact  that  an 
organization  dedicated  to  sharing  computer 

technology  with  poorer,  less-developed  na- 
tions has  its  headquarters  in  the  land  of 
Balzac,  Berlioz,  de  Gaulle,  Napoleon,  and 
Renoir  makes  a  bit  more  sense. 

The  Centre  Mondial  Informatique  et  Res- 
source  Humaine  (World  Center  for  Com- 
puters and  Human  Resources)  opened  early  in 
1982.  Surrounded  by  expensive  art  galleries 
on  avenue  Matignon  near  the  Champs-Ely  sees, 
the  Centre  Mondial  is  as  global  in  its  attitude 
toward  computing  as  its  name  would  suggest. 

The  center  was  inspired  by  The  World 
Challenge,  a  book  by  French  politician  and 
journalist  Jean-Jacques  Servan-Schr